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Bulletin of the 



British Ornithologists' Club 




Edited by Professor Chris Feare 



Index for Volume 122 (2002) 



Compiled by Mary N. Muller 



THE NATURAL 
HISTORY Ml ISEUW 

2 7 SEP 2MT 

PRESENTED 
I TRING LIBRARY 



LIST OF AUTHORS AND CONTENTS 

ASH. J.S. & PEARSON, D.J. Hippolais warblers apparently breeding on the north Somalia coast . 222 

HOLES. W.E. see FULTON, G.R. 

HOOKS RECEIVED 6, 91, 167, 243 

BOURNE, W.R.P. The nomenclature and past history in Britain of the Bean and 
Pink-footed Geese 11 

CLARK, W.S. & PAULSON, D.R. Specimen record of Short-toed Snake Eagle for 
Kenya is invalid 156 

CLEERE, N. Notes on the generic citation of the Oilbird Steatornis caripensis (Steatornithidae) ... 71 

CLEERE, N. A review of the taxonomy and systematics of the Sickle-winged and 
White- winged Nightjars (Caprimulgidae) 168 

CLEERE, N. The identity of Marcgrave's "Ibiiau" and its bearing on the nomenclature of the 
Scissor-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis torquata (Caprimulgidae) 249 

CLEERE, N. & INGELS, J. First record of the Rufous Potoo Nyctibius bracteatus and in-flight 

drinking by the Semi-collared Nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus in French Guiana 154 

CLEERE, N. & WALTERS, M. Correction of the type locality of the Pennant- Winged 

Nightjar Macrodipteryx vexillarius (Caprimulgidae) 158 

CLUB NOTICES 

Notice and Agenda for the A.GM. 30 th April, 2002 6 

Trustees and Annual Report for 2001 & Financial Statement 83 

Report of the A.GM. on 30 th April, 2002 161 

Meeting Reports 1, 81, 162, 241 

CUERVO, A.M. see SALAMAN, P. 

D'ANGELO NETO, S. see DE VASCONCELOS 

DA SILVA, J.M., NOVAES, F.C. & OREN, D.C. Differentiation of Xiphocolaptes 
(Dendrocolaptidae) across the river Xingu, Brazilian Amazonia: recognition of a new 
phylogenetic species and biogeographic implications 185 

DAVID, N. & GOSSELIN, M. Gender agreement of avian species names 14 

DAVID, N. & GOSSELIN, M. The grammatical gender of avian genera 257 

DE VASCONCELOS, M.F. A newly discovered specimen of Kalinowski's Tinamou 
Nothoprocta kalinowskii from the Andean Pacific slope of Peru 216 

DE VASCONCELOS, M.F, D'ANGELO NETO, S. & RODRIGUES, M. A range extension 
for the Cipo Canastero Asthenes luizae and the consequences for its conservation status 7 

DEAN, W.R.J., DOWSETT, R.J., SAKKO, A. & SIMMONS, R.E. New records and amendments 
to the birds of Angola 180 

DONEGAN, T.M. see SALAMAN, P. 

DOWSETT, R.J. More on Boyd Alexander's types from Lake Chad 228 

DOWSETT R.J. see DEAN, W.R.J. 

EAMES, J.C. Eleven new sub-species of babbler (Passeriformes: Timaliinae) from KonTum 
Province, Vietnam 109 

EKSTROM, J.M.M. see TOBIAS, J.A. 

ERRATUM to the paper by Frederic Jiguet on the taxonomy of the Kelp Gull 
Larus dominicamus (Bull.Brit.Orn.Cl. 122 : 50-71, 2002) 91 



FISHER, C. & KEAR, J. The taxonomic importance of two early paintings of the 
Pink-headed Duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea (Latham 1790) 244 

FULTON, G.R. & BOLES, W.E. Pneumaticity of the dorsal foramen and dorsal sulcus of the 
sternum in Australasian Passeriformes 304 

GOSSELIN, M see DAVID, N. 

GREGORY, P. & HORNBUCKLE, J. Further observations of a Microeca flycatcher from the 
Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea 317 

HORNBUCKLE, J. see GREGORY, P. 

HUME, J. P. Notes on the extinct Kosrae Starling Aplonis corvina Kittlitz, 1833 141 

INGELS, J. see CLEERE, N. 

JIGUET, F. Taxonomy of the Kelp Gull Larus domincanus Lichtenstein inferred from biometrics 
and wing plumage pattern, including two previously undescribed subspecies 50 

JONES, H.L. Erroneous and unconfirmed bird records from Belize: setting the record straight 201 

KEAR, J. see FISHER, C. 

KING, B.F The Hierococcyx fugax, Hodgson's Hawk Cuckoo, complex 74 

LINSELL, J. A. The first nest and egg records of Black-eared Ground Thrush Zoothera 
camaronensis, Budongo Forest, western Uganda 196 

LIVERSIDGE, S. & VOELKER, G. The Kimberley Pipit: a new African species 93 

LOUETTE, M. Relationship of the Red-thighed Sparrowhawk Accipiter erythropus and the 
African Little Sparrowhawk A. minullus 218 

NOVAES, EC. see DA SILVA, J.M. 

OBITUARY - Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Meise 241 

OREN, D.C. see DA SILVA, J.M. 

PEARSON, D.J. see ASH, J.S. 

RODRIGUES, M. see DE VASCONCELOS, M.F. 

RYALL, C. Further records of range extension in the House Crow Corvus splendens 231 

SAKKO, A. see DEAN, W.R.J. 

SALAMAN, P., DONEGAN, T.M. & CUERVO, A.M. New distributional bird records from 
Serrania de San Lucas and adjacent Central Cordillera of Columbia 285 

SIM, I.M.W. & ZAFINA, S. Extension of the known range of the Red-shouldered Vanga 
Calicalicus rufocarpalis in southwest Madagascar 194 

SIMMONS, R.E. see DEAN, W.R.J. 

STEINHEIMER, F.D. A newly discovered paralectotype of Pteroptochos megapodius Kittlitz, 
1830 312 

TOBIAS, J. A. & EKSTROM, J.M.M. The New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar Aegotheles 
savesi rediscovered? 282 

VOELKER, G. see LIVERSIDGE, S. 

WALTERS, M. see CLEERE, N. 

WELLER, A-A. First confirmed record of Agyrtria versicolor (Trochilidae) for Peru 314 

ZAFINA, S. see SIM, I.M.W. 



INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC NAMES 

All generic and specific names (of birds only) are indexed. New specific and subspecific names are indexed in 
bold print under generic, specific and subspecific names with the exception of articles on pages 257-282 and 
304-311 where only the generic names have been indexed. 



abeillei. Abeillia 208 
Abellia abeillei 208 
abbotti, Malacocincla 16, 47 
Aburria aburri 292 
Acanthagenys 308 
Acanthisitta 307 
Acanthiza 307 
Acanthorhynchus 308 
Acanthornis 264, 275 
Accipiter 74 

— chionogaster 204 

— ery thropus 2 1 8-2 1 

— minullus 218-21 

— striatus 204 
Acridotheres 309 

— javanicus 164 
Acrocephalus 222-3, 309 

— baeticatus 222-32 
gracilirostris 183, 228 

— luscinius 32, 45 

— palustris 223 

— rufescens 228 
Acropternis 266, 275 
Actenoides monachus 32, 45 
Actinodura sodangorum 1 1 1 
Actitis 266, 275 
acuticauda, Apus 33, 45 
Aegotheles 282-3 

— cristatus 283 

— savesi 282-4 
aequinoctialis, Procellaria 180 
Aerodramus leucophaeus 22 

— spodiopygius 24 
Aeronautes saxatalis 202, 208 
aethereus, Phaethon 180 
Aethiops 258 

Aethopyga primigenia 18, 45 

— saturata 3 
Agapornis 264, 275 
agilis, Oporornis 212 
Aglaiocercus kingi 16, 45 
Agapornis 264, 275 
Aglaectis 259, 275 
Agriornis 264, 275 

Agyrtria versicolor 314-6, Fig. 1-315 
Ailuroedus 166, 309 
Aix 272 
Alauda 309 
alba, Procnias 192 
— , Tyto 283, 299 
alberti, Crax 286, 298 
albicaudatus. Buteo 205 
albicollis, Ficedula 183 

— , Leucopternis291, 299 

— , Merops 182 

— , Xiphocolaptes 192 
albidinucha, Lorius 33, 47 
albiloris. Polioptila 21 1 
albinucha, Thryothorus 210 
albifrons, Anser 1 1 

— , Sterna 1 80 
albirostris, Anthracoceros 163 
albitarsis, Ciccaba 21, 46 

— , Strix21,49 



albonigra, Oenanthe 17, 48 
Alcedo 269, 307 

— cyanopectus 34, 45 

— meninting 37, 45 
aldabrana, Nesillas 21, 48 
Alcippe castaneceps 126 
Alcippe castaneceps stepanyani 

subsp.nov. 126-7, Fig.9 - 125 

— chrysotis 123 
Alcippe chrysotis robsoni 

subsp.nov. 124-6, Fig.8 - 125 

— dubia 127 
Alcippe dubia cui 

subsp.nov. 128-9, Fig. 10- 128 

— morrisonia 36, 45 

— rufogularis 3 
alixii, Clytoctantes 287 
Alophoixus ochraceous 3 
Alopochen 263, 276 
Amadina fasciata 230 
Amalocichla 308 
Amauresthes 270 
Amaurornis 264, 276 

— flavirostra 37, 45 

— moluccana 34, 45 

— olivacea 34, 45 
amauroptera, Pelargopsis 25, 48 
Amazilia castaneiventris 286 

— franciae 296 

— viridifrons 209 
Amblyornis 166, 264, 276, 309 
Amblypterus 169, 175 

— anomalus 175 
americanus, Daptrius 299 
Ammodramus caudacutus 16, 45 

— humeralis 213 

— maritimus 24, 45 

— nelsoni 16, 45 

— savannarum 213 
Ammomanes 265, 276 
Ammoperdix 263, 276 
amoena, Passerina 213 
Ampelion 259, 276 
Amytornis 307 

Anas caryophyllacea 246 
andicolus, Grallaria 37, 47 
Andigena261, 276 

— nigrirostris 30, 45 
andrei, Chaetura 293 
angusticauda, Cisticola 33, 46 
Anisognathus igniventris 34, 45 
annectans, Heterophasia 129 
annectans, Heterophasia roundi 

subsp.nov. 130-1, Figs. 11 & 12 - 132 
anomalus, Amblypterus 175 

— , Eleothreptus 168-79, Fig. 1-169 
Anser albifrons 1 1 

— anser 1 1 

— brachyrhynchus 1 1 

— fabalis 11-13, Fig. 1 - 12 

— paludosus 12 

— segetum 11-13, Fig. 1 - 12 
Anthochaera 308 
Anthornis 264, 308 



anthracinus, Buteogallus 19, 45 
Anthracoceros albirostris 163 
Anthreptes 268-76 
Anthropoides 261-76 
Anthus 93, 107, 262, 309 

— cinnamomeus 95, 100, 103, 107, Fig.l -94 

— hodgsoni 103 

— hoeschii 103, Fig. 1 -94 

— leucophrys 95, 106 

— longicaudatus 93 

— lutescens 105 

— melindae 93, 98, 107 

— nilghiriensis 105 

— nyassae 103, Fig.l - 94, Fig.2 - 96, Fig.4 - 101 
Anthus pseudosimilis sp.nov. 93-107, 

Fig.l - 94, Fig.3 - 99, Fig.4 - 101, Fig.5 - 102, 
Figs. 6 & 7 - 104, Fig.8 - 105 

— rubescens 203 

— similis 93-107, Fig.2 - 96, Fig.4 - 101, 
Fig.5 - 102, Figs.6 & 7 - 104 

— vaalensis 95, 106, 107 
Apaloderma narina 19, 45 
Aphelocephala 307 

Aplonis 141, 147-53, 270, 276, 309 

— atrifusca 147-50 

— brunneicapilla 35, 45, 148-50 

— cantoroides 148, 150 

— cinerascens 148 

— corvina 141-53, Fig.2 - 144, Fig.4 - 15 1 

— crassa 148, 150 

— dichroa 148 

— feadensis 148 

— fuscal41, 148-9 

— grandis 147-8 

— insularis 148 

— magna 147-8 

— mavornata 141, 148-9 

— metallica 148, 150 

— minor 148, 150 

— mysolensis 148, 150 

— mystacea 148, 150 

— opaca 145, 148, 150, 152 

— panayensis 148, 150 

— pelzelni 148-9, 153 

— santovestris 148, 153 

— striata 148 

— tabuensis 147-8 

— zelandica 148 
Aptenodytes patagonicus 164 
Apus acuticauda 33, 45 
aquaticus, Rallus 13 
Aquila clanga 163 

— pomarina 180-1 

— repax 1 8 1 
aquila, Eutoxeres 293 
Ara 269, 276 

arada, Cyphorhinus 40, 46 
Aramides261,276 
Aramus guarauna 292 
Aratinga 270-76 

— auricapillus 35, 45 
Arborophila cambodiana 3, Fig.l - 3 
Archaeopteryx 259 

Archboldia 166 
Ardea cocoi 291 

— herodias 291 
Arses 308 
Artamus 309 
Arundinicola 262 
Ashbyia308, 310 



assimilis, Tolmomyias 297 

— , Turdus 211 
Asthenes luizae 7-9, Fig. 1 - 7 
atricapilla, Buarremon 298 

— , Donacobius 33, 47 

— , Megascops 33, 47 

— , Otus 33, 48 

— , Vireo 33, 49 

— , Zosterops 33, 49 
atricapillus, Poecile 35, 48 
atrifusca, Aplonis 147-50 
atrinucha, Thamnophilus 300 
Attila spadiceus 34, 45 
Augastes 265, 276 

— lumachella 40, 45 
Aulacorhynchus haematopygus 297 
aurantiirostris, Catharus 211 
aureola, Pipra 243 
auricapillus, Aratinga 35, 45 

— , Icterus 301 
auriculata, Zenaida 296 
aurita, Conopophaga 192 

— , Zenaida 206 
aurocapilla, Seiurus 38, 49 
australis, Eopsaltria 41, 47, 308, 311 

— , Megalaima 28, 47 
Automolus ochrolaemus 300 

— rubiginosus 294 
axillaris, Pterodroma 243 
azurea, Coracina 180, 183 



baboecala, Bradypternus 229 
baeticatus, Acrocephalus 222-3 
bairdii, Calidris 206 
Bambusicola 262, 276 
Basileuterus basilicus 296 

— tristriatus 296, Fig. 3 - 290 
basilicus, Basileuterus 296 
Basilornis 264, 276 

Batis orientalis 229 
belcheri, Larus 206 
bellii, Vireo 210 
bengalensis, Thalasseus 17, 49 
benghalense, Dinopium 41, 47 
benghalensis, Brachypternus 41, 45 
berigora, Falco 21, 47 
bergii, Sterna 182 
berlepschii, Myrmeciza 294 
bicolor, Conirostrum 17, 46 
bidentata, Piranga 214 
bidentatus, Harpagus 204 
bilineatus, Pogoniulus 23, 48 

— , Viridibucco 23, 49 
bilophus, Heliactin 40, 47 
bistriatus, Burhinus 205 
Bleda 258, 276 

— canicapillus 35, 45 
bonariensis, Molothrus 9 
Bonasa umbellus 16, 19, 41, 45 
bourcierii, Eubucco 297 
Brachypteracias 270, 276 
Brachypternus baboecala 229 

— benghalensis 41, 45 
Brachypteryx 259 
brachyrhynchus, Anser 1 1 

— , Buteo 205 
brachyura, Chaetura 293, 299, 300 
bracteatus, Nyctibius 154-5 
brasiliana, Hydropsalis 32, 47 



brasilianum, Glaucidium 202, 206, 292 
brasilianus, Caprimulgus 249-50 
bre\ icaudata, Napothera 3 
brigidai, Hylexetastes 192 
Brotogeris 272, 276 
brunneicapillus, Aplonis 35, 45, 148-50 

— , Ornithion 35, 48 
brunneinucha, Buarremon 298 
brunnifrons, Cettia 18, 46 
Buarremon atricapillus 298 

— brunneinucha 298 
Bubo bubo 21, 45 

— sumatranus 21, 45 
Burhinus bistriatus 205 
burrovianus, Cathertes 291 
Buteo albicaudatus 205 

— brachyrhynchus 205 

— swainsoni 204-5 
Buteogallus anthracinus 19, 45 

— urubitinga 291 
Butorides 261, 276 



Cacatua goffini 163 
Cacomantis 75 
caerulea, Polioptila 211 
caeruleocephala, Phoenicurus 39, 48 
caerulescens, Ptilorrhoa 34, 49 
Calamospiza melanocorys 202, 213 
calendula, Regulus 210 
Calicalicus madagascariensis 195 

— rufocarpalis 194-6, Fig.l - 195 
Calidris 259 

— bairdii 206 
californica, Callipepla 16, 45 
caligata, Hippolais 224-5 
Callaeas 267, 276, 309 
Callipepla californica 16, 45 
Caloperdix 263, 276 
cambodiana, Arborophila 3, Fig.l - 3 
cameronensis, Zoothera 196-200 
Campylorhamphus pusillus 298 
candicans, Caprimulgus 168-79, Fig.l - 169 

— Stenopsis 172, 175 
canicapillus, Bleda 35, 45 

— . Nigrita 35, 48 
cantillans, Mirafra 229 
cantoroides, Aplonis 148, 150 
capensis, Phalacrocorax 180 

— , Tyto 19,49 
capitalis, Poecilotriccus 16, 48 
Capito hypoleucus 286 
Caprimulgus 72, 155, 168, 172, 174 

— brasilianus 249 

— candicans 168-79, Fig.l - 169 

— cayennensis 172 

— mercurius 175 

— natalensis 228 

— ridgwayi 207 

— salvini 207 

— torquatus 249-50 

carajaensis, Xiphocolaptes sp.nov. 188-93, 

Fig.l - 190, Fig.2 - 191 
carbo, Phalacrocorax 180 
Cardinalis cardinalis 16, 45 
Carduelis 309 
caripensis, Steatornis 71-3 
Carpodacus edwardsii 18, 46 

— rodochroa 42, 46 

— rubicilla 17,46 



Carpornis 264, 276 
caryophyllacea, Anas 246 

— , Rhodonessa 244-8, Fig.l - 245, Fig.2 - 246 
Casiornis 246, 276 
castaneceps, Alcippe 126 
castaneceps stepanyani, Alcippe subsp.nov. 126-7, 

Fig.9 - 125 
castaneiceps, Conopophaga 294 
castaneiventris, Amazilia 286 
castaneocapilla, Myioborus 38, 48 
castanotum, Cinclosoma 29, 46 
Cathartes burrovianus 291 
Catharus aurantiirostris 211 

— dryas 295 

— fuscescens 17, 46 
caudacutus, Ammodramus 16, 45 
cayennensis, Caprimulgus 172 

— , Panyptila 293 
Cecropis daurica 34, 46 
Celeus elegans 21, 46 
cephalotes, Myiarchus 301 
Cepphus columba 22, 46 
Ceratogymna cylindrica 22, 46 

— subcylindrica 22, 46 
Cercomacra parked 294 
Certhia 270 
Certhiaxis 270, 276 
Certhionyx 260, 308 
Ceryle 268, 276 

Cettia brunnifrons 18, 46 
Ceyx erithaca 36, 46 

— rufidorsa 37, 46 
Chaetornis 265, 276 
Chaetura andrei 293 

— brachyura 293, 299, 300 

— chapmani 293, 299 

— cinereiventris 293 

— spinicauda 293 

— spinicaudus 37, 46 

— vauxi 208 
Chalcostigma stanleyi 20, 46 
chalybeata, Vidua 230 
chapmani, Chaetura 293, 299 
Charadrius melodus 205 

— peronii 163 
Chen 263, 276 

Cheramoeca leucosterna 22, 46 
cherina, Cisticola 40, 46 
chiniana, Cisticola 40, 46 
Chionis 266, 277 
chionogaster, Accipiter 204 
chiriquensis, Elaenia 297 
Chlamydera 166,309 
Chlidonias 270, 277 

— hybrida 32, 45 
Chlorestes 270, 277 
chloris, Halcyon 32, 47 

— , Todiramphus 32, 49 
Chloroceryle 268 
chloronota, Gerygone 28, 47 
Chloropsis 259 
Chlorornis 264, 277 
Chlorospingus flavigularis 298 
Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus 294, 300 

— stenurus 16, 28, 46 
Chordeiles 155 

— pusillus 249 
chrysocephalus, Myiodynastes 297 
chrysocrotaphum, Todirostrum 20, 49 
chrysomela, Monarcha 18, 20, 48 



chrysomelas, Chrysothlypis 41, 45 

chrysoparia, Dendroica 212 

chrysopterus, Masius 298 

chrysostoma, Neophema 22, 48 

chrysotis, Alcippe 123 

chrysotis robsoni, Alcippe subsp.nov. 124-6, 

Fig.8-125 
Chrysothlypis chrysomelas 41, 45 
Chthonicola 262, 277, 307 
Ciccaba albitarsis 21, 46 
Cicinnurus 309 
Cinclodes 261, 277 
Cincloramphus 309 
Cinclosoma 308 

— castanotum 29, 46 
cinerascens, Aplonis 148 
cinereicapilla, Zimmerius 38, 49 
cinereiventris, Chaetura 293 
cinereus, Contopus 295, 300 
cinnamomeiventris, Myrmecocichla 230 
cinnamomeus, Anthus 95, 100, 103, 107, Fig.l - 94 
Cinnyris 263, 277 

— jugularis 37, 46 

Circaetus gallicus 156-7, Fig.l - 156 

— pectoralis 157, Fig.l - 156 
Cissopis 267, 277 

Cisticola 262, 277, 309 

— angusticauda 33, 46 

— cherina 40, 46 

— chiniana 40, 46 

— erythrops 42, 46 

— fulvicapilla 38, 46 

— subruficapilla 39, 46 
citrina, Zoothera 29, 49 
citrinella, Zosterops 40, 49 
Cladorhynchus leucocephalus 27, 46 
clanga, Aquila 163 

Climacteris 267, 277, 307 
Clytoctantes alixii 287 
Clytorhynchus 308 

— vitiensis 21, 46 
cocoi, Ardea 291 
Colaptes 307 

— rupicola 35, 46 
Colibri thalassinus 208 
Coliuspasser macroura 42, 46 
collaris, Trogon 297 
Collocalia leucophaea 22, 46 

— spodiopygia 24, 46 
Colluricincla 308 

— megarhyncha 36, 41, 46 
collybita, Phylloscopus 223 
Colonia 253, 277 
Columba guinea 29, 46 

— livia 29, 46 
columba, Cepphus 22, 46 
Columbiana, Neocrex 21, 48 
columbica, Thalurania 209 
Columbina minuta 299 

— passerina 292 
columbinus, Turdus 143 
Conirostrum bicolor 17, 46 

— leucogenys 25, 46 
Conopias 267, 277 
Conopophaga aurita 192 

— castaneiceps 294 
Conopophita 308 
Conopus 307 

Contopus cinereus 295, 300 
conversii, Popelairia 293 



Coracias 270, 272, 277 
Coracina 309 

— azurea 180, 183 

— melas 41, 46 

— novaehollandiae 19, 46 
coraya, Thryothorus 210 
Cormobates 266, 277, 307 
corone, Corvus 231-2 

corvina, Aplonis 141-53, Fig. 2 - 144, Fig.4 - 151 
Corvus 309 

— corone 231-2 

— monedula 231 

— splendens 231-9 
Corythopis 267, 277 
Cotinga nattererii 299, 301 
Coturnix ypsilophora 18, 46 
Cracticus 309 

crassa, Aplonis 148, 150 
crassirostris, Oryzoborus 301 
crassus, Emeus 166 
Crateroscelis 266, 307 
Crax alberti 286, 298 
Creurgops 261, 277 
Crex 260 
crinigera, Gallicolumba 19, 47 

— , Prinia 19, 48 
cristatus, Aegotheles 283 

— , Oxyruncus 295, Fig.2 - 290 

— , Podiceps 13 
Crossoptilon 259 
Crotophaga sulcirostris 292 
Crypturellus obsoletus 17, 46 

— tataupa 21, 46 
Cuculus 74-5 

— poliocephalus 244-6 

cui, Alcippe dubia subsp.nov. 128-9, Fig. 10 - 128 

cucullatus, Raphus 164 

Cutia nipalensis 119 

Cutia nipalensis hoae subsp.nov. 119-20, Fig. 5 - 118 

cyanea, Pitta 3 

cyanicollis, Tangara 298 

cyanocephalus, Uraeginthus 27, 49 

Cyanochen 263, 277 

cyanogastra, Irena 31, 47 

Cyanoliseus patagonus 243 

Cyanolyca viridicyanus 40, 46 

cyanopectus, Alcedo 34, 45 

Cyanopica cyanus 39, 46 

cyanouroptera, Minla 3 

cyanus, Cyanopica 39, 46 

— , Hylocharis 39, 47 
Cyclarhis 259, 277 
Cygnus melancoryphus 27, 46 
cylindrica, Ceratogymna 22, 46 
Cymbilaimus lineatus 300 
Cyornis 265, 278 

— rufigastra 37, 46 
Cyphorhinus arada 40, 46 
Cypseloides niger 207 
Cyrtostomus jugularis 37, 46 



Dacelo 269, 307 
Daphoenositta 308 
Daptrius americanus 299 
Dasyornis 307 
daurica, Cecropis 34, 46 

— , Hirundo 34, 47 
davisoni, Phylloscopus 3 
decaocto, Streptopelia 29, 49 



Deconychura longicauda 299 
delattrei. Lophornis 293 
DeUchon 271, 278 
Dendrocincla 192 
Dendrocolaptes picumnus 209 

— sanctithomae 300 
Dendrocopos 307 
Dendrocygna javanica 163 
Dendroica chrysoparia 212 

— pinus202, 212 
Dendropicos fuscescens 183 

— gabonensis 180, 182 
desolata, Pachyptila 16, 48 
Dicaeum 309 

— ignipectus 3 
dichroa, Aplonis 148 

dickensoni, Pomatorhinus ferruginosus subsp.nov. 

116-7, Fig.4- 118 
Dicrurus 152,308 

— remifer 3 
Diglossopis 267, 278 
dilectissima, Touit 292 
Dinopium benghalense 41, 47 
Dinornis giganteus 166 

— struthoides 166 
Diomedea epomophora 180 
Discosura longicaudus 37, 47 
Dives 263, 278 

doliatus, Thamnophilus 243 
Dolichonyx 260 

domesticus, Passer 183, 309, Fig.4 - 305 
dominicanus, Larus 50-71, 91, 182, 206, 

Figs.l -52,2-55,3-58,4-49 
dominicanus judithae, Larus subsp.nov. 63-5, 

Fig.5 - 64 
dominicanus melisandae, Larus subsp.nov. 65-6 
dominicus, Podiceps 289 
Donacobius atricapillus 33, 47 
Drymodes 263, 278, 308 
dryas, Catharus 295 
dubia, Alcippe 127 
dubia cui, Alcippe subsp.nov. 128-9, Fig. 10- 128 



Edolisoma melas 41, 47 
edwardsii, Carpodacus 18, 46 
Elaenia chiriquensis 297 

— flavogaster 202, 209 
Elanus leucurus 291 
elegans, Celeus 21, 46 

— , Platycercus 23, 48 
elephantopus, Pachyornis 166 
Electron platyrhynchum 17, 47 
Eleothreptus 168-9, 175 

— anomalus 168-79, Fig.l - 169 
Emberiza 309 

— leucocephalos 41, 47 
Emblema 258, 278, 309 

— pictum 20, 47 
Emeus crassus 166 
Empidonax 307 
Entomyzon 308 
Eolophus roseicapilla 39, 47 
Eopsaltria australis 41, 47, 308, 311 
Ephthianura 308, 310 
Epimachus 309 

epomophora, Diomedea 180 
Eremiornis 309 
Eremopterix 268, 278 
Eriocnemis 259, 278 
erithaca. Ceyx 36, 46 



erythrocephala, Pipra 301 

— , Piranga 213 
erythrogastrus, Phoenicurus 31, 48 
Erythrogonys 266 
erythronotus, Phoenicurus 23, 48 
erythrops, Cisticola 42, 46 

— , Odontophorus 298, 300 
erythropus, Accipiter 218-21 
Erythropygia galactotes 228 
Erythrura 309 
Eubucco bourcierii 297 
Eudynamys 268, 278 
Eugenes fulgens 209 
Eumyias 268, 278 
Euphonia musica 298, 301 

— xanthogaster 298 
Euplectes macroura 42, 47 
Euptilotis 267 
Eurostopodus 283 

— mystacalis 283-4 
Euryapteryx geranoides 166 
Eurystomus 307 
Eutoxeres 264, 278 

— aquila 293 
eximus, Vireolanius 299 



fabalis, Anser 11-13, Fig.l -12 
falcirostris, Xiphocolaptes 192 
Falco 258 

— berigora 21,47 

— moluccensis 22, 47 

— peregrinus 77 
Falcunculus 308 
fallax, Leucippus 16, 47 
fasciata, Amadina 230 
fasciatum, Tigrisoma 298 
fasciatus, Myiophobus 297 
fascinans, Microeca 318 
feadensis, Aplonis 148 
femoralis, Scytalopus 297 
ferrarius, Garrulax 3 
ferruginosus, Pomatorhinus 116 

ferruginosus dickinsoni, Pomatorhinus subsp.nov. 

116-7, Fig.4- 118 
Ficedula318 

— albicollis 183 

— parva 3 1 8 
flavala, Hypsipetes 33, 47 
flavigaster, Microeca 318, 320 
flavigularis, Chlorospingus 298 
flavipes, Platycichla 28, 48 
flavirostra, Amaurornis 37, 45 

— , Limnocorax 37, 47 
flavogaster, Elaenis 202, 209 
flavovirescens, Microeca 318 
forficatus, Tyrannus 17, 49 
Foulehaio 270, 278 
franciae, Amazilia 296 
Francolinus levaillantoides 181 
Fregata 269 

Fringilla 309 

fugax, Hierococcyx 74-80 
fulgens, Eugenes 209 
fulicarius, Phalaropus 17, 48, 180 
fulva, Pluvialis 163 
fulvescens, Illadopsis 17, 47 
fulvicapilla, Cisticola 38, 46 
fusca, Aplonis 161, 148-9 
fuscescens, Catharus 17, 46 
— , Dendropicos 1 83 



fuscicapilla, Zosterops 38, 49 
fuscipennis, Philydor 300 
fuscocapillus, Pellorneum 35, 48 
fuscus, Larus 206 



gabonensis, Dendropicos 180, 182 

galactotes, Erythropygia 228 

Gallicolumba crinigera 19, 47 

Gallicrex 260 

gallicus, Circaetus 156-7, Fig.l - 156 

Gallinago 258 

Garrulax261,278 

— ferrarius 3 

— konkakinhensis 1 1 1 

— milleti3, 112 

Garrulax milleti sweeti subsp.nov. 112-5, 
Figs.2&3- 114 

— milnei 113 

— ngoclinhensis 111 

— strepitans 115 
geranoides, Euryapteryx 166 
Geotrygon 259, 278 

— violacea 299 
Gerygone 307 

— chloronota 28, 47 

— levigaster 31, 47 
giganteus, Dinornis 166 
Glaucidium brasilianum 202, 206, 292 

— gnoma 206 
Glaucis 267, 278 
gnoma, Glaucidium 206 
goffini, Cacatua 163 
gracilirostris, Acrocephalus 183, 228 
graduacauda, Icterus 214 
Grallaria andicolus 37, 47 
Grallina 308 

Graminicola 262, 278 
granatinus, Uraeginthus 17-8, 49 
grandis, Aplonis 147-8 

— , Nyctibius 207 
Grantiella 308 

griseicapillus, Sittasomus 300 
griseoceps, Microeca 318 
griseus, Nyctibius 207 

— , Puffinus 203 
Grus 258 

guarauna, Aramus 292 
guinea, Columba 29, 46 
gujanensis, Odontophorus 298, 300 
gularis, Macronous 3, 39, 47 

— , Mixornis 39, 47 

— , Serinus 38, 49, 184 

— ,Yuhina 135 
gularis uthaii, Yuhina subsp.nov. 135-6, Fig. 14 - 137 
gurneyi, Pitta 131 
gutturalis, Habia 301 
Gymnopithys 271, 278 
Gymnorhina 309 



habessinica, Nectarinia 16, 48 
Habia gutturalis 301 
Haematopus moquini 182 
haematopygus, Aulacorhynchus 297 
Halcyon chloris 32, 47 

— monachus 32, 47 

— princeps 30, 47 

— senegalensis 34, 47 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus 204 

— vociferoides 81 



haliaetus, Pandion 181 
Harpagus bidentatus 204 
Heleothreptus 169, 175 
Heliactin 259, 278 

— bilophus 40, 47 
Heliodoxa jacula 297 
Heliolais 267, 278 
Heliopais 264, 278 
Heliothryx 271, 278 
Helmitheros 273, 278 
Hemispingus superciliaris 31, 47 
hemixantha, Microeca 317 
Henicopernis 271, 278 
Henicorhina leucosticta 301 
herodias, Ardea 291 
Heteralocha 309 
heterocerca, Pipra 243 
Heteromunia 309 
Heteromyias 269, 278, 308 
Heterophasia annectans 129 

Heterophasia annectans roundi subsp.nov. 130-1, 
Figs.ll & 12- 132 

— melanoleuca 133 

Heterophasia melanoleuca kingi subsp.nov. 133-4, 

Fig. 13- 133 
Hierococcyx fugax 74, 80 

— hyperythrus 74-80 

— nisicolor 74-80 

— pectoralis 74-80 
Hippolais 222-7 

— caligata 224-5 

— languida 223 

— pallida 223-7 

— rama 223-7 

— scirpaceus 223 
Hirundo 258, 309 

— daurica 34, 47 

— rustica 163 

— tahitica 164 

hoae, Cutia nipalensis subsp.nov. 119-20, 

Fig.5-118 
hodgsoni, Anthus 103 
hoeschii, Anthus 103, Fig.l - 94 
holerythra, Rhytipterna 301 
holomelas, Psalidoprocne 41, 48 
humeralis, Ammodramus 213 
huttoni, Vireo 210 
Hyacola 307 

hybrida, Chlidonias 32, 46 
Hydrobates 272 
Hydropsalis brasiliana 32, 47 

— torquata 249 
Hylacola 262, 278, 307 
Hylexetastes 186-193 

— brigidai 192 
Hylocharis cyanus 39, 47 
Hyloctistes subulatus 294 

— virgatus 300 
Hylophilus ochraceiceps 296 

— semibrunneus 296 
Hylophylax 264, 278 
Hymenops 261, 278 
hyogastrus, Jotreron 31, 47 

— , Ptilinopus 31,48 
hyperythrus, Hierococcyx 74-80 

— , Odontophorus 298 
Hypocnemis 259 
hypoleucus, Capito 286 
Hypsipetes flavala 33, 47 

— mcclellandii 3 



Ichthyornis 264 
Icterus auricapillus 301 

— graduacauda 214 

— prosthemelas 202, 214 
ignicapilla, Regulus 38, 49 
ignipectus, Dicaeum 3 
igniventris, Anisognathus 34, 45 
Illadopsis 259. 278 

— fulvescens 17, 47 
immaculata. Myrmeciza 294 
insularis, Aplonis 148 
Irena cyanogastra 31. 47 

— puella 19.47 
Iridophanes 266, 278 
Iridosornis 265, 278 



Jabiru 269 
Jacamerops 261, 278 
jacula, Heliodoxa 297 
jamaicensis, Nyctibius 207 

— . Oxyura 204 
javanica, Dendrocygna 163 
javanicus, Acridotheres 164 
Jotreron hyogastrus 31, 47 

— melanospilus 25, 47 
judithae. Lams dominicanus 

subsp.nov. 63-5, Fig. 5 - 64 
jugularis, Cinnyris 37, 46 

— , Cyrtostomus 37, 46 

— , Nectarinia 37, 48 



kamoli, Paradoxornis nipalensis subsp.nov. 136-8, 

Fig. 15- 137 
Ketupa271,278 
kingi, Aglaiocercus 16, 45 
kingi, Heterophasia melanoleuca subsp.nov. 133-4, 

Fig. 13- 133 
Knipolegus 259 
konkakinhensis, Garrulax 111 



Lagopus 258, 279 
Lalage 309 
Lampornis 265, 279 
Lamprotornis purpuroptera 39, 47 
langsdorfi, Stenopsis 172, 176 
languida, Hippolais 223 
Laniisoma 259, 279 
Larus belcheri 206 

— dominicanus 50-7 1,91,182, 206, 
Figs. 1-52, 2-55, 3-58,4-59 

Larus dominicanus judithae subsp.nov. 63-5, 

Fig.5-64 
Larus dominicanus melisandae subsp.nov. 65-6 

— fuscus 206 

— marinus 206 

— ridibundus 180 
larvatra, Tangara 2 1 3 
lavinia, Tangara 202, 213 
layardi, Parisoma 20, 48 
Legatus leucophaius 299 
Leiothrix 259,271 
Lemuresthes 270 
Leptopogon 259 
Leptotila plumbeiceps 20, 47 
lepturus, Phaethon 180 
leschenauhii, Phacnicophacus 17, 48 
Leucippus fallax 16, 47 
leucocephalos, Emberiza 4 1 , 47 



leucocephalus, Cladorhynchus 27, 46 

— , Haliaeetus 204 
leucogastra, Pachycephala 31, 48 
leucogenys, Conirostrum 25, 46 
leucolaemus, Serinus 25, 49 
leucomelas, Tricholaema 41, 49 
leuconota, Pyriglena 192 
leuconotus, Thalassornis 27, 49 
leucophaea, Collocalia 22, 46 
leucophaeus, Aerodramus 22 
leucophaius, Legatus 299 
leucophrys, Anthus 95, 106 
Leucopternis 259, 279 

— albicollis 291, 299 

— plumbea 291 
leucopyga, Nyctiprogne 249 
leucosterna, Cheramoeca 22, 46 
leucosticta, Henicorhina 301 
leucura, Myiomela 3 
leucurus, Elanus 291 
levaillantoides, Francolinus 181 
levigaster, Gerygone 31, 47 
Lewinia 27 1,279 
Lichenostomus 308 
Lichmera 308 

Limnocorax flavirostra 37, 47 
Limnodromus semipalmatus 163 
lineatum, Tigrisoma 203 
lineatus, Cymbilaimus 300 
livia, Columba 29, 46 
Lochmias 267, 279 
Lonchura 309 

— malacca 18, 47 
longicauda, Deconychura 299 
longicaudatus, Anthus 93 
longicaudus, Discosura 37, 47 
longipennis, Macrodipteryx 158-9 
longirostra, Sitta 245 
Lophornis 264, 279 

— delattrei 293 
Lophortyx 264, 279 
Lophotriccus pileatus 297 
Lophozosterops 261, 279 
Lophura nycthemera 3 
Lorius albidinucha 33, 47 
Loxops 261, 279 
ludovicianus, Thryothorus 210 
luizae, Asthenes 7-9, Fig. 1 -7 
lumachella, Augastes 40, 45 
Lumachellus 265 
Lurocalis semitorquatus 154-5 
luscinius, Acrocephalus 32, 45 
lutescens, Anthus 105 
Lymnocryptes 266, 279 



Machaerirhynchus 308 
Machetornis 265, 279 

— rixosus 295 
Macrodipteryx 259, 279 

— longipennis 158-9 

— vexillarius 158-60 
Macronous gularis 3, 39, 47 
macrorhynchos, Notharchus 300 
macroura, Coliuspasser 42, 46 

— , Euplectes 42, 47 
madagascariensis, Calicalicus 195 

— , Numenius 163 
magentae, Pterodroma 243 
magna, Aplonis 147-8 
magnificus, Ptilinopus 17, 25, 28, 49 



magnirostra, Sericornis 38, 49 
magnirostre, Malacopteron 38, 47 
malacca, Lonchura 18, 47 
malacense, Polyplectron 21, 48 
Malacocincla abbotti, 16,47 

— sepiaria 18, 47 
Malacopteron magnirostre 38, 47 
Malurus 307 

Manorina 308 

Manucodia 273, 279, 360 

marginatus, Microcerculus 301 

marinus, Larus 206 

maritimus, Ammodramus 24, 45 

martinica, Porphyrula 205 

Masius chrysopterus 298 

mavornata, Aplonis 141, 148-9 

mcclellandii, Hypsipetes 3 

Megaceryle 268, 307 

Megacrex 260 

Megaegotheles novaehollandiae 283 

Megalaima australis 28, 47 

— rubricapillus 35-47 
Megalurus 309 

megapodius, Pteroptochos 312-3 
megarhyncha, Colluricincla 36, 41, 46 
Megascops atricapilla 33, 47 
melancoryphus, Cygnus 27, 46 

— , Sthenelides 27, 49 
Melanerpes 307 
Melanocharis 309 

melanocorys, Calamospiza 202, 213 
Melanodryas 308 
melanoleuca, Heterophasia 133 
melanoleuca kingi, Heterophasia subsp.nov. 133-4, 

Fig.13-133 
melanoleucos, Microhierax 41, 47 
melanoleucus, Spizastur 291 
Melanoperdix 264, 279 
melanorhynchus, Chlorostilbon 294, 300 
melanospilus, Jotreron 25, 47 

— , ptilinopus 25, 49 
Melanotis 267 

melanura, Pachycephala 37, 48 
melas, Coracina 41, 46 

— , Edolisoma 41, 47 

Melidectes 308 

Melilestes 308 

melindae, Anthus 93, 98, 107 

Meliphaga 308 

Melipotes 308 

melisandae, Larus dominicanus subsp.nov. 65-6 

Melithreptus 308 

Melocichla mentalis 16, 42, 47 

melodia, Melospiza 202, 213 

melodus, Charadrius 205 

Melospiza melodia 202, 213 

Melozone 259, 279 

meninting, Alcedo 37, 45 

mennelli, Serinus 184 

mentalis, Melocichla 16, 42, 47 

Menura307, Fig.l -305 

mercurius, Caprimulgus 175 

Merops 307 

— albicollis 182 
Mesitornis 264, 279 
metallica, Aplonis 148, 150 
Metopothrix 259, 271,279 
mexicanus, Xenotriccus 209 
Micrastur ruficollis 292 



Microcerculus marginatus 301 
Microdynamis 268 
Microeca 308, 317-20 

— fascinans 318 

— flavigaster318, 320 

— flavovirescens 318 

— griseoceps 318 

— hemixantha 317 

— papuana 3 1 8 
Microhierax melanoleucos 41, 47 
Microrhopias 268, 279 
microrhynchum, Ramphomicron 34, 49 
milleti, Garrulax 3, 112 

milled sweeti, Garrulax subsp.nov. 112-5, 

Figs. 2& 3- 114 
milnei, Garrulax 113 
Milvago 258, 279 
miniatus, Myioborus 297 
Minla cyanouroptera 3 

— strigula 121 

Minla strigula traii subsp.nov. 121-3, Figs. 6 & 7 -122 
minor, Aplonis 148, 150 
— , Phoeniconaias 181 
minullus, Accipiter 218-221 
minuta, Columbina 299 
Mionectes oleagineus 21, 47 
Mirafra 309 

— cantillans 229 
Mitu271,279 
Mixornis gularis 39, 47 
modularis, Prunella 82 
Mohoua308, 310 
Molothrus bonariensis 9 
moluccana, Amaurornis 34, 45 
muluccensis, Falco 22, 47 
Monachella 308 
monachus, Achenoides 32, 45 

— Halcyon 32, 47 
Monarcha 308 

— chrysomela 18,20,48 
monedula, Corvus 231 
monteiri, Tockus 182 
montium, Paramythia 19, 20, 48 
moquini, Haematopus 182 
morrisonia, Alcippe 36, 45 
multistriatus, Thamnophilus 297, 300 
Muscisaxicola 262, 279 

musica, Euphonia 298, 301 
Myadestes occidentalis 211 
Myiagra 308 

Myiarchus cephalotes 301 
Myioborus castaneocapilla 38, 48 

— miniatus 297 
Myiodynastes chrysocephalus 297 
Myiomela leucura 3 
Myiopagis 259, 279 
Myiophobus fasciatus 297 
Myiozetetes similis 301 
Myrmeciza berlepschii 294 

— immaculata 294 
Myrmecocichla cinnamomeiventris 230 
mysolensis, Aplonis 148, 150 
mystacalis, Eurostopodus 283-4 
mystacea, Aplonis 148-50 
Myzomela 308 



Napothera brevicaudata 3 
narina, Apaloderma 19, 45 
natalensis, Caprimulgus 228 



nattererii, Cotinga 299, 301 
Nectarinia 309 

— habessinica 16, 48 

— jugularis 37, 48 
nelsoni, Ammodramus 16,45 
Neochelidon tibialis 19, 48 
Neochen 263, 279 
Neochmia 309 

Neocrex 260, 279 

— columbiana 2 1 . 48 
Neophema chrysostoma 22, 48 
Nesillas aldabrana 21, 48 
Nesoclopeus poecilopterus 22, 48 
ngoclinhensis, Garrulax 111 
Nicator vireo 183 

niger, Cypseloides 207 
nigricans. Sayornis 297 
nigricollis, Ploceus 183 
nigrimentus, Otyphantes 37, 48 

— , Ploceus 37, 48 
nigrirostris, Andigena 30, 45 
Nigrita 258, 279 

— canicapillus 35, 48 
nigromaculata, Phlegopsis 192 
nilghiriensis, Anthus 105 
Ninox scutulata 250-7 
nipalensis, Cutia 119 

nipalensis hoae, Cutia subsp.nov. 119-29, Fig. 5 -111 

— , Paradoxornis 136 
nipalensis kamoli, Paradoxornis 

subsp.nov. 136-8, Fig. 15 - 137 
nisicolor, Hierococcyx 74-80 
Northiella 271, 279 
Notharchus macrorhynchos 300 
Notionystis 308 
novaehollandiae, Coracina 19, 46 

— , Megaegotheles 283 
Numenius madagascariensis 163 
Numida 272, 279 

nyassae, Anthus 103, Figs.l - 94, 2 - 96, 4 - 101 
nycthemera, Lophura 3 
Nyctibius bracteatus 154-5 

— grandis 207 

— griseus 207 

— jamaicensis 207 
Nyctiprogne leucopya 249 
Nyctyornis 264, 279 
Nystalus radiatus 300 



obscura. Tiaris 298 
obsoletus, Crypturellus 17, 46 

— , Turdus 296 
occidentalis, Myadestes 211 
ocellatus, Xiphorhynchus 38, 49 
ochraceiceps, Hylophilus 296 
ochraceous, Alophoixus 3 
ochrolaemus, Automolus 300 
Odontophorus erythrops 298, 300 

— gujanensis 298, 300 

— hyperythrus 298 
Oedistoma 308 
Oenanthc albonigra 17, 48 
oleagineus, Mionectes 21, 47 
olivacea, Amaurornis 34, 45 
onocrotalus, Pelecanus 181 
opaca, Aplonis 145, 148-52 
ophthalmicus. Phylloscartes 295 
Oporornis agilis 212 

— Philadelphia 212 



orenocensis, Xiphocolaptes 185-91 

Oreocharis 309 

Oreortyx 264, 279 

orientalis, Batis 229 

Origma 307 

Oriolus 309 

Ornithion brunneicapillus 35, 48 

Ortalis ruficauda 19, 48 

Orthonyx 260, 279, 308 

Oryzoborus crassirostris 301 

Otus atricapilla 33, 48 

Otyphantes nigrimentus 37, 48 

Oxylabes 265 

Oxyruncus cristatus 295, Fig. 2 - 290 

Oxyura jamaicensis 204 



Pachycare 260, 279 
Pachycephala 308 

— leucogastra 31. 48 

— melanura 37, 48 

— pectoralis 23, 37, 48 

— phaionota 28, 48 

— simplex 308, Fig. 1 -305 
Pachycephalopsis 308 
Pachyornis elephantopus 166 
Pachyptila desolata 16, 48 

— vittata 243 
Pachyramphus versicolor 298 
pallida, Hippolais 223-7 
paludicola, Riparia 183, 229 
paludosus, Anser 12 
palustris, Acrocephalus 223 

— , Parus 22, 48 
panayensis, Aplonis 148, 150 
Pandion haliaetus 181 
Panyptila cayennensis 293 
papuana, Microeca 318 
paraensis, Xiphocolaptes 186-90, Fig.l - 190 
Paradoxornis nipalensis 136 
Paradoxornis nipalensis kamoli subsp.nov. 136- 

Fig.15- 137 
Paramythia 260, 279 

— montium 19, 20, 48 
Pardalotus 307 
Parisoma layardi 20, 48 
parkeri, Cercomacra 294 
Parotia 309 

Parula pitiayumi 298 

Parus palustris 22, 48 

parva, Ficedula 318 

Passer domesticus 183, 309, Fig.l - 305 

Passerina amoena 213 

passerina, Columbina 292 

patagonicus, Aptenodytes 164 

patagonus, Cyanoliseus 243 

pectoralis, Circaetus 156-7, Fig.l - 156 

— , Hierococcyx 74-80 

— , Pachycephala 23, 37, 48 
Pelargopsis amauroptera 25, 48 
Pelecanoides urinatris 36, 48 
Pelecanus onocrotalus 181 
Pellorneum fuscocapillus 35, 48 

— pyrrogenys 35, 48 
Peltops 309 

pelzelni, Aplonis 148-9, 153 

— , Ploceus 32, 48 
Penelopides 261, 279 
Peneothello 270, 279, 308 
percussus, Prionochilus 38, 48 



peregrinus, Falco 77 

Pericrocotus Solaris 3 

perlata, Pyrrhura 191 

Pernis271 

peronii, Charadrius 163 

Petrochelidon 259 

Petroica 308 

Phaenicophaeus leschenaultii 17, 48 

Phaeomyias 268 

Phaethon aethereus 180 

— lepturus 180 

— rubricauda 20, 48 
Phaetusa simplex 299 
phaionota, Pachycephala 28, 48 
Phalacrocorax capensis 180 

— carbo 180 

Phalaropus fulicarius 17, 48, 180 
Philadelphia, Oporornis 212 
Philemon 308 
Philentoma 260, 280 
Philesturnus 309 
Philippinia 270 
Philydor 260, 280 

— fuscipennis 300 

— rufus 297, 300 
Phlegopsis nigromaculata 192 
phoebe, Sayornis 209 
Phoeniconaias minor 181 
Phoenicurus caeruleocephala 39, 48 

— erythrogastrus 31, 48 

— erythronotus 23, 48 
Phylidonyris 271, 280, 308, Fig.l - 305 
Phyllomyias 268 

Phylloscartes ophthalmicus 295 

— superciliaris 295 
Phylloscopus collybita 223 

— davisoni 3 

— ruficapilla 39, 48 
pictum, Emblema 20, 47 
Piculus rubiginosus 297 
picumnus, Dendrocolaptes 209 
Picus 307 

pileatus, Lophotriccus 297 
Pindalus ruficapilla 39, 48 
Pinicola 263, 280 
pinus, Dendroica 202, 212 
Pionites261. 280 
Pipra aureola 243 

— erythrocephala 301 

— heterocerca 243 

— pipra 20, 48, 191,297,301 

— vilasboasi 191 
Piprites261,280 
Piranga bidentata 214 

— erythrocephala 213 

— rubra 213 
Pithys 272, 280 
pitiayumi, Parula 298 
Pitohui 308 

Pitta 307 

— cyanea 3 

— gurneyi 131 
Platycercus elegans 23, 48 
Platycichlia flavipes 28, 48 
platyrhynchum, Electron 17, 47 
Platyrhynchus 272 
Plectoryncha 308 

Ploceus nigricollis 183 

— nigrimentus 37, 48 

— pelzelni 32, 48 



plumbea, Leucopternis 291 
plumbeiceps, Leptotila 20, 47 

— , Todirostrum 34, 49 
plumbeus, Vireo 210 
Pluvialis fulva 163 
Podiceps cristatus 13 

— dominicus 289 
Poecile atricapillus 35, 48 
Poecilodryas 308 
poecilopterus, Nesoclopeus 22, 48 
Poecilotriccus capitalis 16, 48 
Poephila 309 

Pogoniulus bilineatus 23, 48 
poliocephalus, Cuculus 244-6 
poliogastrus, Zosterops 31, 49 
Polioptilaalbiloris211 

— caerulea 211 

— schistaceigula 297, 301 
Polyplectron malacense 21, 48 
pomarina, Aquila 180-1 
Pomatorhinus ferruginosus 116 
Pomatorhinus ferruginosus dickensoni subsp.nov. 

116-7, Fig.4- 118 

— schisticeps 3 
Pomatostomus 308 
Popelairia conversii 293 
Porphyrio porphyrio 205 

— stanleyi 5 
Porphyrula martinica 205 
Porzana 269 

primigenia, Aethopyga 18, 45 
princei, Zoothera 197-200 
princeps. Halcyon 30, 47 
Prinia crinigera 19, 48 
Prionochilus percussus 38, 48 
Prionodura 166, 309 
Prionops261,280 
Procellaria aequinoctialis 180 
Procnias261,280 

— alba 192 

promeropirhynchus, Xiphocolaptes 185-93, Fig.l - 190 

Prosthemadera 308 

prosthemelas, Icterus 202, 214 

Prunella modularis 82 

Psalidoprocne holomelas 41, 48 

Psarocolius wagleri 301 

Pseudocolopteryx 259, 280 

Pseudonigrita 258 

pseudosimilis, Anthus sp.nov. 93-107, Figs.l - 94, 

3 - 99, 4 - 101, 5 - 102, 6 & 7 - 104, 8 - 105 
Psophia viridis 191 
Psophodes 308 
Pterodroma axillaris 243 

— magentae 243 
Pteroglossus torquatus 300 
Pteroptochos megapodius 312-3 
Pteruthius xanthochlorus 32, 48 
Ptilinopus hyogastrus 31, 48 

— magnificus 17,25,28,49 

— melanospilus 25. 49 

— roseicapilla 39, 49 

— viridis 21, 49 
Ptiliprora 308 
Ptilonorhynchus 166, 309 
Ptiloris 273, 280, 309 
Ptilorrhoa caerulescens 34, 49 
puella, Irena 19, 47 
Puffinus griseus 203 
purpuroptera, Lamprotornis 39. 47 
pusillus, Campylorhamphus 298 

— , Chordeiles 249 



Pycnonotus 309 

— zeylanicus 163 
Pyconoptilus 307 
Pygoscelis 267, 280 
Pyriglena leuconota 192 
Pyrocephalus rubinus 299 
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax 41, 49 
Pyrrholaemus 307 
Pyrrhomyias 268, 269, 280 
pyrrhopygius. Todiramphus 24, 49 
Pyrrhura perlata 191 
pyrrogenys, Pellorneum 35, 48 

— . Trichastoma 35, 49 
pyrropygus, Trichixos 29, 49 

radiatus. Nystalus 300 

Rallus aquaticus 13 

rama. Hippolais 223-7 

Ramphastos 307 

Ramphomicron microrhynchum 34, 49 

Ramphotrigon 272, 280 

Ramsayornis 308 

rapax, Aquila 181 

Raphus cucullatus 164 

Regulus calendula 210 

— ignicapilla 38, 49 
remifer, Dicrurus 3 
Remiz 269 
Rhagologus 308 
Rhamphomantis 309 
Rhipidura 308 

Rhodonessa caryophyllacea 244-8, Figs.l - 245, 2 - 246 

Rhodopechys 264, 280 

Rhopornis 264, 280 

Rhyacornis 265, 280 

Rhytipterna holerythra 301 

ridgwayi, Caprimulgus 207 

ridibundus, Larus 180 

Riparia paludicola 183, 229 

rixosus, Machetornis 295 

robsoni, Alcippe chrysotis subsp.nov. 124-6, 

Fig.8- 125 
rodochroa, Carpodacus 42, 46 
roseicapilla. Eolophus 39, 47 

— , Ptilinopus 39, 49 
roundi, Heterophasia annectans subsp.nov. 130-1, 

Figs.ll & 12-132 
rubescens, Anthus 203 
rubicilla, Carpodacus 17, 46 
rubiginosus, Automolus 294 

— , Piculus 297 
rubinus, Pyrocephalus 299 
rubra, Piranga 213 
rubricapillus, Megalaima 35, 47 

— , Xantholaema 35, 49 
rubricauda. Phaethon 20, 48 
rufescens, Acrocephalus 228 
ruficapilla, Phylioscopus 39, 48 

— , Pindalus 39, 48 
ruficauda, Ortalis 19, 48 
ruficaudus. Upucerthia 37, 49 
ruficollis. Micrastur 292 

— , Tachybaptus 163 
rufidorsa, Ceyx 37, 46 
rufigastra, Cyornis 37, 46 
rufocarpalis, Calicalicus 194-6, Fig.l - 195 
rufogularis, Alcippe 3 
rufus. Philydor 297, 300 

— , Selasphorus 209 

— , Trogon 300 



Rupicola 263, 280 
rupicola, Colaptes 35, 46 
rustica, Hirundo 163 
rutila, Streptoprocne 298 
rutilans, Xenops 297, 300 



salvini, Caprimulgus 207 
sanctithomae, Dendrocolaptes 300 
sandvicensis, Thalasseus 23, 49 
santovestris, Aplonis 148, 153 
Satrapa 258 
saturata, Aethopyga 3 
savannarum, Ammodramus 213 
savesi, Aegotheles 282-4 
saxatalis, Aeronautes 202, 208 
Saxicola 263, 280 
Saxicoloides261,263, 280 
Sayornis 265, 280 

— nigricans 297 

— phoebe 209 
Scenopoeetes 309 
Schiffornis 265, 280 
schistacea, Sporophila 298 
schistaceigula, Polioptila 297, 301 
schisticeps, Pomatorhinus 3 
Schoenicola 263, 282 
Schoeniophylax 264, 280 
scirpaceus, Hippolais 223 
scutulata, Ninox 250-7 
Scytalopus femoralis 297 
segetum, Anser 11-13, Fig.l - 12 
Seiurus aurocapilla 38, 49 
Selasphorus rufus 209 
Seleucidis 272, 280 
semibrunneus, Hylophilus 296 
semicollaris, Streptoprocne 208 
semipalmatus, Limnodromus 163 
semitorquatus, Lurocalis 154-5 
senegala, Tchagra 229 
senegalensis, Halcyon 34, 47 
sepiaria, Malacocincla 18, 47 
Sericornis 307 

— magnirostra 38, 49 
Sericulus 166,309 
Serinus gularis 38, 49, 184 

— leucolaemus 25, 49 

— mennelli 184 

— xantholaemus 25, 49 

similis, Anthus 93-107, Figs.2 - 96, 4 - 101, 5 - 102, 

6&7- 104 

— , Myiozetetes 301 
simplex, Pachycephala 308, Fig.l - 305 

— , Phaetusa 299 
Siphonorhis 259, 281 
Siptornopsis 259, 281 
Sitta longirostra 245 
Sittasomus griseicapillus 300 
Smicrornis 307 
sodangorum, Actinodura 1 1 1 
Solaris, Pericrocotus 3 
spadiceus, Attila 34, 45 
Speirops261, 281 
Sphecotheres 309 
spinicaudus, Chaetura 37, 46, 293 
Spizaetus tyrannus 299 
Spizastur melanoleucus 291 
Spiziapteryx 259,281 
splendens, Corvus 231-9 
spodiopygia, Collocalia 24, 46 



spodiopygius, Aerodramus 24 
Sporophila schistacea 299 
Stactolaema whytii 20, 49 
Stagonopleura 309 
stanleyi, Chalcostigma 20, 46 

— , Porphyrio 5 
Steatornis caripensis 71-3 
Stelgidopteryx 259, 281 
Stenopsis 172 

— candicans 172, 175 

— langsdorfi 172. 176 
stenurus, Chlorostilbon 16, 28, 46 

stepanyani, Alcippe castaneceps subsp.nov. 126-7, 

Fig.9- 125 
Sterna albifrons 1 80 

— bergii 182 

Sthenelides melancoryphus 27, 49 
Stipiturnus 307 
Strepera 309 
strepitans, Garrulax 115 
Streptopelia decaocto 29, 49 
Streptoprocne rutila 298 

— semicollaris 208 

— zonaris 208, 296 
striata, Aplonis 148 
striatus, Accipiter 204 
Strigops273, 281 
strigula, Minla 121 

strigula traii, Minla subsp.nov. 121-3, Figs. 6 & 

7-122 
Strixalbitarsis21,49 
Struthidea 309 
struthoides, Dinornis 166 
Sturnus 309 

subalaris, Syndactyla 297 
subcylindrica, Ceratogymna 22, 46 
subruficapilla, Cisticola 39, 46 
subulatus, Hyloctistes 294 
sulcirostris, Crotophaga 292 
sumatranus, Bubo 21, 45 
superciliaris, Hemispingus 31, 47 

— , Phylloscartes 295 
swainsoni, Buteo 204-5 
sweeti, Garrulax milled subsp.nov. 112-5, 

Figs.2&3- 114 
Syma 307 
Synallaxis 270 
Syndactyla subalaris 297 
Sypheotides261,281 



tabuensis, Aplonis 147-8 
Tachybaptus ruficollis 163 
Taeniopygia 309 
tahitica, Hirundo 164 
Tangara cyanicollis 298 

— larvata 213 

— lavinia 202, 213 

— velia 41, 49 
Tanysiptera 307 

tataupa, Crypturellus 21, 46 
Tchagra269, 281 

— senegala 229 
Thalasseus bengalensis 17,49 

— sandvicensis 23, 49 
thalassinus, Colibri 208 
Thalassornis leuconotus 27, 49 
Thalurania colombica 209 
Thamnomanes 265 



Thamnophilus atrinucha 300 

— doliatus 243 

— multistriatus 297, 300 
Thermochalcis 172 
Thlypopsis 259 
Threnetes 265 
Threskiornis 272 
Thryothorus albinucha 210 

— coraya 210 

— ludovicianus 210 
Tiaris262, 281 

— obscura 298 
tibialis, Neochelidon 19, 48 
Tigriornis 265, 281 
Tigrisoma fasciatum 298 

— lineatum 203 
Tockus monteiri 182 
Todiramphus 260, 281, 307 

— chloris 32, 49 

— pyrrhopygius 22, 49 

— tutus 18,49 

Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum 20, 49 

— plumbeiceps 34, 49 
Tolmomyias 268 

— assimilis 297 
torquata, Hydropsalis 249 
torquatus, Caprimulgus 249 

— , Pteroglossus 300 
Torreornis 264 
Touit272, 281 

— dilectissima 292 

traii, Minla strigula subsp.nov. 121-3, Figs. 6 & 7-122 

Tregellasia 308 

Treron264, 281 

Trichastoma pyrrogenys 35, 49 

Trichixos pyrropygus 29, 49 

Trichodere 308 

Tricholaema 260, 281,307 

— leucomelas 41, 49 

tristriatus, Basileuterus 296, Fig. 3 - 290 
Trogon collaris 297 

— rufus 300 
Trugon 259 
Turdoides 261, 281 
Turdus 309 

— assimilis 211 

— columbinus 143 

— obsoletus 296 
Turnagra308, 310 
Turnix269, 281 

tutus, Todiramphus 18, 49 
Tyrannus 307 

— forficatus 17, 49 

— tyrannus 210 

— verticalis 210 
tyrannus, Spizaetus 299 
Tyto alba 283, 299 

— capensis 19, 49 



umbellus, Bonasa 16, 19, 41, 45 
Upucerthia ruficaudus 37, 49 
Uraeginthus cyanocephalus 27, 49 

— granatinus 17, 18, 49 
urinatrix, Pelecanoides 36. 48 
Urolais267, 281 
Uromyias 268 
urubitinga, Buteogallus 291 
uthaii, Yuhina gularis subsp.nov. 135, Fig. 14- 137 



vaalensis, Anthus 95, 106, 107 

vauxi, Chaetura 208 

velia, Tangara 41, 49 

versicolor. Agyrtria 314-6, Fig.l - 315 

— . Pachyramphus 298 
verticalis. Tyrannus 210 
vexillarius, Macrodipteryx 158-60 
Vidua chalybeata 230 
vilasboasi, Pipra 191 
violacea, Geotrygon 299 
Vireo atricapilla 33, 49 

— bellii 210 

— huttoni 210 

— plumbeus 210 
vireo. Nicator 183 
Vireolanius eximus 299 
virgatus, Hyloctistes 300 
Viridibucco bilineatus 23, 49 
viridicyanus, Cyanolyca 40, 46 
viridiflavus, Zimmerius 297 
viridifrons, Amazilia 209 
viridis, Psophia 191 

— , Ptilinopus 21, 49 
vitiensis, Clytorhynchus 21, 46 
vittata, Pachyptila 243 
vociferoides, Haliaeetus 81 



wagleri, Psarocolius 301 
whytii, Stactolaema 20, 49 



xanthochlorus, Pteruthius 32, 48 
xanthochroa, Zosterops 41, 49 
xanthogaster, Euphonia 298 
Xantholaema rubicapillus 35, 49 
xantholaemus, Serinus 25, 49 
Xanthomyza 308 
Xanthotis 267, 281,308 



Xenicus 307 

Xenops rutilans 297, 300 
Xenotriccus mexicanus 209 
Xiphocolaptes 185-93 

— albicollis 192 

Xiphocolaptes carajaensis sp.nov, 188-93, 
Figs.l - 190,2- 191 

— falcirostris 192 

— orenocensis 185-91 

— paraensis 186-90, Fig.l - 190 

— promeropirhynchus 185-93, Fig.l - 190 
Xiphorhynchus ocellatus 38, 49 
Xolmis272, 281 



ypsilophora, Coturnix 18, 46 
Yuhina gularis 135 

Yuhina gularis uthaii subsp.nov. 135-6, Fig. 14 - 137 
— zantholeuca 3 



zantholeuca, Yuhina 3 
zelandica, Aplonis 148 
Zenaida auriculata 296 

— aurita 206 
zeylanicus, Pycnonotus 163 
Zimmerius cinereicapilla 38, 49 

— viridiflavus 297 
zonaris, Streptoprocne 208, 296 
Zoothera 309 

— cameronensis 196-200 

— citrina 29, 49 

— princei 197-200 
Zosterops 261, 281, 309 

— atricapilla 33, 49 

— citrinella 40, 49 

— fuscicapilla 38, 49 

— poliogastrus 31, 49 

— xanthochroa 41, 49 



CORRECTIONS TO TEXT 



Page 



45 


Line 39 


148 


40 


163 


33 


180 


13 



185 



275 



2X 



42 



" " 


49 


278 " 


7 


279 " 


1 


280 " 


8 


297 " 


6 


" 


10 


298 " 


21 



201 not 200 

zelandica not zealandica 
2001 not 2002 
Procellaria aequinoctialis 
conspicillata 
not Procellaria 
conspicillata 
promeropirhynchus not 
promerophyrhynchus 
swindernianus not 
swinderianus 
andicola not andecola 
tyrianthinus not tryanthinus 
lagopus not lapopus 
strigilatum not strigillatum 
bourcierii not bourcierrii 
Syndactyla not Syndactila 
rutila not ruttilla 



« 299 " 


15 


nattererii not natterrerii 


" 300 " 


13 


macrorhynchos not 
macrorhynchus 


" 307 " 


14 


Eurystomus not Euystomus 




17 


Todiramphus not 
Todirhamphus 


" " " 


23 


gilviventris not gilvivenris 


" 308 " 


15 


novaehollandiae not 
novaehollandies 


" 


16 


Ptiloprora not Ptiliprora 




20 


Ephthianura not 
Epthianura 


309 " 


9 


Lophorina not Lophorhina 




18 


Heteralocha not 
Heterolocha 


" 310 " 


13 


Ephthianura not 
Epthianura 



Bulletin ot the 



British 




ik 



j^ 



Ornithologists' 

Club 




THE NATURAL | 
HISTORY MUSEUM | 

11 APR 2002 

PRESENTED 
TRING LIBRARY 



FORTHCOMING MEETINGS 

See also BOC website: http://www.boc-online.org 

Tuesday 30 April 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING AT 6.p.m., followed by a Club Social Evening. There will be no speaker, but 
Members are invited to bring along one or two slides (or a specimen!) of a bird of topical interest, and to 
speak for not more than 5-10 minutes about it. The aim will be to generate discussion, and to facilitate the 
exchange of information between Members. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 16 April, please, including subjects to be raised, and any special 
facilities required. 

Tuesday 25 June 

Dr Clifford B. Frith Ph.D - 'Artful sex - the bowerbirds and their amazing bowers ' . 

Clifford is a self-employed natural history photographer, author, publisher, and ornithologist. Early ornitho- 
logical positions include The Natural History Museum, London, and the Royal Society of London Research 
Station on Albabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. His PhD was awarded for intensive long-term evolutionary studies 
of bowerbirds and birds of paradise. A life member of the BOU and AOU, Clifford is an Honorary Research 
Fellow of the Queensland Museum and, jointly with wife Dawn, recipient of the RAOU's D.L. Serventy 
Medal for Ornithology. Together with Dawn he has written, illustrated, and published several small Austra- 
lian natural history books as well as the large Cape York Peninsula - a Natural History (Reed, 1996). Clifford 
is senior author of The Birds of Paradise - Paradisaeidae (1998) of the acclaimed OUP 'Bird Families of the 
World' series. He and Dawn have recently completed a companion volume about The Bowerbirds - 
Ptilonorhynchidae for a 2002 release. The Friths live within upland rainforest of Queensland, Australia, 
which they share with Southern Cassowaries, two megapode and four bowerbird species, a bird of paradise, 
and much more. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 11 June please. 

Tuesday 24 September 

Dr Joanne Cooper - 'Storm Petrels in the soapdish and Black Robins on the verandah: the birds of the 
Chatham Islands, New Zealand'. 

From a background in geography and geology (but with a long-term interest in birds), Jo studied the Late 
Pleistocene avifaunas of Gibraltar for her PhD at the Bird Group of The Natural History Museum. During this 
time, she also began looking into the Museum's extensive collections of sub-fossil bird remains from the 
Chatham Islands, originally gathered for Lord Walter Rothschild in the 1890s. One thing led to another and 
eventually she headed off to New Zealand to pursue the work further. Based at the Museum of New Zealand 
in Wellington, she also had an opportunity to visit the Islands themselves as a volunteer with the Depart- 
ment of Conservation. Since arriving back in the UK in August 2001, she has returned to the Bird Group, 
where she now works as a curator. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 10 September please. 

Future meetings - Tuesdays: 

5 November - Professor Ian Newton - 'Population limitation in birds: a review of the experimental evidence'. 
3 December - Jon Hornbuckle - 'The birds ofBeni Biological Station, Bolivia'. 

MEETINGS are normally held in the Sherfield Building of Imperial College, South Kensington, London, 
SW7. The nearest Tube station is at South Kensington; a map of the area will be sent to members, on 
request. (Limited car parking facilities can be reserved, on prior application to the Hon. Secretary). The cash 
bar is open from 6.15 pm, and a buffet supper, of two courses followed by coffee, is served at 7.00 pm. (A 
vegetarian menu can be arranged if ordered at the time of booking). Informal talks are given on completion, 
commencing at about 8.00 pm. Dinner charges were increased to £18.00, as from 1st January 2002. 

Overseas Members visiting Britain are especially welcome at these meetings, and the Hon. Secretary would 
be very pleased to hear from anyone who can offer to talk to the Club, in 2003, giving as much advance 
notice as possible. 

Enquiries to Hon. Secretary, Michael Casement, Dene Cottage, West Harting, Petersfield, Hants. GU3 1 5PA. 
UK. Tel/FAX:0 1 730-825280 (or Email: mbcasement@aol.com). 



Club News 



HISTORY MUSEUM I 

1 1 APR 2002 

1 B)aIL B.O.C. 2002 122(1 

PRESENTED 
TRING LIBRARY 



Bulletin of the 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 

Vol. 122 No. 1 Published 17 March 2002 

CLUB NEWS 

Correspondence on membership, changes of address and all other matters should be addressed 
to the Hon. Secretary, Cdr M.B. Casement, OBE, RN, Dene Cottage, West Harting, Petersfield, 
Hants. GU31 5PA, UK. (or E-mail: mbcasement@aol.com). For details of Club Meetings see 
inside front cover. 

Subscription Rates for 2002 are unchanged from last year @ £18.00 p. a. but £12.00 only for 

paid-up Members of BOU and renewals were due on 1 st January. If you have not already done so, 
please complete NOW the subscription renewal form, enclosed with the December issue 121 (4), 
to avoid the need for further reminders. 

The BOC Website - http://www.boc-online.org This continues to expand, and grow in 
usefulness. It now contains full details of subscription rates, joining application forms and contents 
list of recent Bulletins. Do please look at it, and let us have your suggestions for further 
improvement. 

The Membership List 2002 is available, free of charge to all requesting a copy, on application 
to the Hon. Secretary: This shows addresses (including E-mail addresses, where known), for all 
paid-up Members as at 31 December 2001. Members are requested to inform the Hon. Secretary 
of all corrections or changes, without delay, for despatch of the Bulletin. To offset the cost of 
postage, any contribution, or a stamped and addressed (A5-sized) envelope will be gratefully 
accepted. 

Membership News 

Hon. Life Members - Rule (3). We welcome to this select list: Guy Mountfort OBE, and 
Captain Sir Thomas Barlow Bt., DSC, RN, who both joined the Club in 1951. 

We congratulate Professor Wilhelm Meise on attaining his 100 th birthday on 12 lh September 
2001. He was previously a non-Member Subscriber before joining the Club in 2000 as a full 
Member, in accordance with the new Rule (21). He worked under Stresemann at the Berlin 
Museum in the 1920s, becoming curator of the Dresden Museum in 1929. Five years later he gave 
one of the main lectures at the International Ornithological Congress at Oxford. From 1951- 
1969 he was the curator of the Hamburg Museum, and in 1976 he became Professor for Zoology 
at the University of Hamburg. Professor Meise is best remembered as the editor of Schonwetter's 
Handbuch der Oologie, ( 1 960-92) and Naturgeschichte der Vogel ( 1 958-66) but he published numerous 
other papers, and is still actively pursuing his ornithological interests. 

Clifford B. Frith, member of the BOU since 1972 (a Life Member since 1993) and of the BOC 
since 1996, has been awarded the degree of Ph.D. (by publication). His thesis "Evolutionary 
studies of bowerbirds and birds of paradise: affinities and divergence", including sixty-two publications 
from peer-reviewed scientific literature, was submitted to Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, 
in July 2001 and accepted in late December 2001. 



Club News 2 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Notices 

Royal Naval Birdwatching Society (RNBWS) Sea Swallow database. Reports in several journals of 
the demise of the annual journal Sea Swallow, with the launch in 2001 of the tri-service journal Osprey, 
are premature; Sea Swallow Vol 5 1 will be published later this year. Stan Howe has now input records of 
all identifiable species recorded at sea by HM and Merchant ships over the past 55 years, and published 
in Sea Swallows 1-50. This database (of seabirds and landbirds) totals over 40,000 seaborne records, 
covering all oceans of the world, and is readily searchable. The ultimate aim is to make this unique 
database available on a website, but authors seeking records of trans-ocean movements should make 
initial contact with Stan Howe by e-mail: showembou@aol.com. 

"The Earl & the Pussycat: the Life and Legacy of the 13th Earl of Derby"; exhibition at 
the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1 June to 8 September 2002, which will reunite many 
original natural history paintings with the specimens from which they were drawn. Following the 
talk by Dr. Clemency (Clem) Fisher at the 906th meeting of the Club on 15th January, plans for 
a Club visit to join a two day conference in Liverpool, to include visits to the exhibition and to 
see more originals by John Gould, Joseph Wolf and other famous bird artists at Knowsley Hall, are 
now being investigated. Probable dates are Fri 5 / Sat 6 July 2002. Please note in your diaries 
and Watch this space . 

MEETINGS 

The 904th meeting of the Club was held on Tuesday 6 November, at 6.15 pm, in the Sherfield 
Building Annexe, Imperial College, and was attended by 23 Members and 9 guests. 

Members present were: 

Dr C.F. MANN {Chairman), Sir David BANNERMAN Bt, Captain Sir Thomas BARLOW Bt., 

DSC, RN, Cdr M.B. CASEMENT RN, D.R. CALDER, Professor R.A. CHEKE, D.J. FISHER, FM. 

GAUNTLETT, A. GIBBS, D. GRIFFIN, J.P HUME, J.A. JOBLING, Mrs A.M. MOORE, D.J. 

MONTIER, R.G. MORGAN, Mrs M.N. MULLER, Dr. R.P PRYS-JONES, Dr. PG.W SALAMAN, 

R.E. SCOTT, FD. STEINHEIMER {Speaker), S.A.H. STATHAM, C.WR. STOREY and M.P 

WALTERS. 

Guests attending were: 

Lady BANNERMAN, Mrs J.B. CALDER, Mrs M.H. GAUNTLETT, Mrs B. M. HAMMOND- 

GIBBS, Dr. A. MELLAND, Mrs M. MONTIER, P.J. MOORE, Dr. P. RECORDON, and M. J. 

WALTON. 

After dinner, Frank Steinheimer gave an illustrated talk titled Undiscovered Cambodia: the 
Endemics of the Cardamom Mountains. This was based on his experiences as deputy leader of the 
Fauna and Flora International (FFI) expedition to Cambodia, in 2000, during which he caught a 
severe form of malaria. This talk had been postponed twice, due to his illness, and Frank was 
warmly welcomed on this third occasion. 

Frank outlined the geographical significance of the Cardamom mountains, which rise steeply 
to a height of c. 1,500 m from the surrounding very low plains, thus providing isolated areas of 
mountain forest rich in endemic species of flora and fauna, especially birds. 

Ornithological studies of the Cardamom Mountains sensu stricto, and similar ranges within 
Cambodia, comprise: The Elephant Range (Delacour, Jabouille & Lowe 1920s), Kirikom Range 
(Feinstein 1960s and Frederick Goes 1990s), Mt Aural Range (FFI Expedition 2001), Central 
Cardamom Mts. (Engelbach 1930s/1940s, FFI Expedition 2000) and Mt Samkos Range (Eames 
& Steinheimer 2000), considered sensu lato in relation to topography, also Khao Soi Dao, Krast- 
Province of E Thailand, (Hugh Smith 1920s, King 1960s, McClure 1970s, Round 2000). Frank 
based his studies on this ornithological research to review the endemic avifauna of this mountainous 
area, at both species and subspecies levels. 



Club News 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 




Chestnut-headed Partridge Arborophila 
cambodiana ssp., 

Left: BMNH No. 2000.5.1, adult female, Mt 
Tumpor (12° 22'N, 103° 02'E), 5 March 
2000; 

Right: BMNH No. 2000.5.2, sex unknown, 
Mt Khmaoch (12° 09'N, 103° 00'E), 19 
March 2000, coll. by Jonathan Eames & 
Frank Steinheimer during the FFI expedition 
to the Cardamom Mountains. Photo: Harry 
Taylor, © The Natural History Museum 



Three Cardamom endemics arguably deserve species status, the most clear-cut of which is the 
Chestnut-headed Partridge Arborophila cambodiana (see photograph). Two specimens were collected 
during his studies in the Mt Samkos Range in early 2000, both showing distinctive features intermediate 
between the SE Thai A. c. diversa and the nominate A. c. cambodiana from Bokor, Elephant Range, 
suggesting a new subspecies in the Central Cardamom Mountains and Samkos Range. The Cambodian 
White-tailed Robin Myiomela (leucura) cambodiana is, in his opinion, too distinctive not to be up- 
graded to species level, as it is the sole "subspecies" lacking light blue on the forehead, and is endemic 
to the Cardamoms sensu lato The final putative endemic species would be the Cambodian Laughingthrush 
Garrulax ferrarius, but in Frank's opinion it visually lacks sufficient distinctive features to be treated as 
a full species, and would be better viewed as a subspecies of the Black-hooded Laughingthrush Garrulax 
millet i 

Frank showed slides of the following endemic subspecies of the Cardamom Mountains sensu 
stricto: Grey-chinned Minivet Pericrocotus Solaris nassovicus, Mountain Bulbul Hypsipetes 
mcclellandii canescens, Blue-winged Minla Minla cyanouroptera rufodorsalis, Black-throated 
Sunbird Aethopyga saturata cambodiana, and Lesser Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus remifer 
lefoli. 

Considering the Cardamoms sensu lato, the list would further include Silver Pheasant Lophura 
nycthemera lewisi, Blue Pitta Pitta cyanea aurantiaca, Ochraceous Bulbul Alophoixus ochraceous 
cambodianus, Streaked Wren Babbler Napothera brevicaudata griseigularis, White-browed 
Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus schisticeps klossi, Rufous-throated Fulvetta Alcippe rufogularis 
khmerensis, White-bellied Yuhina Yuhina zantholeuca canescens, White-tailed Leaf Warbler 
Phylloscopus davisoni intensior, Fire-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum ignipectus cambodianum 
and probably also the Striped Tit Babbler Macronous gularis saraburiensis. 



The 905th meeting of the Club was held on Tuesday 4 December, at 6.15 pm, in the Sherfield 
Building Annexe, Imperial College, and was attended by 30 Members and 19 guests. 

Members present were: 

Dr C.F MANN {Chairman), Miss H. BAKER, Sir David BANNERMAN Bt, Captain Sir Thomas 
BARLOW Bt., DSC, RN, A.F. BEST, Mrs D.M. BRADLEY, Cdr M.B. CASEMENT RN, Dr. R.J. 
CHANDLER, Professor R.A. CHEKE, J.H.W. CHITTY, D.J. FISHER, F.M. GAUNTLETT, 
Revd. D.W GLADWIN, A. GIBBS, D. GRIFFIN, C.A.R. HELM, K. HERON, J.P. HUME, J.A. 



Club News 4 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

JOBLING, R.H. KETTLE, D.J. MONTIER, R.G. MORGAN, Mrs M.N. MULLER, R.C. PRICE, R.J. 
PRYTHERCH, N.J. REDMAN, P.J. SELLAR, ED. STEINHEIMER, C.W.R. STOREY and M. J. 
WALTON. 

Guests attending were: 

Lady BANNERMAN, M. BRADLEY, Mrs C.R. CASEMENT, Dr. M. CHERRY, Mrs M.H. 
GAUNTLETT, Mrs J.M. GLADWIN, Mrs B. M. HAMMOND-GIBBS, Mrs, J.A. JONES, Ms. P. 
McGUIRE, Mrs M. MONTIER, C.A. MULLER, I. PACKER, R. RANFT, R. RIDDINGTON, Dr. 
B.M. ROGERS, Ms B. RYAN, T.R. SMEETON, Cdr. J.M. TOPP RN, and Dr J. SPARKS (Speaker). 

After dinner John Sparks, former head the BBC's Natural History Unit, entertained the meeting 
with an illustrated talk entitled "In Bird Quest - Bringing birds to the TV screen", illustrated with 
spectacular slides and video film-clips. The following is a brief synopsis: 

Birds are highly active, colourful creatures, often displaying intriguing behaviour. They also 
do something that we dream about - move through the air often with consummate grace. It is not 
surprising that they continue to be wildlife stars of the flickering silver screen. Capturing them 
on film or video is often a challenge. The equipment needed is heavy and bulky, and often has to 
be lugged into remote locations. In order to film the reproductive cycle of a species, it may be 
necessary for the cameraman to be on location for several months. Such was the case when the 
nesting of Ross's Gull was recorded for a BBC-2 series Realms of the Russian Bear - an expedition 
was mounted to the tundra in the Kolyma Region of Siberia. The author has always been keen to 
present ethological research and talked of the way some of Niko Tinbergen's and Konrad Lorenz's 
classic experiments were recreated by means of dramatic reconstruction in a series The Discovery 
of Animal Behaviour. It was immensely satisfying that the birds behaved exactly as reported by 
these illustrious scientists! Some problems cannot be predicted. Some years ago, a big Outside 
Broadcast Unit for a Birdwatch programme in July was deployed on the Bass Rock. Just before 
transmitting live on BBC-1, a bank of dense fog swept in from the sea and shrouded the rock and 
its Gannets! 

Logistics can be a major challenge, as when a team from The Natural World (BBC-2) 
attempted to get close to the vast colony of Lesser Flamingoes which breed in the centre of 
Natron, a caustic soda lake in East Africa. In the end a raft and cameraman were lifted by 
helicopter 10 miles from the shore to be set down on the corrosive mud within photographic 
range of the birds, yielding unforgettable images of the event. Even small sequences can take a 
great deal of careful planning. A 90-second sequence for Battle of the Sexes (BBC-2) on the way 
female Penduline Tits fool their mates into taking full responsibility for brooding the eggs and 
rearing the family needed the cooperation of Dr. Herbert Hoi in Vienna a year beforehand to set 
up pairs in aviaries. As it happened, these birds failed to respond and the whole sequence had to 
filmed in the wild within a few days using tiny cameras which 'looked' into the nests. The quest 
for new examples is never ending. For the same series, the astonishing display of the Red-capped 
Manakin was filmed for the first time. Phil Savoie, the cameraman, had to ratchet-strap himself 
15 m up a tree in Costa Rica for several hours each day, covered with camouflaged netting, and 
using special high speed film stock. Even then, the birds mated behind a tree trunk! 

There is no limit to the hardships which cameramen endure, and their ingenuity is limitless; 
they have braved lightning strikes in the top of rain-forest trees, used blow-up dolls from Ann 
Summers, radio controlled helicopters, paragliders even planting miniature cameras on the birds 
themselves - all to bring the fascination of birds to the television screen 

The 906th meeting of the Club was held on Tuesday 15 January, at 6.15 pm, in the Sherfield 
Building Annexe, Imperial College, and was attended by 29 Members and 17 guests. 

Members present were: 

Dr C.F. MANN {Chairman), Miss H. BAKER, Sir David BANNERMAN Bt, Captain Sir Thomas 

BARLOW Bt., DSC, RN, I.R. BISHOP, Mrs D.M. BRADLEY, Cdr M.B. CASEMENT RN, Professor 



Club News 5 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

R.A. CHEKE, I.D. COLLINS, Dr C.T. FISHER (Speaker), D.J. FISHER, J.B. FISHER, F.M. 
GAUNTLETT, A. GIBBS, Revd. T.W. GLADWIN, D. GRIFFIN, C.A.R. HELM, J.P. HUME, G.P. 
JACKSON, J.A. JOBLING, D.J. MONTIER, Mrs A.M. MOORE, R.G. MORGAN, Dr P.W.G. 
SALAMAN, T.R. SMEETON, S.A.H. STATHAM, F.D. STEINHEIMER, N.H.F STONE and C.W.R. 
STOREY. 

Guests attending were: 

Lady BANNERMAN, Ms G. BONHAM, M. BRADLEY, Mrs J.B. CALDER, Mrs C.R. CASEMENT, 
Mrs B.H. FISHER, W.B. FISHER, Mrs A.L. FISHER, E. FULLER, Mrs M.H. GAUNTLETT, Mrs J.M. 
GLADWIN, Mrs B. M. HAMMOND-GIBBS, Ms K. KNOWLES, P.J. MOORE, Mrs M. MONTIER, 
Mrs S. STONE, and Ms K. WAY 

On completion, Dr Clemency Fisher, Curator of Birds & Mammals, National Museums and 
Galleries on Merseyside, Liverpool and Curator-in-Charge, "The Earl & the Pussycat; the life & 
legacy of the 13 th Earl of Derby", gave a fascinating presentation on the forthcoming exhibition, 
which will be open from June - September 2002 at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. The 
following is a brief synopsis of her talk, which was illustrated with spectacular of slides of great 
historical interest. 

Edward Smith Stanley, 13 th Earl of Derby (1775-1851) was an aristocrat who was interested 
in many fields, such as fine and decorative art, including Elizabethan miniatures, Old Masters and 
seventeenth century furniture, but who had in particular a long and abiding passion for natural 
history. Lord Derby greatly improved the Knowsley estate, his home just east of Liverpool, 
laying out new access roads, improving the grazing and enclosing the whole estate within a wall 
which was nearly ten miles long. Within this area he could keep exotic animals, many of which 
roamed free. He built two aviaries, one a huge wire structure in which large birds could fly, and 
several paddocks with stone walls for mammals such as porcupines and small kangaroos. 

When the living collections were sold after the Earl's death in 1851, they totalled 318 
species (1272 individuals) of birds and 94 species (345 individuals) of mammals, of which 756 had 
been bred at Knowsley. Lord Derby is credited with being the first person to breed in captivity the 
Nene, the Stanley Crane (which was named after him) and the Crested Fireback Pheasant, and he 
was probably the first to breed Ostrich, Rhea and Quelea. He kept many species which were rare 
then and are now extinct, such as Carolina Parakeets and Passenger Pigeons. The latter he bred 
so successfully that they were allowed to fly freely during the day, but at the sale of the collections 
they were divided into five lots and were never recorded breeding again. 

In the days before photography, the only way the Earl could get his animals recorded for 
posterity was to have their portraits painted. For this reason the Nonsense Poet Edward Lear 
came to Knowsley, where he painted many of the living animals for Lord Derby and invented a 
form of rhyme to entertain the children of the household. John Gould, Benjamin Waterhouse 
Hawkins and Joseph Wolf also painted the living animals at Knowsley. Many of these paintings 
are still kept in the Library at Knowsley Hall, and some of these will be displayed in the 
exhibition, in many cases with the animals (which were preserved after their eventual death) 
from which they were painted. 

The 13 th Earl also acquired many preserved specimens of birds and mammals, which he 
incorporated in his ever-growing museum at Knowsley Hall. He was also offered large collections 
of reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates, but most of these he passed to the British Museum. 
Many of the bird and mammal specimens he acquired were of undescribed species, and became the 
specimens on which type descriptions of new species (by ornithologists such as John Latham and 
John Gray) were based. Some of these, such as the White Swamp-hen Porphyrio stanleyi, which 
is one of only two specimens known, are of great scientific importance. 

When the Earl died his museum was bequeathed to the people of Liverpool, and became the 
foundation collection of the Liverpool Museum. The exhibition is intended to celebrate the 150 
years of our existence and there will be a linked conference, probably in early July, to which 
members of the British Ornithologists' Club are cordially invited. 



Club News 6 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

The Annual General Meeting of the British Ornithologist's Club will be held in the Sherfield 
Building, Imperial College, London SW7 at 6.00pm on Tuesday 30 April 2002. 

AGENDA 

1. Minutes of the 2001 Annual General Meeting (see Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 121 (3): 148-149). 

2. Chairman's report. 

3. Trustees Annual Report and Accounts for 2001 (both to be distributed at the meeting). 

4. The Bulletin. 

5. Club Publications. 

6. BOU/BOC collaboration. 

7. The election of Officers. The Committee proposes that: 

(i) Revd. T.W. Gladwin be re-elected as Vice-Chairman (for another year), 

(ii) Mr D.J. Montier be re-elected as Honorary Treasurer, 

(iii) Commander M.B. Casement, OBE, RN, be re-elected Hon. Secretary. 

8. Any other business of which notice shall have been given in accordance with Rule (12). 



BOOKS RECEIVED 

del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A., & Sargatal, J. (eds) 2001. Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol 6, 
Mousebirds to Hornbills. Pp 589, 45 colour plates, 385 colour photographs, 270 distribution 
maps. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-30X. £110. 310 x240mm. 

Another superb volume in the ambitious HBW series by Lynx Edicions in collaboration with 
BirdLife International. Volume 6 begins with a lengthy foreword and shorter Introduction, 
followed by the detailed family accounts. The 42 page Foreword on Avian Biocoustics (including 
12 pages of references) by the late L.F. Baptista and D.E. Kroodsma is effectively a tribute to the 
former who drafted the principal text, which discusses bio-accousticians' machines, production 
and perception of sounds, development, function and geographic variation. 

This Volume details the three orders Coliformes, Trogoniformes and Coraciformes classified 
into the twelve families Mousebirds, Trogons, Kingfishers, Todies, Motmots, Bee-eaters, Rollers, 
Ground-Rollers, Cuckoo-Roller, Hoopoe, Woodhoopoes and Hornbills. The volume will also be 
of great interest to devotees of African ornithology as it contains four Afrotropical endemic 
families. 

The family accounts and related individual species accounts follow the well-established format 
of earlier volumes (including clear distribution maps) with subspecies citations and brief geographical 
notes. The care and attention to detail is exemplified by eg. Todiramphus chloris Collared 
Kingfisher, awarded a generous 49 ssp(!); Merops persicus Blue-cheeked Bee-eater (2 ssp), M. 
superciliosus Olive Bee-eater (2 ssp) and M. philippinus Blue-tailed Bee-eater (monotopic) 
treated as members of a superspecies. 

Four pages of (alphabetical) references to the original scientific descriptions are followed by 
58 pages detailing the c. 6,000 references cited in the species texts. With a weight of nearly 4 kg 
and price as indicted this volume is nevertheless an absolute must for all interested in ornithology. 

S. J. Farnsworth 



Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos et al. 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



A range extension for the Cipo Canastero 

Asthenes luizae and the consequences 

for its conservation status 

by Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos, 
Santos D'Angelo New & Marcos Rodrigues 

Received 27 June 2000 

The Cipo Canastero Asthenes luizae is a neotropical ovenbird (Furnariidae) described 
in 1990 from a small and isolated population inhabiting a mountain top of Serra do 
Cipo in southeast Brazil (Pearman 1990, Vielliard 1990). The genus Asthenes is 
distributed in the Andean-Chacoan-Patagonian region of South America, and its 
discovery in the mountains of Southeast Brazil represents evidence of a 
zoogeographic connection among these regions (Vuilleumier et al. 1992). 

For some years after its discovery, A. luizae was known only from the type- 
locality, named 'Alto da Boa Vista', 19°17'S, 43°34'W, municipality of Santana do 
Riacho, Minas Gerais State (Fig. 1). The place is a < 10 km 2 rocky outcrop at Serra do 




-21 



200 Kilometers 



Figure 1. Map of Minas Gerais State showing localities of records for the Cipo Canastero Asthenes 
luizae. 1 Serra do Cipo National Park; 2 Alto da Boa Vista, Serra do Cipo; 3 Ribeirao do Campo 
waterfalls; 4 Campo Alegre; 5 Capivari; 6 Campina do Bananal. 



8 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Cipo (Collar etal. 1992). This fact led Collars al. ( 1992) to include the species in The 
Threatened Birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book on the premise 
that the species inhabits "...as yet only a tiny area within the Serra do Cipo, Minas 
Gerais, Brazil, where it faces possible threats from cattle-grazing, fires and brood- 
parasitism". This was highly, if not all, based on the scanty information presented in 
Pearman (1990) and Vielliard (1990). Due to the total lack of data on its range and 
population status,^, luizae is officially considered as 'Vulnerable' in Brazil (Andrade 
1998). 

A few years later, Andrade et al. ( 1 998) and Cordeiro et al. ( 1 998) published new 
records of the Cipo Canastero. These records extended its range 100 km north, and 
also recorded it within the Serra do Cipo National Park (Table 1 ). All these records lie 
south of the Rio Jequitinhonha Valley (Fig. 1). Here however, we describe the 
occurrence of a population of A. luizae north of Rio Jequitinhonha Valley, and discuss 
the consequences of such a discovery for its conservation status. 

On 29 February and 1 March 2000 we undertook field work in Campina do Bananal, 
1 6°5 l'S, 43°02'W, a 900-1 ,400 m plateau of the Espinhaco Range in the municipality 
of Botumirim, north of Rio Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais State (Fig. 1). We used 
binoculars to watch the birds and two mist nets along 8 h of ornithological survey in 
this area. The vegetation of this plateau is characterised by typical 'campo rupestre' 
where abound Bromeliaceae (Encholirium sp., Tillandsia sp., Vriesea sp.), Cactaceae 
(Pilosocereus sp.), Clusiaceae (Kielmeyera sp.), Ericaceae (Agarista sp.), 
Eriocaulaceae (Paepalanthus spp.), Melastomataceae (Lavoisiera sp., Microlicia 
sp., Tibouchina sp.), Orchidaceae {Habenaria spp., Oncidium sp., Stenorrhynchos 
sp.), Poaceae (Chusquea sp.), Velloziaceae (Barbacenia sp., Vellozia spp.), and 
Verbenaceae (Stachytarpheta spp.). 

On 1 March 2000 we found a dead Cipo Canastero in one of our mist nets at 1 ,320 
m elevation. The specimen was deposited in the Colecao Ornitologica do 
Departamento de Zoologia of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DZUFMG), 
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, under registration no. DZUFMG 2855. On the 
same day, we heard and observed three other individuals within an area of 450 m 2 
around our campsite. One of them was foraging on the rocky outcrop among bushes 
of Tibouchina sp. Although we did not tape-record its vocalizations, their songs 
closely resembled those from the type-locality (see Vielliard 1 995). 

The bird collected at Campina do Bananal, a male, had brown iris, grey tarsi and 
black bill with grey on its base. The measurements taken are: mass 30.5 g, total length 
186.0 mm, wing 70.0 mm, tail 95.0 mm, tarsus 27.1 mm, culmen 17.6 mm. These 
measurements are similar to those of the holotype deposited in 'Museu de Zoologia 
da Universidade de Sao Paulo', registration number MZUSP 73831. The type- 
specimen, another male, measures: wing 69.9 mm, tail 89.6 mm, tarsus 24.4 mm, culmen 
1 9.5 mm. Some plumage features of these two specimens differ. The back of DZUFMG 
2855 is dark grey, rather than dark greyish-brown in the holotype MZUSP 73831. 
Furthermore, the belly of the specimen from Botumirim is grey, while in the holotype 
it is greyish-brown, and the superciliary stripe of DZUFMG 2855 is more conspicuous 



Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos et al. 9 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

and more greyish. The significance of this variation is unknown. Unfortunately the 
paratype is not deposited in a public collection and its access is more difficult. 
DZUFMG 2855 was a young bird, with 25% cranial ossification. 

This record extends the Cipo Canastero's range c. 1 70 km to the north of its former 
known range (Fig. 1). It is possible that other populations of A. luizae will be found 
even further north, in the 'campos rupestres' of Serra do Barao and adjacent mountains 
in the municipality of Grao Mogol. 

We could not assess if this population of A. luizae is under threat. We did not 
record the Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis, a possible brood-parasite according 
to Vielliard ( 1 990) and Collar et al. ( 1 992). Cattle-grazing occurs at Campina do Bananal, 
but the locality is not yet within the tourist route, although an incipient program of 
'eco-tourism' had been started. 

As the number of professional ornithologists and birdwatchers grows in Brazil, 
new localities for endemic and even new taxa are being discovered. For instance, from 
1 983 to 1 998, 1 7 new bird species were described in Brazil. Of those, 1 4 species were 
found in localities close to densely populated parts of eastern Brazil (Vuilleumier et 
al. 1 992, Raposo 1 997, Sick 1 997, Bornschein et al. 1 998, Coelho & Silva 1 998). Some 
of these recently found taxa have been sometimes assigned as threatened simply due 
to lack of information, as has happened with A luizae. A. luizae is apparently endemic 
to the Espinhaco Range (Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Silva 1995, Sick 1997, Stattersfield et 
al. 1998), but these mountains have not been surveyed in a systematic way. More 
extensive studies of this species' geographical range and variation are needed to 
assess its true status. 

Acknowledgements 

We thank Genilson A. Ferreira for his collaboration with our field work in northern Minas Gerais 
State. Cassio S. Martins (Fundacao Biodiversitas) and Andrei L. Roos (Universidade Federal de 







TABLE 1 












Localities of records of the Cipo Canastero / 


[sthenes luizae. 






Locality 


Municipality 


Coordinates 


Elevation 


Source 






Alto da Boa Vista, 


Santana do 


19°17'S, 


43°34 , W 


1,100 


m 


Vielliard 


(1990) 


Serra do Cipo 


Riacho 
















(type-locality) 


















Serra do Cipo 


Jaboticatubas 


19°23'S, 


43°33'W 


1,185 




Andrade 


et al. 


(1998), 


National Park 








1,300 


m 


Cordeiro 


et al. 


(1998) 


Ribeirao do Campc 


i Conceicao do 


19°05'S, 


43"33 , W 


1,100 


m 


Cordeiro 


et al. 


(1998) 


waterfalls 


Mato Dentro 
















Campo Alegre 


Santana de 
Pirapama 


18°48'S, 


43"53 , W 


1,000 


m 


Cordeiro 


et al. 


(1998) 


Capivari 


Serro 


18°26'S, 


43°25'W 


1,100 


m 


Cordeiro 


et al. 


(1998) 


Campina do 


Botumirim 


16 51'S, 


43"02 , W 


1,320 


m 


Present : 


study 




Bananal 



















Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos et al. 10 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Minas Gerais) prepared the map. MFV is grateful to CAPES, WWF, and USAID for financial 
support during his master course. MR has a fellowship by the Brazilian Research Council (CNPq). 
The Laboratory of Ornithology of UFMG is supported by 'Vallourec-Mannesmann Florestal', 
"Fundacao O Boticario de Protecao a Natureza' and PRPq-UFMG. We are indebted to Luis F. 
Silveira for enabling us to study the holotype at the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao 
Paulo. 

References: 

Andrade, M. A. 1998. Asthenes luizae Vielliard, 1990. Pp. 306-308 in Machado, A. B. M., 

Fonseca, G. A. B., Machado, R. B., Aguiar, L. M. S. & Lins, L. V. (eds.), Livro vermelho das 

especies ameacadas de extingao da fauna de Minas Gerais. Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo 

Horizonte. 
Andrade, M. A., Andrade, M. V. G., Gontijo, R. G. R. & Souza, P. O. 1998. Ocorrencia do Cipo- 

canastero {Asthenes luizae) e do Gaviao-pernilongo (Geranospiza caerulescens) no interior 

do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipo, Minas Gerais. Atualidades Orn. 82: 10. 
Bornschein, M. R., Reinert, B. L. & Pichorim, M. 1998. Descrigao, ecologia e conservacao de um 

novo Scytalopus (Rhinocryptidae) do sul do Brasil, com comentarios sobre a morfologia da 

familia. Ararajuba 6: 3-36. 
Coelho, G. & Silva, W. 1998. A new species of Antilophia (Passeriformes: Pipridae) from 

Chapada do Araripe, Ceara, Brazil. Ararajuba 6: 81-86. 
Collar, N. J., Gonzaga, L. P., Krabbe, N., Madrono Nieto, A., Naranjo, L. G., Parker, T. A. & 

Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. 

International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK. 
Cordeiro, P. H. C, Melo Junior, T. A. & Vasconcelos, M. F. 1998. A range extension for Cipo 

Canastero Asthenes luizae in Brazil. Cotinga 10: 64-65. 
Pearman, M. 1990. Behaviour and vocalisations of an undescribed Canastero Asthenes sp. from 

Brazil. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 110: 145-153. 
Raposo, M. A. 1997. A new species of Arremon (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) from Brazil. 

Ararajuba 5: 3-9. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. Vol. 2. University of Texas Press, 

Austin. 
Sick, H. 1997. Omitologia Brasileira. Editora Nova Fronteira, Rio de Janeiro. 
Silva, J. M. C. 1995. Biogeographic analysis of the South American Cerrado avifauna. Steenstrupia 

21: 49-67. 
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. & Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the 

world: priorities for biodiversity conservation. BirdLife International (Conservation Series 

7), Cambridge, UK. 
Vielliard, J. 1990. Uma nova especie de Asthenes da serra do Cipo, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Ararajuba 

1: 121-122. 
Vielliard, J. 1995. Guia sonoro das aves do Brasil, CD 1. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 

Campinas. 
Vuilleumier, F, LeCroy, M. & Mayr, E. 1992. New species of birds described from 1981 to 1990. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 112A: 267-309. 

Addresses: Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos, Colecao Ornitologica, Departamento de Zoologia, 
ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, C.P. 486, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, 
Brazil, e-mail: bacurau@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Santos D'Angelo Neto, Departamento de Biologia 
Geral, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Av. Rui Braga, s/n°, 39401-089, Montes 
Claros, MG, Brazil; Marcos Rodrigues, Departamento de Zoologia, ICB, Universidade Federal 
de Minas Gerais, C.P. 486, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. E-mail: 
or nitofo; mono, icb.ufmg.br. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



WR. P. Bourne 11 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

The nomenclature and past history in Britain of 
the Bean and Pink-footed Geese 

by WR.P. Bourne 

Received 8 November 2000 

Witherby (1939: 193) stated in footnotes under the Bean Goose that "Latham's (1787) 
description (of Anser fabalis), which is taken from Pennant (1776)... fits the Pink- 
footed Goose (A. brachyrhynchus) rather better than the Bean Goose. It was not, 
however, until many years afterwards that it was realised that there were two kinds of 
'Bean' Geese, and the name fabalis had better be retained for the bird we now call the 
Bean Goose...". Then, under the Pinkfoot (p. 198), "although early records are doubtful 
owing to the great confusion which existed between this and the Bean Goose 
(persisting long after the two were differentiated), there can be no doubt that the 
Pink-footed Goose has increased very considerably in this country". This gives rise 
to problems with both the nomenclature and past distribution of the birds. 

Nomenclature 

Coombes (1947) observed that most of the early accounts of the Bean Goose, before 
the description of the Pink-foot (Baillon 1 833), are ambiguous and suggested that, as 
the birds described were usually rather small, they may often have been the latter. As 
a result, there was debate over the Bean Goose's correct scientific name (Bannerman 
1957). Nobody appears to have noticed that the ambiguous original account of the 
Bean Goose by Pennant (1776), quoted by Latham (1787) in his description of A. 
fabalis (renamed A segetum by Gmelin 1 789), included a figure of a Taiga Bean Goose 
(currently usually called A. f fabilis) with a long, slender bill (Fig. 1), and so its 
identity should present no problem. 

Distribution 

The past distribution of the grey geese continues, however, to present a problem. As 
late as 1 834, Selby ( 1 835) still misidentified apparently numerous breeding Greylags 
A. anser in Sutherland as Bean Geese. Shortly afterwards Bartlett (1839) stated that 
the Greylag was the scarcest species in England, listed the Whitefront A. albifrons 
and Bean, and first reported a dozen Pinkfeet from markets (which would not be 
accepted as evidence for the occurrence of a new British species now!). It was 
thought at first only to occur in small numbers among abundant Bean Geese. The first 
good account of grey geese in the field in Yorkshire by Arthur Strickland (1858) 
indicated otherwise. He reported that the Greylag was formerly resident, and the 
Whitefront an occasional hard-weather visitor, and continued (his italics):- 

"from time immemorial, one of the features of the north and east of England 
has been the regular appearance of flocks of wild geese, which arrive every 



W.R.P. Bourne 



12 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



autumn... at the time of bean harvest and when the bean stubbles were ready 
for them... This species is the only one that has any claim to the name of Bean 
Goose (or segetum), the only migratory species in this country, and the only 
common and abundant species that we have... Some years ago Mr Bartlett, 
struck by the obvious difference between the geese he met with in the markets 
and the descriptions and drawings given of the Bean Goose... was induced to 
institute a new species, under the name of the Pink-footed Goose... this was... 
the young of the true Bean Goose... distinguished by its short and strong bill- 
its depth at the base being nearly two-thirds of its length- and by its migratory 
habits- differing in that respect from all our other geese, arriving periodically 
every autumn, spreading during the day-time over the stubbles and clover- 
fields of the wolds and other open districts, arising like clock-work in the 
evening, and winging their way in long strings to the sand-banks of the 
Humber and other safe retreats for the night..." 

He then went on to describe and name Anser paludosus 

"The Long-billed Goose, figured and described by Mr Yarrell, Mr Gould and 
Mr Morris under the name of segetum or Bean Goose. This is distinguished 
by having the bill exactly twice the length of the depth at the base... Before the 
beginning of this (the 19th) century, when the carrs of Yorkshire were the 
resort of countless multitudes and numerous species of wildfowl... it was 



BEAJS" GOOSE. 




Figure 1. Figure accompanying Pennant's (1776) original description of the Bean Goose. It 
appears a big bird with long extremities, notably the long, slender bill with indistinct Taiga Bean 
Goose type markings, and its head no darker than the back. This contrasts with the small, 
compact form of the Pink-footed Goose with a short, heavily-marked bill and the head darker 
than the back. 



WR. P. Bourne 13 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

stated there were two species of geese frequenting and breeding in the carrs, 
known by (the decoy-men, fowlers and carr-men) by the name of the Grey-lag 
and the Carr-lag... What the Carr-lag was it seems impossible now to 
demonstrate; but I have every reason to think it was this Long-billed Goose... 
distinguished from the Short-billed or Bean Goose by its entirely different 
habits." 

Conclusion 

East Anglian Anglo-Saxon archaeological remains include bones of Grey-lag and 
probably also Pinkfeet and Whitefronted Geese (Clutton-Brock 1976), which were 
apparently already a pest (Kear 200 1 ). There are now few bird skins left in Britain from 
before the introduction of arsenical preservatives in the 1 830s. It is notable, however, 
that the oldest goose of the Bean group traced, No. 2569 in the Strickland Collection 
at Cambridge (Salvin 1882), procured by Arthur's cousin Hugh (Jardine 1858) in 
Worcestershire in January 1 838, and originally labelled, like most 1 9th century British 
specimens of both Bean and Pinkfooted, and sometimes Greylag geese, Anser segetum, 
is a Pinkfoot (wing 433, exposed culmen 5 1 , tarsus 75 mm). 

It is debatable what the Carr-lag Goose was. Mitchell ( 1 885) identified the Skergrys 
or Scargrasse as the Water Rail Rallus aquaticus, and Newton ( 1 896) the Carr-goose 
as the Great-crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus. But there seems no reason to question 
Strickland's identification of the innumerable "Bean Geese" that had passed through 
Scotland (Bourne & Ralph 2000) to winter in north-east England in force since "time 
immemorial" as Pinkfeet, or doubt his report that the Taiga Bean Goose A. (f.)fabalis 
may once have bred but was already, by the 1850s, "one of our scarcest British 
birds". 

Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to Bill Curtis, Chris Feare, Tony Fox, Janet Kear, Johan Mooij, Aevar Petersen, 
Robert Ralph, The Natural History Museum, Tring, the Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, and the 
Department of Special Publications, Aberdeen University, for various kinds of assistance. 

References 

Baillon, L. A. F. 1834. (Description of Anser brachyrhynchus). Mem. Soc. Royal Emulation 
Abbeville (1833) (2)1: 34. 

Bannerman, D.A. 1957. The birds of the British Isles. Vol. 6, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh & London. 

Bartlett, A.D. 1839. On a new British species of the genus Anser, with remarks on the nearly- 
allied species. Proc. Zool. Soc,. London 7: 2-4. 

Bourne, W.R.P. & Ralph, R. 2000. The past history of the grey geese in Scotland. Birding 
Scotland 3: 150- 151. 

Clutton-Brock, J. 1876. The animal resources. In Wilson, D.M. (ed) The Archaeology of Anglo- 
Saxon England. London: 373-392. 

Coombes, R.A.H. 1947. On the original description of the Bean Goose. Ibis :272-275. 

Gmelin, J.F 1789. Systema Naturae. 

Jardine, W. 1858. Memoirs of Hugh Edwin Strickland. Van Voorst, London. 

Kear, J. 2001. Three early mediaeval accounts of damage by wild geese. Arch. Nat. Hist. 28: 245- 
255. 



WR. P. Bourne 14 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Latham, J. 1787. A general synopsis of birds. Supplement 1, London. 

Mitchell, F.C. 1885. The birds of Lancashire. Gurney & Jackson, London. 

Newton, A. 1896. A dictionary of birds. Adam & Charles Black, London. 

Pennant, T. 1776. British zoology. Benjamin White, London. 

Salvin, O. 1882. A catalogue of the collection of birds formed by the late Hugh Edwin Strickland 

MA. Cambridge Univ. Press. 
Selby, P.J. 1835. On the Quadrupeds and Birds inhabiting the County of Sutherland, observed 

there during an Excursion in the summer of 1834. Edinburgh New Phil. J. 20: 286-295. 
Strickland, A. 1858. On the British wild geese. Report of the British Association for the 

Advancement of Science, 1858, Leeds. Transactions of the Sections 101-102. (Reprinted in 

an expanded form, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)3: 121-124, 1859). 
Witherby, H.F. (ed) 1939. The handbook of British birds. Vol.3, Witherby, London. 

Address: Department of Zoology, Aberdeen University, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 
2TZ, Scotland. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Gender agreement of avian species names 
by Normand David & Michel Gosselin 

Received 27 December 2000 

Despite propositions to the contrary, the new edition of the International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature has reaffirmed the long-standing usage of gender agreement 
between Latin or latinized adjectival species-group names and the genus name with 
which they are combined (ICZN 1999: xxvi). Although the usefulness of the gender 
agreement convention can be questioned, proper adherence to the convention is 
important once it has been accepted. In this era of computerized databases, it is 
increasingly useful that the spelling of scientific names be standardized, especially 
since names differing by only one or two letters may designate altogether different 
taxa. 

Nevertheless, different spellings of the same name are often encountered, when 
obviously only one is correct (see Appendix). The present contribution itemises 
recurrent misspellings and misinterpretations of gender agreement in major 
ornithological references. Our objective is not only to correct these misspellings, but 
also to stress how similar cases should be addressed when they arise. Indeed, new 
name combinations are likely to continue to appear as the systematic position of 
more and more taxa is being re-examined using biochemical techniques. Even though 
the wording of the ICZN Code is usually straightforward, its implementation is not 
necessarily simple and often requires a thorough, step-by-step approach. For the 
most part, the ICZN requirements are certainly no more overwhelming than the 
grammatical requirements of any modern language. 

Surprisingly, although gender agreement might be perceived by some as an 
unnecessary requirement, we have found as many names where the ending was 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 15 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

needlessly modified as we have found names where the required modification was 
not or was wrongly effected. Misspellings of species-group names are almost always 
explained by a misidentification of the nature of the words: Latin and latinized 
adjectives — which are variable — are confused with Latin nouns, modified Latin 
nouns, latinized nouns, and words that are neither Latin nor latinized — all of which 
are invariable (see definition of these terms under the heading of each section below). 
In this context, a proper understanding of latinization, as opposed to transliteration, 
is thus of great importance (see ICZN 1985, Appendix B). Note, for that matter, that 
Greek words quoted in the text are followed by both their transliteration and their 
definition [in brackets]. 

The present paper is arranged in sections that are hinged on the central question 
one must ask when implementing gender agreement: does the species-group name 
end in a Latin adjective, Latin adjectival suffix or latinized adjective? If so, it must 
agree in gender with the current generic name. In all other cases the original spelling 
must be maintained. A few Latin names, however, can be both nouns and adjectives; 
in such instances, usage determines how they should be treated (ICZN 1999, Art. 
3 1 .2.2); these names are not addressed here. 

What we believe to be the proper spelling of the specific and subspecific names 
covered in this paper is indicated in the Appendix, along with a survey of which of 
the major world checklists used this correct spelling (this information is not repeated 
in the text). The starting point of our survey is the landmark Check-list of birds of the 
world by J.L. Peters and successors (Peters 1931-1986); all original combinations are 
taken from this work. The works of Wolters ( 1 982), Howard & Moore ( 1 994), del Hoyo 
etal. (1992-1999) and Clements (2000) are included as well, as they are the only recent 
publications to provide complete listings of bird subspecies on a world-wide basis. 
Because of its many departures from Peters 's Check-list, the list of Sibley & Monroe 
( 1 990) is also included here despite the fact that it covers subspecies only partially. 
Although a few cases may have escaped our attention, we believe that our survey 
includes most of the recurrent misspellings found in the ornithological literature. 
Note, however, that many erroneous gender combinations found only in Howard & 
Moore ( 1 994) and Clements (2000) are not listed here. 

In each section of the present text, names are grouped as follows: 1) correct 
original names whose endings have been needlessly modified; 2) names that require 
a change of ending as a result of a change in generic combination; and 3) incorrect 
original names that require mandatory change according to ICZN (1999, Art. 32.3, 
34.2). Within each group, the specific/subspecific names under consideration are 
sorted alphabetically; in the case of compound words, the alphabetical order is 
generally that of the last component. However, the alphabetical sequence has 
sometimes been modified in order to group similar explanations together. 

Latin and latinized adjectives 

Names that are or that end in Latin or latinized adjectives and participles must agree 
in gender with the generic name with which they are combined (ICZN 1 999, Art. 31.2), 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 16 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

and it is even mandatory to change the original gender ending of such names, if 
incorrect (ICZN 1999, Art. 32.3, 34.2). 

A) LATIN ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES 

The following names are adjectives or participles of ancient and mediaeval Latin 
(Lewis & Short 1879; Glare 1982; ICZN 1999, Glossary: Latin), or are correctly formed 
when a Latin adjectival suffix is added to a Latin word [for a list of Latin adjectival 
suffixes, see e.g. Woods (1944: xii), Steam (1966: 307-309)]. Therefore: 

1. Cardinalis cardinalis flammiger Peters, 1913, must remain as is, and should 
not be changed to C. c.flammigerus. There is no justification here for modifying 
the correct masculine ending of a classical Latin adjective. 

2. Chlorostilbon stenurus ignotus Todd, 1942, must remain as is, and should not 
be changed to C. s. ignota. Chlorostilbon is masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 
For the treatment of stenurus, see # 100 below. 

3. Melocichla mentalis incana Diesselhorst, 1 959, must remain as is, and should 
not be changed to M. m. incanus. 

4. Bonasa umbellus mediana Todd, 1 940, must remain as is, and should not be 
changed to B. u. medianus. The name umbellus, however, is not an adjective, 
but a modified Latin noun, and is invariable (see Section K below). 

5. Malacocincla abbotti obscurior Deignan, 1 948, must remain as is, and should 
not be changed to M. a. obscurius. However, the combination Trichastoma a. 
obscurius [as per Peters (1964)] is spelt correctly since Trichastoma is neuter 
(ICZN 1999, Art. 30.1.2) and since obscurius is the neuter form of obscurior 
(masculine and feminine). 

6. Cinnyris habessinicus alter Neumann, 1906, must be spelt Nectarinia 
habessinica altera, not N. h. alter. The feminine form of the Latin adjective alter 
is altera. 

I. Heteroprion desolatus alter Mathews, 1912, must be spelt Pachyptila desolata 
altera, not P. d. alter. The feminine form of the Latin adjective alter is altera. 

8. Ammospiza caudacuta altera Todd, 1938, must be spelt Ammodramus 
caudacutus alter ox Ammodramus nelsoni alter, not Ammodramus c. alterus or 
Ammodramus n. alterus. The masculine form of the Latin adjective altera is 
alter. 

9. Todirostrum capitale Sclater, 1857 must be spelt Poecilotriccus capitalis, not 
P. capitale. The masculine form of the neuter adjective capitale is capitalis. 

10. Cyanolesbia caudata Berlepsch, 1892, must be spelt Aglaiocercus kingi 
caudatus, not A. k. caudata. The adjective caudata is derived from the Latin 
noun cauda [tail], to which the adjectival suffix -atus (-a, -urn) was added. 

I I . Dolerisca cervina Gould, 1861, must be spelt Leucippus fallax cervinus, not L. 
f. cervina. 

12. Lophortyx californica decolorata van Rossem, 1946, must be spelt Callipepla 
californica decolorata, not C. c. decoloratus. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 17 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

13. Erythrina rubicilla diabolica Koelz, 1939, must be spelt Carpodacus rubicilla 
diabolicus, not C. r. diabolica. The name rubicilla, however, is not an adjective 
but a noun phrase, and must remain unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 , Glossary: 
noun phrase; see Section I below). 

14. Malacocincla fulvescens dilutior White, 1953, must be spelt Illadopsis 
fulvescens dilutior, not/./ dilutius. However, the combination Trichastoma f. 
dilutius [as per Peters (1964)] is spelt correctly since Trichastoma is neuter 
(ICZN 1999, Art. 30.1.2) and since dilutius is the neuter form of dilutior 
(masculine and feminine). 

15. Sterna emigrata Neumann, 1934, must be spelt Thalasseus bengalensis 
emigratus, not T. b. emigrata. 

16. M[uscicapa]forficata Gmelin, 1789, must be spelt Tyrannus forficatus, not T. 
forficata. The adjective forficata is derived from the Latin noun forfex, -icis 

[scissors], to which the adjectival suffix -atus (-a, -urn) was added. 

17. Tringa Fulicaria Linnaeus, 1758, must be spelt Phalaropus fulicarius, not P. 
fulicaria. The adjective fulicaria is derived from the Latin noun fulica [coot], to 
which the adjectival suffix -arius {-a, -um) was added. See David & Gosselin 
(2000) for a detailed explanation of this case. 

18. Hylocichlafuscescensfuliginosa Howe, 1 900, must be spelt Catharus fuscescens 
fuliginosus, not C.f.fuliginosa. 

19. Fringilla granatina Linnaeus, 1 766, must be spelt Uraeginthus granatinus [as 
per e.g. Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993)], not U. granatina. The adjective 
granatina is derived from the Latin noun granatum, -i [garnet, pomegranate], 
to which the adjectival suffix -inus {-a, -um) was added, in reference to the red 
cheek colour of the bird. 

20. Crypturornis hynochracea Miranda-Ribeiro, 1938, must be spelt Crypturellus 
obsoletus hypochraceus, not C. o. hypochracea. The emended name 
hypochraceus ends in the Latin noun ochra, to which the Latin adjectival suffix 
-aceus {-a, -um) was added. The situation is perfectly analogous to Drymophila 
devillei subochraceus Chapman, 1921, now corrected to Drymophila devillei 
subochracea [as per e.g. Peters (1951)]. 

21. Taccocua infuscata Blyth, 1845, must be spelt Phaenicophaeus leschenaultii 
infuscatus, not P. I. infuscata. 

22. Megaloprepia magnifica interposita Hartert, 1930, must be spelt Ptilinopus 
magnificus interpositus, not P. m. interposita. 

23. Ateleodacnis bicolor minor Hellmayr, 1 935, must be spelt Conirostrum bicolor 
minus, not C. b. minor. The neuter form of minor (masculine and feminine) is 
minus. 

24. Prionirhynchus platyrhynchus minor Hartert, 1898, must be spelt Electron 
platyrhynchum minus, not E. p. minor. The neuter form of minor (masculine and 
feminine) is minus. 

25. Saxicola Alboniger Hume, 1 872, must be spelt Oenanthe albonigra [as per e.g. 
Blanford & Dresser ( 1 874)], not O. alboniger. The word alboniger is a compound 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 18 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Latin adjective that ends in the classical adjective niger, and is variable. All 
species-group names in Hume's article have initial capital letters, thus this 
typographical particularity has no significance here [see also David & Gosselin 
(2000)]. It must be noted that Saxicola alboniger is the correct original spelling 
since Saxicola Bechstein, 1803, is masculine, having been established only in 
combination with three nouns in apposition (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1 .4.2; David & 
Gosselin unpublished). 

26. Munia rubroniger Hodgson, 1836, must be spelt Lonchura malacca 
rubronigra, not L. m. rubroniger. The word rubroniger is a compound Latin 
adjective that ends in the classical adjective niger, and is variable. Munia 
Hodgson, 1836, however, is masculine because it was originally established in 
combination with a masculine adjective (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30.2.3). See also # 25 
above. 

27. Poecilodryas nitida De Vis, 1 897, must be spelt Monarcha chrysomela nitidus, 
not M. c. nitida. Monarcha is masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30.1.1). The name 
chrysomela, however, is invariable because it does not end in a Latin or latinized 
adjective (ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1 .2.3 Example). 

28. Syno ecus plumb eus Salvadori, 1894, must be spelt Cotumix ypsilophora 
plumbea, not C. y. plumbeus. Coturnix is feminine (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1.1). 

29. Philippinia primigenius Hachisuka, 1 94 1 , must be spelt Aethopyga primigenia, 
not A. primigenius. Philippinia Hachisuka, 1941, however, is masculine because 
it was originally established in combination with a masculine adjective (ICZN 
1999, Art. 30.2.3). 

30. Granatina granatina retusa Clancey, 1961, must be spelt Uraeginthus 
granatinus retusus, not U. g. retusa. For the treatment of granatinus, see #19 
above. 

31. Erythrina edwardsii rubicunda Greenway, 1933, must be spelt Carpodacus 
edwardsii rubicundus, not C. e. rubicunda. However, the combination 
Procarduelis e. rubicunda is spelt correctly [as per Wolters (1982)] since 
Procarduelis is feminine (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1 . 1 ). 

32. Brachypteryx sepiaria Horsfield, 1821, must be spelt Malacocincla sepiaria, 
not M. sepiarium. The adjective sepiaria is derived from the Latin noun sepes, 
-is [hedge], to which the adjectival suffix -arius (-a, -urn) was added. The 
combination Trichastoma sepiarium [as per Peters (1964)] however, is spelt 
correctly since Trichastoma is neuter (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 

33. Granatina granatina siccata Clancey, 1959, must be spelt Uraeginthus 
granatinus siccatus, not U. g. siccata. For the treatment of granatinus, see #19 
above. 

34. Alcedo tuta Gmelin, 1788, must be spelt Todiramphus tutus, not T. tuta. The 
combination Halcyon tuta, however, is spelt correctly since Halcyon is feminine. 

35. Horeites brunnifrons umbraticus Stuart Baker, 1924, must be spelt Cettia 
brunnifrons umbratica, not C. b. umbraticus. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 19 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

36. Urubitinga anthracina cancrivora Clark, 1905, must be spelt Buteogallus 
anthracinus cancrivorus, not B. a. cancrivora. The adjective cancrivora [crab- 
eating] is derived from the verb vorare [to eat], on the model of the classical 
Latin adjectives carnivorus {-a, -um), and omnivorus {-a, -um). Other names 
derived from vorare are also adjectival, e.g. Halcyon senegalensis ranivorus 
Meinertzhagen, 1 924, now corrected to H. senegaloides ranivora [as per Peters 
(1945), etc.]. 

37. Graucalus macei larvivorus Hartert, 1910, must be spelt Coracina 
novaehollandiae larvivora, not C. n. larvivorus. See # 36 above. 

38. Pampusanna criniger Pucheran, 1853, must be spelt Gallicolumba crinigera, 
not G. criniger. The word criniger is a classical Latin adjective, not a noun. The 
fact that Criniger has been used as a masculine genus-group name (ICZN 1999, 
Art. 30.1.1) does not change the adjectival nature of Pucheran 's criniger in the 
present case because modern Latin is not part of the definition of Latin by ICZN 
(1999, Glossary: Latin). Whereas Art. 3 1 .2.2 of ICZN (1999) applies to classical 
Latin words that are both nouns and adjectives, and to newly derived names 
(e.g. phobifer) that can be viewed as nouns or adjectives, criniger is only an 
adjective and is variable (ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1 .2). The adjectival nature of criniger 
was recognized in the subspecific names Phlegoenas crinigera leytensis Hartert, 
1918, and Phlegoenas crinigera basilanica Hartert, 1918. Note that Pampusanna 
Pucheran, 1 853, is masculine because it was originally established in combination 
with a masculine adjective (Jacquinot 1855;ICZN 1999, Art. 30.2.3). 

39. Irena criniger Sharpe, 1 857, must be corrected to Irena crinigera, and the present 
correct spelling is Irena puella crinigera, not /. p. criniger. See #38 above. 

40. Suya criniger Hodgson, 1836, spelt Prinia crinigera, not P. criniger. See #38 
above. Suya Hodgson, 1836, is masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30.2.3). 

41. Paramythia montium alpinum Salomonsen, 1961, must be corrected to 
Paramythia montium alpina. Paramythia is feminine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 
The word montium [of the mountains], however, is not an adjective, but a noun 
in the genitive case that must remain unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 ). 

42. Ortalis ruficrissa baliolus Osgood & Conover, 1 922, must be corrected to Ortalis 
ruficrissa baliola, and the present correct spelling is Ortalis ruficauda baliola. 
Ortalis is feminine (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 

43. Bonasa umbellus castaneus Aldrich & Friedmann, 1943, must be corrected to 
Bonasa umbellus castanea. See also # 4 above. 

44. Tyto capensis libratus Peters & Loveridge, 1935, must be corrected to Tyto 
capensis librata. Tyto is feminine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 

45. Apaloderma narina littoralis van Someren, 1931, must be corrected to 
Apaloderma narina littorale. Apaloderma is neuter (ICZN 1999, Art. 30.1.2). 
The name narina, however, is a Hottentot word and is invariable ( Jobling 1 99 1 ; 
ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1.2.3). 

46. Neochelidon tibialis minimus Chapman, 1 924, must be corrected to Neochelidon 
tibialis minima. Neochelidon is feminine (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 20 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

47. Pipra leucocilla minimus Chapman, 1917, must be corrected to Pipra leucocilla 
minima, and the present correct spelling is Pipra pipra minima, not P. p. minimus. 

48. Leptotila plumbeiceps notius Peters, 1931, must be corrected to Leptotila 
plumbeiceps notia. 

49. Paramythia montium olivaceum Van Oort, 1910, must be corrected Paramythia 
montium olivacea. Paramythia is feminine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30.1.2). See also # 
41 above. 

50. Emblemapicta Gould, 1 842, must be corrected to Emblema pictum. Emblema is 
neuter (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30.1.1 ). 

51. Monarcha chrysomela pulcherrima Salomonsen, 1964, must be corrected to 
Monarcha chrysomela pulcherrimus. It is also known as Carterornis c. 
pulcherrimus [as per Wolters (1982)]. Monarcha is masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 
30. 1 . 1 ). The name chrysomela, however, is invariable because it does not end in 
a Latin or latinized adjective (ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1 .2.3 Example). 

52. Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum similis Zimmer, 1940, must be corrected to 
Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum simile. 

53. Parisoma layardi subsolana Clancey, 1963, must be corrected to Parisoma 
layardi subsolanum. Parisoma is neuter (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 

54. Scaeophaethon rubricauda roseotincta Mathews, 1926, must be corrected to 
Scaeophaethon rubricauda roseotinctus, and the present correct spelling is 
Phaethon rubricauda roseotinctus, not P. r. roseotincta. Phaethon is masculine 
(ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1.1). The word roseotincta is a compound Latin adjective 
that ends in the classical adjective tinctus {-a, -um), and is variable (see also # 25 
above). The word rubricauda, however, is a noun phrase, and must remain 
unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 , Glossary: noun phrase; see Section I below). 

55. Stactolaema whytii terminatum Clancey, 1 956, must be corrected to Stactolaema 
whytii terminata. It is also known as Gymnobucco w. terminatus [as per Wolters 
(1982)]. Stactolaema is feminine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .3). 

56. Chalcostigma stanleyi versigularis Zimmer, 1924, must be corrected to 
Chalcostigma stanleyi versigulare. Chalcostigma is neuter (ICZN 1999, Art. 
30.1.2). The compound adjective versigularis is derived from the Latin words 
versus [changing] and gula [throat], to which the adjectival suffix -aris (-is, -e) 
was added. 

B) LATINIZED WORDS ENDING IN A LATIN ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX 

A "latinized" word is a word that is not Latin and to which "Latin form and 
characteristics (including a Latin ending or a Latin suffix)" were given (ICZN 1999, 
Glossary: latinize). The mere addition of a Latin adjectival suffix can turn most non- 
Latin words into latinized adjectives [for a list of Latin adjectival suffixes, see e.g. 
Woods (1944: xii), Stearn(1966: 307-309)]. For example, a great many geographical 
names (mexicana, venezuelanus, etc.) end in the Latin adjectival suffix -anus (-a, 
-um). Latinized adjectives must always agree in gender with the generic name with 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 21 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

which they are combined (ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1 .2), and it is even mandatory to change 
the original gender ending of such names, if incorrect (ICZN 1999, Art. 32.3, 34.2). 
The etymologies of most of the names below are given by Jobling (1991), and the 
initial capital letter in some of these names does not alter their adjectival nature [see 
David & Gosselin (2000)]. Therefore: 

57. Pavo malacensis Scopoli, 1786, must be spelt Polyplectron malacense, not 
Polyplectron malacensis. Polyplectron is neuter (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 

58. Ieracidea berigora tasmanica Mathews, 1916, must be spelt Falco berigora 
tasmanicus, not F. b. tasmanica. Falco is masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30.1.1). 
The name berigora, however, is an Australian aboriginal word and is invariable 
(Jobling 199 1 ; ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1 .2.3). 

59. Syrnium albitarse Bonaparte, 1850, must be spelt Strix albitarsis or Ciccaba 
albitarsis, not Strix albitarsus or C. albitarsus. The adjectival name albitarsis 
{-is, -e) is formed from the Latin adjective albus {-a, -urn) and the stem of the 
latinized Greek noun Tocpocx; [tarsos: foot], to which was added the Latin 
adjectival suffix -is (-is, -e) (Glare 1982: 970, under the suffix -is). To change 
albitarse to albitarsus would turn a variable adjective into an invariable noun 
phrase that ends in a latinized noun. 

60. Pipromorpha turi maynana Stolzmann, 1926, must be spelt Mionectes 
oleagineus maynanus, notM. o. maynana. Mionectes is masculine (ICZN 1999, 
Art. 30.1.4.2). 

61. Strix Sumatrana Raffles, 1822, must be spelt Bubo sumatranus, not B. 
sumatrana. 

62. Nesillas aldabranus Benson & Penny, 1968, must be corrected to Nesillas 
aldabrana. Nesillas is feminine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 

63. Neocrex columbianus Bangs, 1 898, must be corrected to Neocrex columbiana, 
also known as Porzana columbiana. Neocrex is feminine, as are Crex, Gallicrex, 
and Megacrex (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 

64. Ptilopus viridis Geelvinkiana Schlegel, 1871, must be corrected to Ptilinopus 
viridis geelvinckianus. 

65. B[ubo] Hemachalana Hume, 1873, must be corrected to Bubo hemachalanus, 
and the present correct spelling is Bubo bubo hemachalanus. Bubo is masculine 
(ICZN 1 999, Art. 30.1.1). The adjective hemachalana is derived from Himachal 
[Pradesh], with the addition of the Latin adjectival suffix -anus (-a, -urn). 

66. Picus jumana Spix, 1 824, must be corrected to Picusjumanus, and the present 
correct spelling is Celeus elegans jumanus, not C. e. jumana. 

67. Crypturus tataupa peruviana Cory, 1915, must be corrected to Crypturus tataupa 
peruvianus, and the present correct spelling is Crypturellus tataupa peruvianus. 
The name tataupa, however, is a Guarani word and is thus invariable (Jobling 
1991; ICZN 1999, Art. 31.2.3). 

68. Clytorhynchus vitiensis vatuana Mayr, 1 933, must be corrected to Clytorhynchus 
vitiensis vatuanus. As given by Mayr (1933), the adjective vatuana comes from 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 22 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

the name Vatu (Vatu Vara, of Fiji), to which the adjectival Latin suffix -anus {-a, 
-urn) was added. 

C) LATINIZED GREEK ADJECTIVES 

The following names are or end in classical Greek adjectives (Liddell & Scott 1996). 
Once latinized, such names must agree in gender with the generic name with which 
they are combined (ICZN 1999, Art. 31.2), and it is even mandatory to change the 
original gender ending of these names, if incorrect (ICZN 1999, Art. 32.3, 34.2) [see 
ICZN (1999, Glossary; 1985, Appendix B) for a definition of latinize vs. transliterate]. 
Therefore: 

69. Cerchneis moluccensis microbalia Oberholser, 1919, must be spelt Falco 
moluccensis microbalius, notE m. microbalia. Falco is masculine (ICZN 1999, 
Art. 30.1.1). The final component -balia is the latinized adjective pa^ioq [balios: 
spotted]. 

70. Psittacus chrysostomus Kuhl, 1 820 must be spelt Neophema chrysostoma, not 
N. chrysostomus. The name chrysostomus is the latinized Greek adjective 
Xpuaoaxoucx; [chrusostomos: golden-mouthed]. For the treatment of names 
originally ending in -stoma, however, see # 206 below. 

71. Buceros cylindricus Temminck, 1831, must be spelt Ceratogymna cylindrica, 
not C. cylindricus. The name cylindricus is the latinized Greek adjective 
K\)Xiv5piKO(; [kulindrikos: cylindrical]. 

72. Buceros sub cylindricus Sclater, 1 870, must be spelt Ceratogymna subcylindrica, 
not C. sub cylindricus. See # 71 above. 

73. Poecile hypermelaena Berezowski & Bianchi, 1891, must be spelt Parus palustris 
hypermelaenus, not Parus p. hypermelaena. The final component -melaena is 
the latinization of uxtaxiva [melaina: black], the very example of a variable latinized 
adjective quoted by ICZN ( 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2.3). 

74. Rallina poeciloptera Hartlaub, 1 866, must be spelt Nesoclopeus poecilopterus, 
not N. poeciloptera. The name poeciloptera is the latinized Greek adjective 
7ioiKita)7rcepO(; [poikilopteros: spotted-winged]. 

75. Cepphus columba adianta Storer, 1 950, must be corrected to Cepphus columba 
adiantus. As indicated by Storer (1950) himself, the name adianta is the latinized 
Greek adjective ocSiocvtck; [adiantos: un wetted]. The name columba, however, 
is a Latin noun and is invariable (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 ). 

76. Macropteryx leucophaeus Peale, 1848, must be corrected to Macropteryx 
leucophaea, and the present correct spellings are Aerodramus leucophaeus [as 
per Howard & Moore ( 1 994), etc.] or Collocalia leucophaea, not C. leucophaeus. 
Macropteryx is feminine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). Whitout further explanations, 
Sibley & Monroe ( 1 990: 136) stated that leucophaeus in the original description 
is in "noun form", but leucophaeus can only be the latinized Greek adjective 
XetiKO^aioc; [leucophaios: ashy-grey] (Liddell & Scott 1996). 

77. Hirundo leucosternus Gould, 1 84 1 , must be corrected to Hirundo leucosterna, 
and the present correct spelling is Cheramoeca leucosterna [not C. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 23 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

leucosternum as in Peters ( 1 960), or C. leucosternus as in Turner & Rose ( 1 989)] . 
Whitout further explanations, Sibley & Monroe (1990: 575) and Christidis & 
Boles (1994: 75) also used C. leucosternus, stating incorrectly that the name is a 
noun in apposition. Gould's leucosternus (one of his many idiosyncratic gender 
combinations — see also # 50 above, and # 84, 102, 104 and 1 10 below) is simply 
the latinized Greek adjective XeDKoaxepvcx; [leukosternos: white-chested] 
(Liddell & Scott 1996). Although the Greek leukosternos is masculine and femi- 
nine, the Latinized version leucosternus is only masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 
3 1 .2.3 Example). 

78. Platycercus melanoptera North, 1906, must be corrected to Platycercus 
melanopterus, and the present correct spelling is Platycercus elegans 
melanopterus, not P. e. melanoptera. The name melanoptera is the latinized 
Greek adjective |H£?iavo7rc£pO(; [melanopteros: black- winged]. 

D) LATINIZED ADJECTIVES DERIVED FROM GREEK 

Greek adjectives are commonly formed by the union of an adjectival stem and a noun, 
followed by a variable ending (e.g. -oq [-os] masculine or feminine, -ov [-on] neuter). 
For example, classical Greek adjectives such as A£\)KO<TC£pvo(; [leukosternos: white- 
chested] and ^8DKOK£pKO(; [leukokerkos: white-tailed] are respectively derived from 
cxepvov [sternon: chest] and KepKoq [kerkos: tail]. Adjectives formed in a similar 
fashion (e.g. \xeXavoKetyaXoc, [melanokephalos: black-headed], iieyapv>y%oq 
[megarugchos: large-billed], etc.), when latinized, account for the numerous 
melanocephalus (-a, -um), megarhynchus (-a, -um), etc., of the scientific nomenclature. 
They are mostly derived from the words listed in Table 1. Such adjectival species- 
group names must always agree in gender with the generic name with which they are 
combined, and it is even mandatory to change the original gender ending, if incorrect 
(ICZN 1999, Art. 31.2, 32.3, 34.2). Therefore: 

79. Pachycephala macrorhyncha Strickland, 1 849, must remain Pachycephala pec- 
toralis macrorhyncha, and should not be changed to Pp. macrorhynchus. The 
name macrorhyncha is latinized from the Greek adjectival iiocKpopDTXCx; 
[makrorugchos: large-billed]. 

80. Sterna eurygnatha Saunders, 1876, must be spelt Thalasseus sandvicensis 
eurygnathus, not T. s. eurygnatha. The name eurygnatha is latinized from the 
Greek adjectival eupDyvaOcx; [eurugnathos: broad-jawed]. 

8 1 . Barbatula leucolaima J. & E. Verreaux, 1851, must be spelt Pogoniulus bilineatus 
leucolaimus or Viridibucco bilineatus leucolaimus [not P. b. leucolaima as in 
Peters (1948), or V.b. leucolaima as in Wolters (1982), etc.]. In leucolaima, the 
-os ending has been latinized from the Greek adjectival XeuKoXatucx; 
[leukolaimos: white-throated], so the name qualifies as latinized (ICZN 1999, 
Glossary: latinize). 

82. Sylvia erythronota Eversmann, 1 84 1 , must be spelt Phoenicurus erythronotus 
[as per Peters (1964), Snow & Perrins (1998), etc.] or Dorisornis erythronotus 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 24 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

[as per Wolters (1982)], not Phoenicurus erythronota [as in Sibley & Monroe 
(1990), etc.]. Sibley & Monroe (1990: 537) claimed that "capitalization of the 
species name in the original description (Sylvia Erythronota Eversmann, 1841) 
confirms treatment as a noun in apposition". However, their quote of Eversmann 
seems erroneous because the original spelling was all in uppercases (SYLVIA 
ERYTHRONOTA), as were all species headings in the section of Eversmann 's 
account where S. erythronota was described (Dresser 1876). As shown else- 
where (David & Gosselin 2000), the presence of uppercases has no bearing on 
the nature of unequivocally adjectival species-group names. The name 
erythronota is latinized from the Greek adjectival epuOpovorccK; [eruthronotos: 
red-backed]. 

83. Thiyospiza maritima pelonota Oberholser, 1931, must be spelt Ammodramus 
maritimus pelonotus, not A. m. pelonota. The name pelonota is latinized from 
the Greek adjectival 7i8^ovcoiO(; [pelonotos: dark-backed]. 

84. Halcyon pyrrhopygia Gould, 1 840, must be spelt Todiramphus pyrrhopygius 
[as per Wolters (1982)], not T pyrrhopygia [as in Sibley & Monroe (1990), 
Christidis & Boles (1994)]. There are over twenty-five avian species names that 
end in -pygius and -pygia; all are the latinization of adjectives formed on the 
pattern of genuine Greek adjectives such as jLtiKpopp07iDyiO(; [mikrorropugios: 
small-rumped]. These names are variable (e.g. Taenioptera erythropygia Sclater, 
1 853 [now Cnemarchus erythropygius]; Graucalus leucopygius Bonaparte, 1 85 1 
[now Coracina leucopygia]; etc.). Citing as examples Halcyon incinctus Gould, 
1838, and Halcyon sordidus Gould, 1842, Sibley & Monroe (1993: 22) and 
Christidis & Boles (1994: 61) argued that Gould treated Halcyon as masculine, 
and that therefore the original name pyrrhopygia must be considered as a noun 
in apposition. But they failed to mention Halcyon saurophaga Gould, 1 843, and 
therefore Gould's intentions remain indecisive, to say the least (see also # 77 
above). In any case, this is irrelevant because Halcyon is indisputably feminine 
(ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1.1); moreover, the undisputed adjectival suffix -icx; [-ios: 
-ius (Woods 1944: xii)] in 7ropp07ruYiO(; [purropugios: red-rumped], correctly 
latinized in pyrrhopygius (-a, -urn) leaves no doubt that we are dealing with an 
adjective. 

85. Macropteryx spodiopygius Peale, 1848, must be corrected to Macropteryx 
spodiopygia, and the present correct spellings are Aerodramus spodiopygius 
[as per Howard & Moore (1994), etc.] or Collocalia spodiopygia [as per Peters 
(1940), Wolters (1982)], not C. spodiopygius [as in Sibley & Monroe (1990), 
Christidis & Boles ( 1 994)] . Macropteryx is feminine (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1 .2). 
Here again, Sibley & Monroe ( 1 990: 135) stated that spodiopygius in the original 
description is in "noun form", but the undisputed adjectival suffix -loq [-ios: 
-ius (Woods 1944: xii)], in a7io8i07TDyiO(; [spodiopugios: ashy-rumped], cor- 
rectly latinized in spodiopygius (-a, -urn), leaves no doubt that we are dealing 
with an adjective. See also # 84 above. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 25 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

86. Ateleodacnis leucogenys cyanochrous Todd, 1924, must be corrected to 
Ateleodacnis leucogenys cyanochroa, and the present correct spelling is 
Conirostrum leucogenys cyanochroum, not C. I. cyanochrous. Ateleodacnis is 
feminine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). The name cyanochrous is latinized from the 
Greek adjectival KVjocvoxpocx; [kuanochroos: blue-tinted]. For the treatment of 
names originally ending in -chroa, however, see # 206 below. 

87. Alario leucolaema Sharpe, 1 903, must be corrected to Alario leucolaemus, and 
the present correct spelling is Serinus leucolaemus [as per Dowsett & Forbes- 
Watson (1993)], not S. leucolaema. The name leucolaema is latinized from the 
Greek adjectival T&VKofaxiiioq [leukolaimos: white-throated]. Alario Bonaparte, 
1 850, is masculine (Jobling 1 99 1 ; ICZN 1 999, Art. 30.1.4.5). 

88. Serinus xantholaema Salvadori, 1896, must be corrected to Serinus 
xantholaemus [as per Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993)]. The name 
xantholaema is latinized from the Greek adjectival ^ocvOo^aijLicx; [xantholaimos: 
yellow-throated]. 

89. Halcyon Amauropterus Pearson, 1841, must be corrected to Halcyon 
amauroptera, also known as Pelargopsis amauroptera [as per Peters (1945), 
etc.]. The name amauropterus is latinized from the Greek adjectival 
ajuoropOTrcepcx; [amauropteros: dark-winged]. Sibley & Monroe (1990: 88) in- 
correctly used Pelargopsis amauropterus, stating (again) that capitalization of 
the species name in the original description indicates usage as a noun in appo- 
sition. This statement has no basis since all species-group names in Pearson 
( 1 84 1 ) have an initial capital letter, and since the noun form would have been 
"amauropteryx" or "amauropteron" (see Table 1). 

90. Jotreron melanospila Salvadori, 1875, must be corrected to Jotreron 
melanospilus, or is to be spelt Ptilinopus melanospilus, not P. melanospila. 
The name melanospila is latinized from the Greek adjectival [lEXavoaniXo^ 
[melanospilos: black-spotted]. Jotreron Bonaparte, 1 854, ending in the translit- 
erated (masculine and feminine) Greek adjective xpripcov [treron: shy], is mascu- 
line because it was not established in combination with a feminine adjective 
(ICZN 1999, Art. 30.1.4.2). 

91. Jotreron chrysorrhoa Salvadori, 1875, must be corrected to Jotreron 
chrysorrhous, and the present correct spellings are Jotreron melanospilus 
chrysorrhous or Ptilinopus melanospilus chrysorrhous, not J. m. chrysorrhoa 
or P.m. chrysorrhoa. The name chrysorrhoa is latinized from the Greek adjecti- 
val %p\)OOppoo(; [chrusorroos: golden-vented]. For the gender of Jotreron and 
the treatment of melanospilus, see # 90 above. 

92. Jotreron xanthorrhoa Salvadori, 1875, must be corrected to Jotreron 
xanthorrhous, and the present correct spellings are Jotreron melanospilus 
xanthorrhous or Ptilinopus melanospilus xanthorrhous, not J. m. xanthorrhoa 
or P. m. xanthorrhoa. The name xanthorrhoa is latinized from the Greek adjecti- 
val ^avOoppoot; [xanthorroos: yellow-vented]. For the gender of Jotreron and 
the treatment of melanospilus, see # 90 above. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 26 

TABLE 1 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



A selection of Greek nouns often used in compound species-group names, along with their 

transliterated and latinized versions and the corresponding masculine adjectival endings. 

Names are grouped by their Greek endings. 



Greek noun / transliterated / 
latinized 

utxpa / mitra / mitra 
cupa / oura / ura 
napeta / pareia / pareia 
nkzvpa I pleura / pleura* 
GTtyuoc / stigma / stigma 
<xco|ioc / stoma / stoma 
Gcoua / soma / soma 
Xpooc / chroa / chroa 
Xpu)|ia / chroma / chroma 

K£<|)aA,T| / kephale / cephala 
KOpD(()r| / koruphe / corypha 
7cuyr| / puge / pyga 

yaoxrip / gaster / gaster 

piq / ris / rhis 

|i£XC07tov / metopon / metopum 
7ii£pov / pteron / pternm** 
kxiXov I ptilon / ptilum 
Giepvov / sternon / sternum 

yvaBoq / gnathos / gnathus 

5cckt\)?io<; / daktulos / dactylus 

KepKoq / kerkos / cercus 

lcuictax; / kuklos / cyclus 

^atuoq / laimos / laemus 

}iO(poq / lophos / lophus 

(lepoq / meros / merus 

vcoxoq / notos / notus*** 

0(p6aA.uo<; / ophthalmos / ophthalmus 

oppooq / orroos / orrhous 

kekXoc, I peplos / peplus 

ptryxoq / rugchos / rhynchus 

pau<t)oq / ramphos / rhamphus 

gkiKoc, I spilos / spilus 



- Adjectival ending / 
transliterated 

-utipoc; / -mitros 
-orjpoQ / -ouros 
-rapeiog / -pareios 
-7iA,£\)po<; / -pleuros 
-crttyjioc, / -stigmos 
-gto|lio(; / -stomos 
-acoiaoq / -somos 
-Xpooc; / -chroos 
-%pco|ioc, / -chromos 

-K£())cdo<; / -kephalos 
-Kop\)([)0(; / -koruphos 
-7i\)yo<; / -pugos 

-yacrcpoq / -gastros 

-pptvo<;/-rrinos 

-)a£XC07roq / -metopos 
-7TC£poc; / -pteros 
-nxxko^ I -ptilos 
-ai£pvoq / -sternos 

-yvaOoq / -gnathos 
-baKT\)Xoq I -daktulos 
-KEpKoq / -kerkos 
-kdkAxx; / -kuklos 
-?iatuo<; / -laimos 
-?ioq)o<; / -lophos 
-pepoc; / -meros 
-vcoxoq / -notos 
-ocpGaAjioq / -ophthalmos 
-oppoot; / -orroos 
-KznXoq I -peplos 
-pi)yXO<; / -rugchos 
-paji(})0(; / -ramphos 
-GmXoq I -spilos 



- latinized: definition 

-mitrus (-a, -urn): -banded 

-urus (-a, -um): -tailed 

-pareius {-a, -um): -cheeked 

-pleurus (-a, -um): -sided 

-stigmus (-a, -um): -spotted 

-stomus {-a, -um): -mouthed 

-somus {-a, -um): -bodied 

-chrous (-a, -um): -tinted 

■chromus (-a, -um): -coloured 

-cephalus (-a, -um): -headed 

-coryphus (-a, -um): -headed 

-pygus (-a, -um): -rumped 

-gastrus (-a, -um): -bellied 

-rrhinus {-a, -um): -nosed 

-metopus (-a, -um): -fronted 

-pterus (-a, -um): -winged 

-ptilus {-a, -um): -feathered 

-sternus {-a, -um): -breasted 

-gnathus {-a, -um): -jawed 

-dactylus (-a, -um): -toed 

-cercus (-a, -um): -tailed 

-cyclus (-a, -um): -ringed 

-laemus (-a, -um): -chested 

-lophus (-a, -um): -crested 

-merus (-a, -um): -thighed 

-notus (-a, -um): -backed 

-ophthalmus (-a, -um): -eyed 

-orrhous (-a, -um): -vented 

-peplus (-a, -um): -robed 

-rhynchus (-a, -um): -billed 

-rhamphus (-a, -um): -billed 

-spilus {-a, -um): -spotted 



* also written nXeitpov I pleuron / pleurum 
** also written jr/cept^ / pterux / pteryx 
*** also written vcoiov / noton / notum 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 27 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

E) LATINIZED ADJECTIVES DERIVED FROM GREEK NOUNS 
WITH LATINIZED ENDINGS IN -US, -A, OR -UM. 

The feminine form of some latinized Greek adjectives happens to have the same 
ending as the transliterated Greek nouns from which they are derived (e.g. 
pyrrhomitra, from 7U)ppo|LLiTpO(; [purromitros: red-banded], based on uiTpoc [mitra: 
band] — see Table 1); such names, ending in transliterated Greek words, are to be 
treated as indeclinable (see Section P below). 

However, other latinized adjectives have the same ending (in -us or -a) as the 
latinized Greek nouns from which they are derived (see Table 1). This may have 
caused confusion in a few cases. We believe that these latinized adjectives (e.g. 
leucocephala, from ^8\)KOK8(|)aXo(; [leukokephalos: white-headed], based on K8(|)0cXr] 
[kephale: head], etc.) are indeed adjectives, formed like genuine adjectives such as 
XeDKOKepKcx; [leukokerkos: white-tailed]. To consider them as indeclinable, as some 
authors have done (see #96, 101, 102, and 104 below) despite the fact that the 
wording of ICZN (1985, Art. 31b) was clear in this respect, would mean that all 
similar latinized adjectives derived from Greek would be indeclinable. This would be 
contrary to the overwhelming usage of treating these names as variable adjectives; 
the following are but a few examples of the many latinized adjectives (including 
incorrect original spellings) that have been universally treated as variable: 

Ibis oxycercus Spix, 1825, now Cercibis oxycerca; 

Sittasomus stictolaemus Pelzeln, 1868, now Deconychura stictolaema; 

Eupetes castanonotus Salvadori, 1875, now Ptilorrhoa castanonota; 

Phasianus erythrophthalmus Raffles, 1822, now Lophura erythrophthalma; 

Coccyzus erythropyga Lesson, 1842, now Morococcyx erythropygus; 

D[rymoica] melanorhynchus Jardine & Fraser, 1 852, now Prinia subflava 
melanorhyncha; 

Alcedo melanura Kaup, 1848, now Ceyx melanurus; etc. 
Therefore: 

93. Thalassornis leuconotus Eyton, 1 838, must remain as is, and not should not be 
changed to Thalassornis leuconotos. 

94. Estrilda cyanocephala Richmond, 1897, must be spelt Uraeginthus 
cyanocephalus, not U. cyanocephala. The name cyanocephala is latinized from 
the Greek adjectival K\)ocvoK£(j)a?u)(; [kuanokephalos: blue-headed]. 

95. Recurvirostra leucocephala Vieillot, 1816, must be spelt Cladorhynchus 
leucocephalus, not C. leucocephala. The name leucocephala is latinized from 
the Greek adjectival Xe\)KOK£(|)aXo(; [leukokephalos: white-headed]. 

96. Anas Melancorypha Molina, 1782, p. 344 [selected over Anas Melancoripha 
Molina, 1 782, p. 234, by first revisers Hellmayr & Conover ( 1 948)], must be spelt 
Cygnus melancoryphus [as per Blake (1977), Sick (1993)] or Sthenelides 
melancoryphus. Presumably because of the capital letter in Melancorypha, 
Sibley & Monroe (1990: 29) stated that the name was treated in the original 
description as a noun in apposition. Because all species-group names in Molina 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 28 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

(1782) have an initial capital letter, such a conclusion is unfounded (David & 
Gosselin 2000). Since Molina's name is feminine and agrees in gender with the 
genus Anas, we conclude that melancorypha can only be the correct latinization 
of the Greek adjectival jLteA-ayKopD^ot; [melagkoruphos: black-headed], as diag- 
nosed by Molina ( 1 782: 234), and not the latinized masculine noun uxtaxyKoprjclxx; 
[melagkoruphos: tit or warbler]. It must also be noted that Molina used 
Melancorypha, not "Melanocorypha", an incorrect spelling given by many 
authors. The following spellings are therefore erroneous: Cygnus melanocorypha 
[of Sibley & Monroe ( 1 990), del Hoyo et al. ( 1 992)], Cygnus melanocoryphus [of 
Peters (1979a)], and Sthenelides melanocoryphus [ofWolters (1982)]. 

97. Mezobucco duvaucelii gigantorhinus Oberholser, 1912, must be spelt 
Megalaima australis gigantorhina, not Megalaima a. gigantorhinus. The name 
gigantorhinus is latinized from the Greek adjectival yiyavxoppivoq 
[gigantorrinos: giant-nosed]. 

98. Turdus xanthoscelus Jardine, 1847, must be spelt Platycichla flavipes 
xanthoscela, not Pf. xanthoscelus. The name xanthoscelus is latinized from the 
Greek adjectival ^av9ooK£^r](; [xanthoskeles: yellow-legged]. 

99. Megaloprepia poliura Salvadori, 1878, must be spelt Ptilinopus magnificus 
poliurus, not P. m. poliura. The name poliura is latinized from the Greek adjec- 
tival 7to?uorjpO(; [poliouros: grey-tailed]. For the treatment of names originally 
ending in -oura, however, see # 209 below. 

100. Panychlora stenura Cabanis & Heine, 1 860, must be spelt Chlorostilbon stenurus, 
not C stenura. Chlorostilbon is masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). The name 
stenura is latinized from the Greek adjectival oxevoDpoq [stenouros: narrow- 
tailed]. For the treatment of names originally ending in -oura, however, see # 209 
below. 

101 . Myiolestes phaionotus Bonaparte, 1851, must be spelt Pachycephala phaionota 
[as per Peters (1967), Wolters (1982), etc.], not P. phaionotus [as in Sibley & 
Monroe (1990), etc.]. Andrew (1992: 50), without further explanations, stated: 
"P. phaionotus: not 'phaionota'; a noun in apposition (White & Bruce 1986)". 
In phaionotus, only the -os ending has been latinized from the Greek adjectival 
(l)aiova)TO(; [phaionotos: dusky-backed], but the name still qualifies as latinized 
(ICZN 1999, Glossary: latinize). See also # 102 below. 

102. Gerygone chloronotus Gould, 1 843, must be corrected to Gerygone chloronota 
[as per Wolters (1982), Peters (1986)]. Gerygone is feminine (ICZN 1999, Art. 
30.1.2). Sibley & Monroe (1990: 442) and Christidis & Boles (1994: 65), how- 
ever, incorrectly used Gerygone chloronotus, stating that Gould's original spelling 
indicated usage as a noun in apposition. The name chloronotus is latinized from 
the Greek adjectival x^opovcoioq [chloronotos: green-backed]. The case is per- 
fectly analogous to Ninox spilonotus Bourns & Worcester, 1894, now univer- 
sally known as Ninox philippensis spilonota [as per Peters (1940), del Hoyo et 
a/. (1999)]. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 29 Bull. B.O.C. 2002. 122(1) 

103. Columba phaeonotus Gray, 1856, must be corrected to Columba phaeonota, 
and the present correct spelling is Columba guinea phaeonota, not C g. 
phaeonotus. The name phaeonotus is latinized from the Greek adjectival 
(|)aiov<j0TO<; [phaionotos: dusky-backed]. See #101-102 above. 

104. [Cinclosoma] castanotus Gould, 1840, must be corrected to Cinclosoma 
castanotum [as per Peters (1964), Wolters (1982)]. Cinclosoma is neuter (ICZN 
1999, Art. 30. 1 .2). Sibley & Monroe (1990: 457) stated that castanotus is "a noun 
in apposition" but gave no further explanation, merely saying that Gould's origi- 
nal combination supported that conclusion (but see # 77 above, for Gould's 
idiosyncratic gender combinations). In names such as castanotus, cyanotus, 
melanotus, and leucorypha, the initial components casta-, cya-, mela-, and 
leu-, stand through elision as the adjectival stems castano, cyano, melano, and 
leuco (of castanonotus [chestnut-backed], cyanonotus [blue-backed], 
melanonotus [black-backed], and leucocorypha [white-headed]). Usage treats 
these names as latinized adjectives, e.g. Hemipodius castanotus Gould, 1839 
[now Turnix castanota]; Coryphegnatus melanotus Heuglin, 1863 [now 
Amblyospiza albifrons melanota]; Euplocomus melanotus "Blyth" Hutton, 1 848 
[now Lophura leucomelanos melanota]; and Aquila leucorypha Pallas, 1771 
[now Haliaeetus leucoryphus]. See also # 101-103 above, for other adjectives 
derived from vcqtck; [notos: back]. 

105. Turdus cyanotus Jardine & Selby, 1 828, must be spelt Zoothera citrina cyanota, 
not Z. c. cyanotus. See # 104 above. 

106. Turtur decaocto xanthocyclus Newman, 1906, must be spelt Streptopelia 
decaocto xanthocycla, not S. d. xanthocyclus. The name xanthocyclus (from 
the Greek adjectival ^ocvOoicokAxx; [xanthokuklos: yellow-ringed]) has here noth- 
ing to do with the Latin noun cyclus (a yearly period). 

107. Columba gymnocyclus Gray, 1 856, must be corrected to Columba gymnocycla, 
and the present correct spelling is Columba livia gymnocycla, not C. /. 
gymnocyclus. The name gymnocyclus is latinized from the Greek adjectival 
yujivoKDK^ot; [gumnokuklos: bare-ringed]). See also # 106 above. 

108. Trichixos pyrropyga Lesson, 1839, must be corrected to Trichixos pyrropygus; 
it is also known as Copsychus pyrropygus [as per Peters ( 1 964), Andrew ( 1 992), 
etc.]. Trichixos is masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 30.1.2). In addition to Trichixos 
pyrropyga, the following spellings are incorrect: Trichixos pyrrhopyga [of 
Wolters (1982)] and Copsychus pyrropyga [of Smithies (1981)]. There are at 
least six original avian species names that end in -pyga. In Hirundo griseopyga 
Sundevall, 1 850, griseopyga is a Latin noun phrase since it has the Latin compo- 
nent griseo- preceding the classical Latin noun pyga [rump]; it is thus invariable 
(see Section I below). The other names are: Formicivora ochropyga Hellmayr, 
1906 [now Drymophila ochropyga]; Vitiflora leucopyga Brehm, 1855 [now 
Oenanthe leucopyga]; Estrilda rhodopyga Sundevall, 1850; and Coccyzus 
erythropyga Lesson, 1 842 [now Morococcyx erythropygus]; since the first com- 
ponent of each stems from Greek, all must be considered as latinized Greek 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 30 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

adjectives patterned on classical adjectives such as XeuKOTruycx; [leukopugos: 
white-rumped]. For this reason, Coccyzus erythropyga Lesson, 1842, was cor- 
rected to Coccyzus erythropygus (Sclater & Shelley 1891), and is now univer- 
sally known as Morococcyx erythropygus. In Trichixos pyrrhopygus [of 
MacKinnon & Phillipps (1993)], and Copsychus pyrrhopygus [of Howard & 
Moore (1994)], the species-group names (with rrh instead of rr) are unjustified 
emendations (ICZN 1999, Art. 32.3, 32.5. 1 . 1 Examples). 

109. Monachalcyon princeps erythrorhamphus Stresemann, 1 93 1 , must be corrected 
to Monachalcyon princeps erythrorhampha, and the present correct spellings 
are Actenoides princeps erythrorhamphus or Halcyon princeps 
erythrorhampha, notH.p. erythrorhamphus. Halcyon is feminine (ICZN 1999, 
Art. 30.1.1 ). The name erythrorhamphus is latinized from the Greek adjectival 
8p\)6popa|Li(t)0£; [eruthroramphos: red-billed]. 

110. Andigena spilorhynchus Gould, 1858, must be corrected to Andigena 
spilorhyncha, and the present correct spelling is Andigena nigrirostris 
spilorhyncha, not A. n. spilorhynchus. The name spilorhynchus is latinized 
from the Greek adjectival GTixko^j^oq [spilorugchos: spotted-billed]. 

F) LATINIZED GREEK ADJECTIVES ENDING IN -GASTRA 

Original names that end in -gaster and that have Latin initial components (such as 
flavigaster, rufigaster, etc.) are noun phrases that end in the classical Latin noun 
gaster (see Section I below), and are to be treated as nouns in apposition, with 
gender ending unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 , 32.3, 34.2. 1 , Glossary: noun phrase). 
Original names that end in -gaster and that have Greek initial components (such as 
xanthogaster, erythrogaster, etc.), must be considered as ending in the transliterated 
Greek noun yaairip [gaster: belly], and are also indeclinable (ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1 .2.3; 
see Section P below). 

At least fourteen original avian names end in -gastra, and have an initial Greek 
adjectival component; all but one [Troglodytes leucogastra Gould, 1 837, now Uropsila 
leucogastra] have been coined in combination with feminine genera [for words with 
Latin adjectival components, see Section L below]. Greek adjectives based on the 
Greek noun yaairip [gaster] end in -yaoxpoc; [-gastros], such as XzmoyaGXpoc, 
[leptogastros: thin-bellied], and the latinized form of leptogastros is leptogastrus 
(ICZN 1 985: 1 85), of which the feminine and neuter endings are respectively leptogastra 
and leptogastrum (ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1 .2.3 Example). Original names that end in -gastra 
and that have an initial Greek adjectival component (leuco-, cyano-, xantho-, etc.) are 
thus latinized Greek adjectives. 

When original names ending in -gastra were combined with masculine genera, 
the -gastra ending was often changed to -gaster. The -gaster ending, however, is the 
transliterated feminine noun ycccrcrip, when in fact the latinized masculine adjectival 
-gastrus ending was needed. Therefore: 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 31 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

1 1 1 . Pachycephala leucogastra Salvadori & d'Albertis, 1875, must remain as is, 
and should not be changed to P. leucogaster. Andrew (1992: 50) was partly in 
error when he wrote that leucogastra "is an incorrect latinization and stands as 
originally published [I. A. Mc Allan]"; presumably, he was simply objecting to 
the use of "leucogaster". The name leucogastra is the correct latinization of 
the Greek adjectival tojKoyaaxpcx; [leukogastros: white-bellied]. 

1 12. Irena cyanogastra Vigors, 1831, must remain as is, and should not be changed 
to /. cyanogaster The name cyanogastra is latinized from the Greek adjectival 
Kt>ocvoyaGTpo<; [kuanogastros: blue-bellied]. 

113. Motacilla erythrogastra Giildenstadt, 1775, must be spelt Phoenicurus 
erythrogastrus, not P. erythrogaster. The name erythrogastra is latinized from 
the Greek adjectival epDOpoyaoxpcx; [eruthrogastros: red-bellied]. 

114. Columba hyogastra Temminck, 1824, must be spelt Jotreron hyogastrus or 
Ptilinopus hyogastrus [not J. hyogastra as in Wolters (1982), P. hyogastra as in 
Peters (1937), or P. hyogaster as in del Hoyo et al.{\991)\. According to del 
Hoyo et al. (1997: 222), the name is "often erroneously given as hyogastra, but 
maintenance of [the] original [feminine] gender is unjustified". The statement is 
incompatible with the fact that the ending gaster is a feminine substantive (the 
Greek noun yacrcr|p [gaster: belly]), claimed by del Hoyo et al. to be a masculine 
latinized adjective (from loyocaxpcx; [iogastros: violet-bellied]). Note that Jotreron 
is masculine (see # 90 above). 

115. Dacnidea leucogastra Taczanowski, 1874, must be spelt Hemispingus 
superciliaris leucogastrus, not H. s. leucogaster. See also #111 above. 

116. Zosterops poliogastra Heuglin, 1861, must be corrected to Zosterops 
poliogastrus, not Z. poliogaster. Zosterops is masculine (ICZN 1999, Art. 
30.1.4.3). The name poliogastra is latinized from the Greek adjectival 
7io?uoyaoTpO(; [poliogastros: grey-bellied]. 

Latin and latinized nouns and noun phrases 

Species-group names that are simple or compound nouns, or are noun phrases that 
end in a noun, never vary in spelling whatever the gender of the generic name with 
which they are combined, and the original spelling is to be retained, with gender 
ending unchanged (ICZN 1999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 , 32.3, 34.2. 1 , Glossary: noun phrase). 

G) LATIN NOUNS 

Names that are classical and mediaeval Latin nouns are always invariable ( ICZN 1 999, 
Art. 1 1 .9. 1 .2, 3 1 .2. 1 , Glossary: Latin); examples include Columba palumbus Linnaeus, 
1758, Cepphus columba Pallas, 1811, etc. The following names are all classical or 
mediaeval Latin nouns (Lewis & Short 1 879; Glare 1 982), and not adjectives. There- 
fore: 

117. Pseudogerygone cantator Weatherill, 1908, must be spelt Gerygone levigaster 
cantator, and should not be changed to G I. cantatrix. Sibley & Monroe (1990: 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 32 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

443) correctly noted that cantator is "a noun in apposition and remains in the 
masculine", contra Mayr who used cantatrix, stating that it was the "feminine 
ending of cantator" (Peters 1986: 455 footnote). Like the nouns imperatrix [em- 
press] and imperator [emperor], cantator [songster] is a Latin noun, not an 
adjective, of which cantatrix [songstress] is the feminine corresponding noun. 

118. Halcyon sordidus [sic] colonus Hartert, 1896, must be spelt Halcyon chloris 
colonus or Todiramphus chloris colonus, and should not be changed to H. c. 
colona [as in Peters ( 1 945), Howard & Moore ( 1 994)] or T. c. colona [as in Clements 
(2000)]. The word sordidus is a classical Latin adjective and is variable (see 
Section A above), while the word colonus is a classical Latin noun and is invari- 
able [viz. Colonia colonus (Vieillot, 1818)]. See also # 84 above. 

1 19. Caprimulgusfurcifer Vieillot, 1817, must be spelt Hydropsalis brasilianafurcifer, 
and should not be changed to H. b.furcifera. The classical Latin wordfurcifer is 
a noun, not an adjective. 

120. Sterna hybrida Pallas, 1811, must be spelt Chlidonias hybrida [as per Peters 
( 1 934), Wolters ( 1 982), Ornithological Society of New Zealand ( 1 990), etc.], and 
should not be changed to C. hybridus [as in Mees (1977), Sibley & Monroe 
( 1 990), etc.]. Chlidonias is masculine, and the Latin word hybrida is a masculine 
noun, not a feminine adjective. The fact that hybridus {-a, -urn) has been used as 
an adjective in modern scientific nomenclature is irrelevant here because modern 
scientific Latin is not included in the definition of Latin by ICZN ( 1 999, Glossary: 
Latin). Mees (1977: 49) admittedly advocated the use of hybridus against the 
advice of a scholar. 

121. Pterythius [sic] pallidus hybrida Harington, 1913, must be spelt Pteruthius 
xanthochlorus hybrida or Allotrius xanthochlorus hybrida [as per Wolters 
(1982)], and should not be changed to P. x. hybridus. See # 120 above. 

122. Thryothorus luscinius Quoy & Gaimard, 1830, must be spelt Acrocephalus 
luscinius, and should not be changed to A. luscinia. The word luscinius is a 
classical Latin noun, as is luscinia, both having the same meaning [nightingale]. 

123. Sitagra monacha Sharpe, 1890, must be spelt Ploceus pelzelni monacha, and 
should not be changed to P. p. monachus. Both monacha [nun] and monachus 
[monk] are Latin nouns, not adjectives. Similar cases in avian nomenclature in- 
clude Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert, 1783), and Oriolus monacha (Gmelin, 
1789). 

124. Halcyon (Paralcyon) monachus Bonaparte, 1850, must be spelt Halcyon 
monachus or Actenoides monachus, and should not be changed to H monacha 
or A monacha. See # 123 above. 

H) THE LATIN NOUN ATRICAPILLA 

The Latin word atricapilla [a bird, most likely the Blackcap], attested by a classical 
use in Festus, is given as a feminine noun by Lewis & Short ( 1 879) and Glare ( 1 982). 
Some Latin dictionaries, such as the Thesaurus linguae latinae (Internationale The- 
saurus-Kommission 1 900- 1 993 ), list atricapillus (-a, -urn) as an adjective with refer- 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 33 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

ence only to the Glossarium graeco-latinum (see Goetz 1 892); in this work, however, 
the word atricapellus [sic] is simply listed alongside the Greek nouns juetaxyKOpu^oc; 
[melagkoruphos: a bird (tit or warbler)] and U£?uxv6pi^ [melanthrix: black hair] (Liddell 
& Scott 1996). Thus, the word atricapilla can only be cited as having been used as a 
noun in classical or mediaeval Latin, and is consequently invariable (ICZN 1999, Art. 
1 1 .9. 1 .2, 26, 3 1 .2. 1 , 32.3, 34.2. 1 , Glossary: Latin). Therefore: 

125. Zosterops atricapilla Salvadori, 1879, must remain as is [as per Peters (1968), 
Andrew (1992)], and should not be changed to Z. atricapillus [as in Sibley & 
Monroe (1990)]. 

126. Vireo atricapilla Woodhouse, 1 852, must remain as is, and should not be changed 
to V. atricapillus. 

127 '. Turdus atricapilla Linnaeus, 1766, must be spelt Donacobius atricapilla, and 
should not be changed to D. atricapillus. See David & Gosselin (2000) for a 
detailed explanation of this case. 

128. Strix atricapilla Temminck, 1822, must be spelt Megascops atricapilla or Otus 
atricapilla, and should not be changed to M. atricapillus or O. atricapillus. 
Because the etymology given above [a passerine] might not readily apply to this 
bird, atricapilla may also be viewed as a noun phrase ending in the modified 
Latin noun capillus, which would also make it invariable (see # 1 5 1 below). 

I) NOUN PHRASES ENDING IN A LATIN NOUN OR A NOUN 
DERIVED FROM LATIN 

Many original scientific names consist of a Latin adjectival stem preceding a Latin 
noun such as ala [wing], capillus [hair], cauda [tail], cilia [tail, a mediaeval meaning 
(Jobling 1991, Donovan & Ouellet 1993)], gaster [belly], gula [throat], nucha [nape], 
pectus [breast], pileum [cap], pileus [cap],pyga [rump], tergum [back], venter [belly], 
etc. Such names must not be confused with latinized Greek adjectives consisting of a 
Greek adjectival stem joined to a Greek noun stem and a variable ending (see Section 
D above). Noun phrases that end in a Latin noun are to be treated as nouns in 
apposition, and the original spelling is to be retained, with gender ending unchanged 
(ICZN 1999, Art. 31.2.1, 32.3, 34.2.1, Glossary: noun phrase). Examples include Icterus 
graduacauda Lesson, 1 839; Picus flavigula (Boddaert, 1 783); Arborophila rufipectus 
Boulton, 1932; etc. Therefore: 

129. Hemixos flavala Blyth, 1845, must be spelt Hypsipetes flavala, and should not 
be changed to Hypsipetes flavalus. 

130. Cisticola angusticauda Reichenow, 1891, must remain as is, and should not be 
changed to C. angusticaudus. 

131. Cypselus acuticauda Blyth, 1865, must be spelt Apus acuticauda, and should 
not be changed to A. acuticaudus. 

132. Domicella albidinucha Rothschild & Hartert, 1924, must be spelt Lorius 
albidinucha, and should not be changed to L. albidinuchus. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 34 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

133. Todirostrum plumbeiceps cinereipectus Novaes, 1953, must remain as is, and 
should not be changed to T. p. cinereipectum. 

134. Ceyx cyano-pectus Lafresnaye, 1840, must be spelt Ceyx cyanopectus [as per 
Peters (1945)], Alcyone cyanopectus [as per Wolters (1982)] or Alcedo 
cyanopectus [as per Dickinson et al. (1991)], and should not be changed to 
Alcedo cyanopecta [as in Sibley & Monroe (1990), etc.]. 

135. Halcyon senegalensis fuscopileus Reichenow, 1 906, must remain as is, and should 
not be changed to H. s. fuscopilea. 

136. Dasycephala citreopyga Bonaparte, 1854, must be spelt Attila spadiceus 
citreopyga, and should not be changed to A. s. citreopygus. Since citreo- is a 
Latin component, citreopyga cannot be a Greek adjective derived from 7royr| 
[pyge: see # 108 above]. The name citreopyga ends here in the Latin noun pyga 
[rump]. 

137. Ramphomicrus [sic] microrrhynchus [sic] andicola Simon, 1921, must be spelt 
Ramphomicron microrhynchum andicola, and should not be changed to R. m. 
andicolum. The name andicola is a noun phrase consisting of two noun stems: 
andi-, from Andes (see Pritchard 1994), and -cola [dweller], a substantival suffix 
(Glare 1982) used in several classical Latin nouns (monticola, limicola, etc.). 

138. Poecilothraupis ignicrissa Cabanis, 1873, must be spelt Anisognathus 
igniventris ignicrissa, and should not be changed to A. i. ignicrissus. Intro- 
duced by Illiger (1811: 1 66), the noun crissum [vent] was derived from crissare 
[to move the haunches] (Simpson & Weiner 1989, Jobling 1991). The words 
"crissus " and "crissa " could just as well have been derived for the same pur- 
pose. There is no adjectival suffix and no adjectival meaning in the modern Latin 
words crissus, crissa, and crissum, as there is in crissalis, for example. In this 
context, original compound words that end in -crissus and -crissa can only be 
viewed as noun phrases that end in a noun derived from Latin; they cannot be 
Latin or latinized adjectives. 

139. Eupetes nigricrissus Salvadori, 1876, must be spelt Ptilorrhoa caerulescens 
nigricrissus, and should not be changed to P. c. nigricrissa. See #138 above. 

140. Gallinula ruficrissa Gould, 1 869, must be spelt Amaurornis olivacea ruficrissa 
or Amaurornis moluccana ruficrissa, and should not be changed to A. olivaceus 
ruficrissus [as in Howard & Moore (1994)] or A. moluccanus ruficrissus [as in 
Wolters (1982) and del Hoyo etal. (1996)]; see # 138 above. Moreover, Amaurornis 
Reichenbach, 1852, ending in a Greek noun of common gender, is feminine be- 
cause it was originally established in combination with the feminine adjective 
olivacea (\CZN 1999, Art. 30. 1.4.2). 

141. Cecropis melanocrissus Riippell, 1845, must be spelt Cecropis daurica 
melanocrissus or Hirundo daurica melanocrissus, and should not be changed 
to C. d. melanocrissa or H. d. melanocrissa. In melanocrissus, the initial compo- 
nent is Greek (not Latin as in the above three names), but the name is nonetheless 
invariable. See #138 above. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 35 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

J) NOUN PHRASES ENDING INTHE LATIN NOUN CAPILLUS 

The Latin word capillus is and always has been a noun (Lewis & Short 1879, Glare 
1982). Original names consisting of a Latin adjectival stem joined to the Latin noun 
capillus are noun phrases that are to be treated as nouns in apposition, as are the 
names ending in -cauda, -pileum, -pectus, etc. (see Section I above); the original 
spelling is thus to be retained, with gender ending unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 31.2.1, 
32.3, 34.2.1, Glossary: noun phrase). Therefore: 

142. Psittacus auricapillus Kuhl, 1 820, must be spelt Aratinga auricapillus [as per 
Peters (1937)], and should not be changed to A. auricapilla. 

143. Rhinopsar brunneicapillus Danes, 1 938, must be spelt Aplonis brunneicapillus, 
and should not be changed to A. brunneicapilla. 

144. Tyrannulus brunneicapillus Lawrence, 1862, must be spelt Ornithion 
brunneicapillus, and should not be changed to O. brunneicapillum. 

145. Aethiops canicapillus Strickland, 1841, must be spelt Nigrita canicapillus, and 
should not be changed to N. canicapilla. 

146. Trichophorus canicapillus Hartlaub, 1 854, must be spelt Bleda canicapillus, 
and should not be changed to B. canicapilla. Note also that Bleda is the name of 
Attila's brother (Internationale Thesaurus-Kommission 1900-1993, Jobling 1991), 
and thus Bleda Bonaparte, 1857, must be treated as masculine, as is Attila Les- 
son, 1 830 (ICZN 1 999, Art. 30. 1 . 1 ). 

147. Turdinus canicapillus Sharpe, 1887, must be spelt Trichastoma pyrrogenys 
canicapillus or Pellorneum pyrrogenys canicapillus, and should not be changed 
to T. p. canicapillum or P. p. canicapillum. 

148. Colaptes cinereicapillus Reichenbach, 1854, must be spelt Colaptes rupicola 
cinereicapillus [as per Peters (1948)], and should not be changed to C. r. 
cinereicapilla. 

149. Dr\ymocataphus\ fuscocapillus Blyth, 1849, must be spelt Pellorneum 
fuscocapillus, and should not be changed to P. fuscocapillum. 

150. Bucco rubricapillus Gmelin, 1788, must be spelt Megalaima rubricapillus or 
Xantholaema rubricapillus, and should not be changed to M. rubricapilla or 
X. rubricapilla. 

151. Parus atricapillus Linnaeus, 1766, must be spelt Poecile atricapillus [as per 
AOU (1998)], and should not be changed to Poecile atricapilla [as in Wolters 
(1982), AOU (2000)]. Linnaeus's atricapillus could also be viewed as the Latin 
noun atricapilla with a modified ending, as it was customary for him to coin 
such names (e.g. Alcedo erithaca, see # 152 below). See also Section H above. 

K) MODIFIED LATIN NOUNS 

The following names are Latin nouns (Lewis & Short 1 879, Glare 1 982) with a modified 
ending that is not adjectival. Whether or not the original authors of these names had 
meant to use them as adjectives (by using a gender ending in agreement with the 
genus with which they were coined) is irrelevant under the present ICZN Code since 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 36 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

they are not Latin adjectives or adjectives derived from Latin. These names are to be 
treated as nouns in apposition, and the original spelling is to be retained (ICZN 1999, 
Art. 31.2.1, 32.3, 34.2.1), as is the case of e.g. umbellus in Tetrao umbellus Linnaeus, 
1 766, now known as Bonasa umbellus. Treating the following names as wholly new 
words that are neither Latin nor latinized would also make them invariable (ICZN 1 999, 
Art. 3 1 .2.3). Although -us {-a, -urn) can be a Latin adjectival suffix, it is only so when 
added to a noun that ends in a consonant [such as odorus from odor (Glare, 1982)]. 
Therefore: 

152. Alcedo erithaca Linnaeus, 1758, must be spelt Ceyx erithaca, and should not be 
changed to C. erithacus. The name erithaca is the modified Latin noun erithacus. 
See David & Gosselin (2000) for a detailed explanation of this case. 

153. Alcippe fratercula Rippon, 1900, must be spelt Alcippe morrisonia fratercula, 
and should not be changed to A. m. fraterculus. The name fratercula is the 
modified Latin noun fraterculus. 

154. Pinarolestes megarhynchus hybridus Meise, 1929, must be spelt Colluricincla 
megarhyncha hybridus, and should not be changed to C. m. hybrida. The name 
hybridus is the modified Latin noun hybrida. Although hybridus may have been 
considered a modern Latin adjective, modern Latin is not included in the defini- 
tion of Latin by ICZN (1999, Glossary: Latin). See also # 120 above. 

155. Procellaria urinatrix Gmelin, 1 789, must be spelt Pelecanoides urinatrix [as per 
Peters (1931), Marchant & Higgins (1990), Ornithological Society of New Zea- 
land (1990), etc.], and should not be changed to P. urinator [as in Peters (1979a)]. 
Gmelin's original name is a new word that is the feminine counterpart of the Latin 
masculine noun urinator, created on the model of the masculine and feminine 
Latin nouns imperator and imperatrix. Since urinatrix is not a Latin adjective, it 
must remain unchanged, as is the case for sibilatrix in Motacilla sibilatrix 
Bechstein, 1793, now known as Phylloscopus sibilatrix. 

L) NOUN PHRASES ENDING IN A MODIFIED LATIN NOUN 

There are few original avian species names that have the Latin nouns dorsum [back], 
mentum [chin], and rostrum [beak] as final components. Several names, however, are 
derived from these nouns and from others (see Section I above), but with a modified 
ending that is not adjectival (e.g. -caudus, -colus, -dorsa, -gastra, -mentus, -rostra, 
etc.). Adjectives derived from the above Latin nouns would end in a recognizable 
suffix (e.g. -caudatus, -dorsalis, -rostratus, -rostris, etc.). Although -us (-a, -urn) can 
be a Latin adjectival suffix, it is only so when added to a noun that ends in a consonant 
[such as odorus from odor (Glare, 1982)]. Original names consisting of a Latin noun 
with a modified ending, even when preceded by a Latin adjectival component, are 
noun phrases that are to be treated as nouns in apposition, and the original spelling is 
to be retained, with gender ending unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 , 32.3, 34.2. 1 , 
Glossary: compound, noun phrase). Therefore: 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 37 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

156. Ceyx rufidorsa Strickland, 1846, must remain as is, and should not be changed 
to C. rufidorsum [as in Peters (1945)] or C. rufidorsus [as in Wolters (1982)]. 

157. Ploceus nigrimentus Reichenow, 1 904, must remain as is, or be spelt Otyphantes 
nigrimentus, and should not be changed to P. nigrimentum [as in Peters (1962), 
etc.] or O. nigrimentum [as in Wolters (1982)]. 

158. Alcedo rufigastra Walden, 1873, must be spelt Alcedo meninting rufigastra, 
and should not be changed to A. m. rufigaster. Since rufi- is not a Greek stem, 
rufigastra cannot be a latinized Greek adjective [as erythrogastra is], and the 
component gastra can only be here the Latin noun gaster [belly] with a modified 
ending. This is why Threnetes niger rufigastra Cory, 1915, is spelt correctly [as 
per Peters ( 1 945), del Hoyo et al. ( 1 999)] . 

159. Muscicapa rufigastra Raffles, 1822 must be spelt Niltava rufigastra or Cyornis 
rufigastra, and should not be changed to C. rufigaster. Andrew (1992: 49) noted 
that rufigastra "is an incorrect latinization and stands as originally published". 
See #158 above. 

160. Nectarinia flavigastra Gould, 1843, must be spelt Cyrtostomus jugularis 
flavigastra, Cinnyris jugularis flavigastra, or Nectarinia jugularis flavigastra, 
and should not be changed to Cyrtostomus j. flavigaster, Cinnyris j . flavigaster 
or N. j. flavigaster. Since flavi- is not a Greek stem, flavigastra cannot be a 
latinized Greek adjective [as xanthogastra is], and the component gastra can 
only be here the Latin noun gaster [belly] with a modified ending. See #158 
above. 

161 . Trochilus longicaudus Gmelin, 1 788, must be spelt Discosura longicaudus, and 
should not be changed to D. longicauda. Since longi- is a Latin adjectival stem, 
longicaudus can only end here in the Latin noun cauda [tail] with a modified 
ending. 

1 62. Ochetorhynchus ruficaudus Meyen, 1 834, must be spelt Upucerthia ruficaudus, 
and should not be changed to U. ruflcauda. See #161 above. 

163. Cypselus spinicaudus Temminck, 1839, must be spelt Chaetura spinicaudus, and 
should not be changed to C. spinicauda. See #161 above. 

164. Pteruthius spinicaudus Pucheran, 1853, must be spelt Pachycephala pectoralis 
spinicaudus or Pachycephala melanura spinicaudus, and should not be changed 
to P. p. spinicauda or P. m. spinicauda. See #161 above. 

165. Hypsibamon andicolus Cabanis, 1873, must be spelt Grallaria andicolus, and 
should not be changed to G. andicola. The name andicolus ends here in the 
substantival suffix -cola [dweller] with a modified ending. See also # 137 above. 

166. Gallinula flavirostra Swainson, 1837, must be spelt Amaurornis flavirostra [as 
per Sibley & Monroe (1990)], Limnocorax flavirostra [as per Peters (1934)] or 
Porzana flavirostra [as per Howard & Moore (1994)]. The following spellings 
are incorrect: Amaurornis flavirostris [of Dowsett & Forbes- Watson (1993), Ur- 
ban et al. ( 1 986), del Hoyo et al. ( 1 996)] and Limnocorax flavirostris [of Wolters 
(1982)]. To change flavirostra to flavirostris would turn an invariable noun phrase 
into a variable adjective. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 38 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

167. Acanthiza magnirostra Gould, 1838, must be spelt Sericornis magnirostra, and 
should not be changed to S. magnirostris. To change magnirostra to magnirostris 
would turn an invariable noun phrase into a variable adjective. 

M) NOUN PHRASES ENDING IN CAPILLA 

As a final component of species-group names, -capilla is the Latin noun capillus with 
a modified ending, and does not include any adjectival suffix. Adjectival names de- 
rived from capillus would end in a recognizable suffix (-capillata, -capillosa, etc.). 
Original names ending in capilla [the modified Latin noun capillus] are noun phrases 
that are to be treated as nouns in apposition [on the model of atricapilla, see Section 
H above], as are the names that end in -caudus, -dorsa, -mentus, -rostra, etc. (see 
Section L above); the original spelling of these names is to be retained, with gender 
ending unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 , 32.3, 34.2. 1 , Glossary: compound, noun 
phrase). For example, Prionochilus percussus ignicapilla, Ptilinopus roseicapilla, 
Phylloscopus ruficapilla and Serinus gularis canicapilla, have been spelt as such 
by Peters (1937, 1967, 1968), even though these genera are masculine. Therefore: 

168. Zosterops fuscicapilla Salvadori, 1 875, must remain as is [as per Andrew ( 1 992)], 
and should not be changed to Z. fuscicapillus [as in Sibley & Monroe (1990), 
etc.]. 

169. Motacilla aurocapilla Linnaeus, 1766, must be spelt Seiurus aurocapilla, and 
should not be changed to S. aurocapillus. According to Ridgway (1902), 
Audubon, Wilson, Bonaparte, Vieillot, Nuttall and Townsend used aurocapilla 
in combination with the masculine noun Turdus. 

170. Poliospiza canicapilla Dubus, 1855, must be spelt Serinus gularis canicapilla, 
and should not be changed to S. g. canicapillus. 

171. Setophaga castaneocapilla Cabanis, 1849, must be spelt Myioborus 
castaneocapilla, and should not be changed to M. castaneocapillus. 

172. Phyllomyias cinereicapilla Cabanis, 1873, must be spelt Zimmerius 
cinereicapilla, and should not be changed to Z. cinereicapillus. 

173. Alcippe cinereo capilla Salvadori, 1 868, must be spelt Malacopteron magnirostre 
cinereocapilla, and should not be changed to M. m. cinereocapillum. 

174. Syma fulvicapilla Vieillot, 1817, must be spelt Cisticola fulvicapilla, and should 
not be changed to C. fulvicapillus. 

175. Sylvia ignicapilla Temminck, 1820, must be spelt Regulus ignicapilla [as per 
e.g. Hartert (1903-1923)], and should not be changed to R. ignicapillus [as in 
Peters (1986), etc.]. 

176. Dicaeum ignicapilla Eyton, 1839, must be spelt Prionochilus percussus 
ignicapilla, and should not be changed to P. p. ignicapillus. 

111. Dendrornis lineatocapilla Berlepsch & Leverkiihn, 1890, must be spelt 
Xiphorhynchus ocellatus lineatocapilla, and should not be changed to X. I. 
lineatocapillus. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 39 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

178. Cacatua roseicapilla Vieillot, 1817, must be spelt Eolophus roseicapilla, and 
should not be changed to E. roseicapillus. 

179. Columba roseicapilla Lesson, 1831, must be spelt Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and 
should not be changed to P. roseicapillus. 

180. M[otacilla] Rubicapilla Tickell, 1833, must be spelt Macronous gularis 
rubicapilla [as per Howard & Moore (1994)] or Mixornis gularis rubicapilla, 
and should not be changed to Macronous g. rubicapillus [as in Peters (1964), 
etc.] or Mixornis g. rubicapillus [as in Wolters (1982)]. 

181. Pogonocichla ruficapilla Sundevall, 1850, must be spelt Phylloscopus ruficapilla, 
or Pindalus ruficapilla, and should not be changed to Phylloscopus ruficapillus 
[as in Clements (2000)], ox Pindalus ruficapillus [as in Wolters (1982)]. 

182. Drymoica subruficapilla Smith, 1843, must be spelt Cisticola subruficapilla, 
and should not be changed to C. subruficapillus. 

N) LATINIZED NOUNS 

Latinized nouns are always invariable (ICZN 1 999, 3 1 .2. 1 , 32.3, 34.2. 1 ). Examples in- 
clude Fringilla spinus Linnaeus, 1758 [now Carduelis spinus], in which spinus is the 
latinized Greek noun omvoq [spinos: a bird]. Therefore: 

183. Corvus Cyanus Pallas, 1 776, must be spelt Cyanopica cyanus, and should not be 
changed to Cyanopica cyana. The name cyanus is the latinized Greek noun 
kvjocvck; [kuanos: a blue substance, a blue stone, a blue bird (Liddell & Scott 
1996)], and is not to be confused with the Latin adjective cyaneus (-a, -urn) [blue] 
or the Greek adjective icoavecx; [kuaneos: blue], latinized in cyaneus (-a, -urn). 

184. Trochilus cyanus Vieillot, 1818, must be spelt Hylocharis cyanus, and should not 
be changed to H. cyana. See # 183 above. 

O) LATINIZED NOUN PHRASES 

Some names (such aspurpuroptera, nigricephala, etc.) may look like latinized Greek 
adjectives at first glance (see Section D above), but their Latin initial components 
cannot be part of Greek adjectives. Since they end in a latinized Greek noun, such 
names are noun phrases, and the original spelling is to be retained, with gender ending 
unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2. 1 , 32.3, 34.2. 1 , Glossary: noun phrase). Therefore: 

185. Lamprotornis purpuroptera Riippell, 1 845, must remain as is, and should not be 
changed to L. purpuropterus. The component ptera is the Greek noun 7TC8pov 
[pteron: wing] latinized with a feminine ending. The adjectival form would have 
been purpuralaris (Latin) or porphyroptera (latinized from Greek). 

186. Phoenicura caeruleocephala Vigors, 1831, must be spelt Phoenicurus 
caeruleocephala, and should not be changed to P. caeruleocephalus. The final 
component cephala is the latinized Greek noun K£(|)a^r] [kephale: head]. The 
adjectival form would have caeruleocapitata (Latin) or cyanocephala (latinized 
from Greek). Similarly, Tangara nigricephala Jameson, 1835, must be spelt 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 40 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Spindalis nigricephala, and should not be changed to S. nigricephalus [as in 
Raffaele et al. ( 1 998)]; its adjectival form would have been nigricapitata (Latin) 
or melanocephala (latinized from Greek). 

187. Garrulus vihdi-cyanus Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1 838, must be spelt Cyanolyca 
viridicyanus, and should not be changed to C. viridicyana. The final compo- 
nent cyanus is the latinized Greek noun kdocvck; [kuanos: a blue substance, a 
blue stone, a blue bird (see # 183 above)]. The adjectival form would have been 
viridicyaneus (Latin) or chlorocyaneus (latinized from Greek). 

1 88. Trochilus bUophus Temminck, 1 820, must be spelt Heliactin bilophus, and should 
not be changed to H. bilophum [as in Sibley & Monroe (1990)] or//, bilopha [as 
in del Hoyo et al. ( 1 999)]. Since the adverbial stem bi- is Latin, it cannot be part of 
a Greek adjective. The final component lophus is here the latinized Greek noun 
Ax>(|)0<; [lophos: crest]. The adjectival form would have been bicristatus (Latin) or 
di lophus (latinized from Greek). 

Neither Latin nor latinized names 

Original species-group names that are or that end in a word that is neither Latin nor 
latinized need not agree in gender with the generic name with which they are com- 
bined, and the original spelling is to be retained, with ending unchanged (ICZN 1999, 
Art.31.2.3). 

P) NEITHER LATIN NOR LATINIZED WORDS 

Transliterated words from the ancient Greek account for a good part of the names that 
are neither Latin nor latinized. Thus, whether nouns or adjectives, all names that are or 
end in a word transliterated from a language other than Latin are invariable. Therefore: 

189. Zosterops citrinella Bonaparte, 1851, must remain as is, and should not be 
changed to Z. citrinellus. The name citrinella is an Italian word (Jobling 1991); 
this is why Fringilla citrinella Pallas, 1764, is universally known as Serinus 
citrinella. 

190. Ornismyia lumachella Lesson, 1838, must be spelt Augastes lumachella, and 
should not be changed to A. lumachellus, since lumachella is an Italian word 
(Jobling 1991). 

191. Myrm [ornis] arada Hermann, 1783, must be spelt Cyphorhinus arada, and should 
not be changed to C. aradus. The word arada is a native name "often wrongly 
made to agree in gender" (Jobling 1991). 

192. Drymoica cherina Smith, 1843, must be spelt Cisticola cherina, and should not 
be changed to C. cherinus. Cherina is a local vernacular name (Dowsett & 
Dowsett-Lemaire 1993). 

193. Drymoica chiniana Smith, 1843, must be spelt Cisticola chiniana, and should 
not be changed to C. chinianus. Chiniana is a local vernacular name (Clancey 
1992). 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 41 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

194. Lanius melas Lesson, 1828, must be spelt Coracina melas or Edolisoma melas, 
and should not be changed to C. melaena [as in Peters (I960)], or E. melan [as in 
Wolters (1982)]. The Greek adjective \\zkaq [melas: black] is the very example of 
a name that must remain unchanged (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2.3 Example). 

195. Tachyphonus chrysomelas Sclater & Salvin, 1869, must be spelt Chrysothlypis 
chrysomelas, and should not be changed to C. chrysomelaena [as in AOU ( 1 998: 
571)]. See #194 above. 

196. Tanagra cyanomelas Wied, 1830, must be spelt Tangara velia cyanomelas, and 
should not be changed to T. v. cyanomelaena. See # 194 above. 

197. Hirundo holomelas Sundevall, 1850, must be spelt Psalidoprocne holomelas, 
and should not be changed to P. holomelaena. See # 194 above. 

198. Bucco leucomelas Boddaert, 1783, must be spelt Tricholaema leucomelas [as 
per Dowsett (1989)], and should not be changed to T. leucomelan [as in Peters 
(1948)], T. leucomelaena [as in Wolters (1982)], or T. leucomelaina [as in Fry et 
al (1988)]. See# 194 above. 

199. Ierax melanoleucos Blyth, 1843, must be spelt Microhierax melanoleucos [as 
per Peters (193 1)], and should not be changed to M. melanoleucus [as in Peters 
(1979a), etc.]. 

200. Myiolestes megarhynchos [sic] neos Mayr, 1931, must be spelt Colluricincla 
megarhyncha neos, and should not be changed to C. m. nea. 

201. Picus erithronothos Vieillot, 1818, must be spelt Dinopium benghalense 
erithronothos or Brachypternus benghalensis erithronothos, and should not 
be changed to D. b. erithronothon [as in Peters (1948)] or B. b. erithronotus [as 
in Wolters (1982)]. 

202. Eopsaltria chrysorrhos Gould, 1869, must be spelt Eopsaltria australis 
chrysorrhos, and should not be changed to E. a. chrysorrhoa. 

203. Coracia erythroramphos Vieillot, 1817, must be spelt Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax 
erythroramphos, and should not be changed to P. p. erythrorhamphus. 

204. Emberiza leucocephalos Gmelin, 1771, must remain as is, and should not be 
changed to E. leucocephala. 

205. Bonasa umbellus phaios Aldrich & Friedmann, 1943, must remain as is, and 
should not be changed to B. u. phaia. 

206. Zosterops xanthochroa Gray, 1 859, must remain as is, and should not be changed 
to Z. xanthochrous. The feminine forms of latinized Greek adjectives such as 
xanthochrous {-a, -urn) have the same ending as the transliterated Greek nouns 
from which they are derived (i.e. chroa, see Table 1). Since original names that 
end in chroa, chroma, mitra, oura, pareia, pleura, soma, stigma and stoma 
happen to have transliterated Greek nouns as final components, they are to be 
treated as indeclinable (ICZN 1 999, Art. 3 1 .2.3). This is why, for example, Dicaeum 
trigonostigma megastoma Hartert, 1918, has remained unchanged. On the other 
hand, original names that end in -chrous, -chroum, -chromus, -chromum, -mitrus, 
-mitrum, -ourus, -ourum, -pareius, -pareium, -pleurus, -pleurum, -somus, -somum, 
-stigmus, -stigmum, -stomus and -stomum are generally latinized Greek adjec- 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 42 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

tives, and are variable (see Sections C, D, and O above). Knowledge of the 
original name combination is always necessary for resolving such cases. 

207. Fringilla rodochroa Vigors, 1831, must be spelt Carpodacus rodochroa, and 
should not be changed to C. rodochrous [as in Sibley & Monroe (1990)] or C. 
rhodochrous [as in Peters (1968), etc.]. See # 206 above. 

208. Cisticola pyrrhomitra Reichenow, 1916, must be spelt Cisticola erythrops 
pyrrhomitra, and should not be changed to C. e. pyrrhomitrus. See # 206 above. 

209. Loxia macroura Gmelin, 1 789, must be spelt Coliuspasser macroura [as per e.g. 
Reichenow ( 1 900- 1 905)] or Euplectes macroura, and should not be changed to 
C. macrourus [as in Wolters (1982)] or E. macrourus [as in Peters (1968), etc.]. 
The name macroura ends in the transliterated Greek noun oupoc [oura: tail], and 
is to be retained with ending unchanged (see # 206 above). However, Greek 
adjectives that end in -ODpcx; [-ouros: -tailed], when properly latinized in -urus 
{-ura, -urum) [ICZN 1985: 1 86], are variable since the latinized adjectival ending 
-ura is not the transliterated noun oura (see Table 1 ). This is why Loxia melanura 
Miiller, 1773, is now known as Passer melanurus, and why Trogon melanurus 
macroura, Gould, 1838, is spelt correctly, and has always remained as is (see also 
# 99-100 above). On the other hand, in original names such as macrourus, from 
(LtaKpovjpoq [makrouros: long-tailed], only the -os ending has been latinized, but 
the name still qualifies as a latinized adjective (ICZN 1999, Glossary: latinize); this 
is why Trochilus macrourus Gmelin, 1788, is now known correctly as Eupetomena 
macroura. Knowledge of the original combination is always necessary for re- 
solving such cases. 

210. Argya amauroura Pelzeln, 1 883, must be spelt Melocichla mentalis amauroura, 
and should not be changed to M. m. amaurourus. See # 209 above. 

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Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. 1879. A Latin dictionary. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1991). 
Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. 1996. A Greek-English lexicon / with a revised supplement. Oxford 

Univ. Press. 
MacKinnon, J. & Phillipps, K. 1993. A field guide to the birds of Borneo, Sumatra, Java and 

Bali. Oxford Univ. Press. 
Marchant, S. & Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 

Vol. 1. Oxford Univ. Press. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 44 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Mayr, E. 1933. Notes on Polynesian flycatchers and revision of the genus Clytorhynchus Elliot. Amer. 

Mus.Novit. 628:2-21. 
Mees, G.F. 1977. The subspecies of Chlidonias hybridus (Pallas), their breeding distribution and 

migration (Aves, Laridae, Sterninae). Zool. Verh. 157: 1-64. 
Molina, G.I. 1782. Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. Stamp. S. Tommaso d' Aquino, Bologna. 
Ornithological Society of New Zealand. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Random 

Century, Auckland. 
Pearson, J.T. 1841. Catalogue of the birds in the museum of the Asiatic Society. J. Asiat. Soc. 

Bengal 10 (2): 628-660. 
Peters, J.L. 1931. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 1. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1934. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 2. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1937. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 3. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 4. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1945. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 5. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1948. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 6. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1951. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 7. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1960. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 9. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
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Peters, J.L. 1967. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 12. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1968. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 14. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
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Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1979b. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 8. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
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549-550. 
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Indies. Princeton Univ. Press. 
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Mus., London. 
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Univ. Press, New Haven. 
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world. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven. 
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Simpson, J. A. & Weiner, S.C. 1989. Oxford English dictionary. 2nd edition. Oxford Univ. Press. 
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Kinabalu & Kuala Lumpur. 
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Oxford Univ. Press. 
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28-31. 
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Normand David & Michel Gosselin 



45 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



White, C.M.N. & Bruce, M.D. 1986. The birds ofWallacea. BOU Check-list 7. British Ornithologists' 

Union, London. 
Wolters, H.E. 1982. Die Vogelarten der Erde. Paul Parey, Hamburg. 
Woods, R.S. 1944. The naturalist's lexicon. Abbey Garden Press, Pasadena. 

Addresses: Normand David, 11931 Lavigne, Montreal, Quebec, H4J 1X9, Canada, 
ndavid@netrover.com; Michel Gosselin, Canadian Museum of Nature, P.O. Box 3443, Station 
D, Ottawa, Ontario, K1V 6P4, Canada, mgosselin@mus-nature.ca 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

APPENDIX 
Usage of names quoted in the present paper. 

The authors are: P = Peters (1934-1986); W = Wolters (1982); S = Sibley & Monroe (1990); H 

= Howard & Moore (1994); D = del Hoyo et al. (1992-1999); C = Clements (2000). 

Y: the correct spelling is used; n: an incorrect spelling is used; - : another combination is used; 

[blank]: the taxon is not treated. 



Correct spelling (number refers to text) 

Acrocephalus luscinius (122) 

Actenoides monachus (124) 

Aethopyga primigenia (29) 

Aglaiocercus kingi caudatus (10) 

Alcedo cyanopectus (134) 

Alcedo meninting rufigastra (158) 

Alcippe morrisonia fratercula (153) 

Amaurornis flavirostra (166) 

Amaurornis moluccana ruficrissa /A. olivacea ruficrissa (140) 

Ammodramus caudacutus alter /A. nelsoni alter (8) 

Ammodramus maritimus pelonotus (83) 

Andigena nigrirostris spilorhyncha (110) 

Anisognathus igniventris ignicrissa (138) 

Apaloderma narina littorale (45) 

Aplonis brunneicapillus (143) 

Apus acuticauda (131) 

Aratinga auricapillus (142) 

Attila spadiceus citreopyga (136) 

Augastes lumachella (190) 

Bleda canicapillus (146) 

Bonasa umbel lus castanea (43) 

Bonasa umbel lus mediana (4) 

Bonasa umbellus phaios (205) 

Brachypternus benghalensis erithronothos (200) 

Bubo bubo hemachalanus (65) 

Bubo sumatranus (61) 

Buteogallus anthracinus cancrivorus (36) 

Callipepla californica decolorata (12) 

Cardinalis cardinalis flammiger ( 1 ) 



uthors : 


P 


W 


S 


H 


D 


C 




n 


n 


n 


n 




n 




- 


Y 


Y 


n 




Y 




n 


- 


n 


n 




n 




n 


n 




n 


Y 


Y 




- 


- 


n 


- 




n 




n 


n 




n 




n 




n 


n 




n 




n 




- 


- 


Y 


- 


n 


n 


)) 


Y 


n 




n 


n 


n 




n 






n 




n 




n 






n 




n 




n 


n 




n 




n 




n 


n 




n 




n 




n 






n 




Y 




n 


- 


n 


n 




n 




n 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 




Y 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


n 




n 




n 




n 


n 


n 


n 


Y 


Y 




n 


n 


n 


n 
n 
n 
Y 


Y 
Y 

n 


n 
Y 
Y 

n 




- 


n 












n 


Y 




n 


n 


n 




n 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 


Y 




— 






Y 


n 
n 


n 




n 


Y 




n 




n 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 46 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Carpodacus edwardsii rubicundus (31) 
Carpodacus rodochroa (207) 
Carpodacus rubicilla diabolicus (13) 
Catharus fuscescens fuliginosus (18) 
Cecropis daurica melanocrissus (141) 
Celeus elegans jumanus (66) 
Cepphus columba adiantus (75) 
Ceratogymna cylindrica (71) 
Ceratogymna subcylindrica (72) 
Cettia brunnifrons umbratica (35) 
Ceyx erithaca (152) 
Ceyx rufidorsa (156) 
Chaetura spinicaudus (163) 
Chalcostigma stanleyi versigulare (56) 
Cheramoeca leucosterna (77) 
Chlidonias hybrida (120) 
Chlorostilbon stenurus (100) 
Chlorostilbon stenurus ignotus (2) 
Chrysothlypis chrysomelas (195) 
Ciccaba albitarsis (59) 
Cinclosoma castanotum (104) 
Cinnyris jugularis flavigastra (160) 
Cisticola angusticauda (130) 
Cisticola cherina (192) 
Cisticola chiniana (193) 
Cisticola erythrops pyrrhomitra (208) 
Cisticola fulvicapilla (174) 
Cisticola subruficapilla (182) 
Cladorhynchus leucocephalus (95) 
Clytorhynchus vitiensis vatuanus (68) 
Colaptes rupicola cinereicapillus (148) 
Coliuspasser macroura (209) 
Collocalia leucophaea (76) 
Collocalia spodiopygia (85) 
Colluricincla megarhyncha hybridus (154) 
Colluricincla megarhyncha neos (200) 
Columba guinea phaeonota (103) 
Columba livia gymnocycla (107) 
Conirostrum bicolor minus (23) 
Conirostrum leucogenys cyanochroum (86) 
Coracina melas (194) 
Coracina novaehollandiae larvivora (37) 
Coturnix ypsilophora plumbea (28) 
Crypturellus obsoletus hypochraceus (20) 
Crypturellus tataupa peruvianus (67) 
Cyanolyca viridicyanus (187) 
Cyanopica cyanus ( 1 83) 
Cygnus melancoryphus (96) 
Cyornis rufigastra ( 1 59) 
Cyphorhinus arada (191) 
Cyrtostomus jugularis flavigastra ( 1 60) 



n 


- 




n 




n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


n 






n 




n 


n 


Y 

n 
n 




n 




n 


n 


n 


n 




n 










n 


n 


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- 


n 


n 




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- 


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n 






Y 




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n 


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n 


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n 


n 


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n 




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n 


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n 






n 


n 


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n 


n 


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n 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 




n 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 




n 


n 


- 


- 


n 


- 


n 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 




n 
n 
n 


Y 


_ 


Y 


Y 




Y 


Y 


n 


Y 




n 


Y 


- 


n 


Y 




Y 


Y 


- 




Y 




n 


Y 


- 


n 


Y 




n 


Y 


- 


n 


Y 




n 


n 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


n 






n 




n 


Y 






n 




Y 


Y 


n 
Y 


n 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Y 


Y 


n 


- 


- 


- 


n 






n 




n 


n 






n 




n 


n 


n 




Y 


n 


Y 


n 


n 




n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 




n 


n 






n 




n 


n 


- 


Y 


Y 




Y 


n 


Y 




n 




Y 








n 


n 


n 


n 






n 


n 


n 


n 






n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


n 


Y 


n 


n 




n 


n 


- 


n 


n 


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n 


n 


- 




Y 


n 


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n 


n 




n 


- 


n 




- 




- 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 47 Bull. B.O.C. 2002. 122(1) 

Dinopium benghalense erithronothos (201) 

Discosura longicaudus (161) 

Donacobius atricapilla (127) 

Edolisoma melas (194) 

Electron platyrhynchum minus (24) 

Emberiza leucocephalos (204) 

Emblema pictum (50) 

Eolophus roseicapilla (178) 

Eopsaltha australis chrysorrhos (202) 

Euplectes macroura (209) 

Falco berigora tasmanicus (58) 

Fa/co moluccensis microbalius (69) 

Gallicolumba crinigera (38) 

Gerygone chloronota (102) 

Gerygone levigaster cantator (117) 

Grallaria andicolus (165) 

Halcyon monachus (124) 

Halcyon princeps erythrorhampha (109) 

Halcyon senegalensis fuscopileus (135) 

Halcyon chloris colonus (118) 

Heliactin bilophus (188) 

Hemispingus super ciliaris leucogastrus (115) 

Hirundo daurica melanocrissus (141) 

Hydropsalis brasiliana [= torquata] furcifer (119) 

Hylocharis cyanus (184) 

Hypsipetes flavala (129) 

Illadopsis fulvescens dilutior (14) 

/rerctf cyanogastra (112) 

7re«a puella crinigera (39) 

Jotreron hyogastrus (114) 

Jotreron melanospilus (90) 

Jotreron melanospilus chrysorrhous (91) 

Jotreron melanospilus xanthorrhous (92) 

Lamprotornis purpuroptera (185) 

Leptotila plumbeiceps notia (48) 

Leucippus fallax cervinus (11) 

Limnocorax flavirostra (166) 

Lonchura malacca rubronigra (26) 

Lorius albidinucha (132) 

Macronous gularis rubicapilla (180) 

Malacocincla abbotti obscurior (5) 

Malacocincla sepiaria (32) 

Malacopteron magnirostre cinereocapilla (173) 

Megalaima australis gigantorhina (97) 

Megalaima rubricapillus (150) 

Megascops atricapilla (128) 

Melocichla mentalis amauroura (210) 

Melocichla mentalis incana (3) 

Microhierax melanoleucos (199) 

Mionectes oleagineus maynanus (60) 

Mixornis gularis rubicapilla (180) 



n 


- 










n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 
n 
n 


n 


n 




n 


n 




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n 


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n 
n 
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n 


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n 


n 




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n 


n 


- 




n 




- 


- 


n 


n 


- 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


n 


- 


Y 


n 




n 


n 


n 




n 


n 


n 


Y 
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n 


Y 


Y 

n 
n 


Y 


Y 


i 


Y 






n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


n 


n 
n 
n 


- 


n 


- 


n 


n 


n 
n 
n 


n 


n 


- 


n 


n 






n 


n 


n 


n 
Y 


n 
n 




n 


n 




n 




n 




n 


- 


Y 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




Y 




n 


- 


n 




n 




n 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 




n 


n 


n 




n 




n 


n 






n 




n 


n 


n 
n 


n 


n 




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n 


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n 


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n 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 48 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Monarcha chrysomela nitidus (27) 
Monarcha chrysomela pulcherrimus (5 1 ) 
Myioborus castaneocapilla (171) 

Nectarinia hahessinica altera (6) 

Nectarinia jugular is flavigastra (160) 

Neochelidcm tibialis minima (46) 

Neocrex columbiana (63) 

Neophema chrysostoma (70) 

Nesillas aldabrana (62) 

Nesoclopeus poecilopterus (74) 

Nigrita canicapillus (145) 

Oenanthe alhonigra (25) 

Ornithion brunneicapillus (144) 

Ortalis ruficauda baliola (42) 

(9//LV atricapilla (128) 

Otyphantes nigrimentus (157) 

Pachycephala leucogastra (111) 

Pachycephala melanura spinicaudus / P. pectoralis spinicaudus (164) 

Pachycephala pectoralis macrorhyncha (79) 

Pachycephala phaionota (101) 

Pachyptila desolata altera (7) 

Paramythia montium alpina (41) 

Paramythia montium olivacea (49) 

Parisoma layardi subsolanum (53) 

Parus palustris hypermelaenus (73) 

Pelargopsis amauroptera (89) 

Pelecanoides urinatrix (155) 

Pellorneum fuscocapillus (149) 

Pellorneum pyrrogenys canicapillus (147) 

Phaenicophaeus leschenaultii infuscatus (21) 

Phaethon rubricauda roseotinctus (54) 

Phalaropus fulicarius (17) 

Phoenicurus caeruleocephala (186) 

Phoenicurus erythrogastrus (113) 

Phoenicurus erythronotus (82) 

Phylloscopus ruficapilla (181) 

Pindalus ruficapilla (181) 

Pipra pipra minima (47) 

Platycercus elegans melanopterus (78) 

Platycichla flavipes xanthoscela (98) 

Ploceus nigrimentus (157) 

Ploceus pelzelni monacha (123) 

Poecile atricapillus (151) 

Poecilotriccus capital is (9) 

Pogoniulus bilineatus leucolaimus (81) 

Polyplectron malacense (57) 

Prinia crinigera (40) 

Prionochilus percussus ignicapi/la (176) 

Psalidoprocne holomelas (197) 

Pteruthius xanthochlorus hybrida (121) 

Ptilinopus hyogastrus (1 14) 



n 






n 




n 


Y 


- 




n 




n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


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n 




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n 


n 






n 


n 


n 


n 


Y 




n 




n 


n 


Y 


n 


n 




n 


n 


Y 




n 




n 


n 


- 


n 


n 




- 


Y 


Y 


n 


- 




n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


Y 


Y 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


- 


- 




n 




n 


- 


- 




- 


n 


Y 


n 






n 


n 


n 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 


n 


n 


n 


- 


n 


n 




n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


Y 


- 


n 


Y 




n 


Y 


n 


Y 


Y 




n 


n 




Y 




n 


n 


Y 




n 


n 


n 


n 


- 




n 




n 


n 


- 


n 


n 




n 


n 


- 


n 


n 




n 


- 


n 


- 


- 




Y 


n 


- 


Y 


n 




Y 


n 


- 


n 


n 




n 


n 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


Y 


n 




Y 




n 


n 


n 


Y 


Y 




Y 


n 


- 




n 




n 


n 


- 


n 


n 


n 


n 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 49 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Ptilinopus magnificus interpositus (22) 

Ptilinopus magnificus poliurus (99) 

Ptilinopus melanospilus (90) 

Ptilinopus melanospilus chrysorrhous (91) 

Ptilinopus melanospilus xanthorrhous (92) 

Ptilinopus roseicapilla (179) 

Ptilinopus viridis geelvinckianus (64) 

Ptilorrhoa caerulescens nigricrissus (139) 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax erythroramphos (203) 

Ramphomicron microrhynchum andicola (137) 

Regulus ignicapilla ( 1 75) 

Seiurus aurocapilla (169) 

Sericornis magnirostra (167) 

Serinus gularis canicapilla (170) 

Serinus leucolaemus (87) 

Serinus xantholaemus (88) 

Stactolaema whytii terminata (55) 

Sthenelides melancoryphus (96) 

Streptopelia decaocto xanthocycla (106) 

SYnx albitarsis (59) 

Tangara velia cyanomelas (196) 

Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus (15) 

Thalasseus sandvicensis eurygnathus (80) 

Thalassornis leuconotus (93) 

Todiramphus chloris colonus (118) 

Todiramphus pyrrhopygius (84) 

Todiramphus tutus (34) 

Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum simile (52) 

Todirostrum plumbeiceps cinereipectus (133) 

Trichastoma pyrrogenys canicapillus (147) 

Trichixos pyrropygus (108) 

Tricholaema leucomelas (198) 

Tyrannus forficatus (16) 

7yfo capensis librata (44) 

Upucerthia ruficaudus (162) 

Uraeginthus cyanocephalus (94) 

Uraeginthus granatinus (19) 

Uraeginthus granatinus retusus (30) 

Uraeginthus granatinus siccatus (33) 

F/Veo atricapilla (126) 

Viridibucco bilineatus leucolaimus (81) 

Xantholaema rubricapillus (150) 

Xiphorhynchus ocellatus lineatocapilla (177) 

Zimmerius cinereicapilla (172) 

Zoothera citrina cyanota (105) 

Zosterops atricapilla (125) 

Zosterops citrinella (189) 

Zosterops fuscicapilla ( 1 68) 

Zosterops poliogastrus (116) 

Zosterops xanthochroa (206) 



- 






n 


n 


n 


- 


- 




n 


n 


n 


n 


- 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


- 




n 


n 


n 


n 


- 




n 


n 


n 


Y 


n 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 




n 


n 


n 




n 




n 


n 






n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


Y 


- 




Y 




n 


n 




n 


n 




n 




- 


n 






n 




n 
n 




n 




n 


n 




n 


n 


n 


- 


Y 


n 


- 


Y 


- 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


Y 


- 


n 


n 


- 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 


- 






- 




n 


- 


Y 


n 


- 




n 


- 


Y 


n 


- 




n 


n 






n 




n 


n 






n 




n 


n 


n 




- 




- 


- 


n 


n 


- 




n 


n 


n 


Y 


Y 




Y 


n 


Y 


Y 


Y 




Y 


n 






n 


n 




n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


n 


Y 


Y 


n 




Y 


n 




n 


n 




n 


n 






n 




n 


n 






n 




n 


n 


n 
n 


n 


n 




n 


n 


n 


— 


n 




n 


n 


- 


n 


n 




n 


n 


n 




n 




n 


Y 


n 


n 


Y 




n 


Y 


Y 


n 


Y 




n 


Y 


n 


n 


Y 




n 


n 


n 


n 


n 




n 


Y 


n 


n 


Y 




n 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 50 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Taxonomy of the Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus 

Lichtenstein inferred from biometrics and wing 

plumage pattern, including two previously 

undescribed subspecies 

by Frederic Jiguet 

Received 16 January 2001 

The Kelp Gull's Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein extensive range discontinuously 
encircles the globe in a broad subantarctic belt, where breeding occurs mainly on 
isolated islands. By contrast, Kelp Gulls also breed on continental South America 
where their latitudinal range extends over c. 60°, reaching a northern limit at the 
equator (Higgins & Davies 1 996, Haase 1 996). The species breeds in South America 
(including the Falklands and South Georgia, and north to Ecuador on the west coast 
and in Brazil to 26°S on the east coast), Antarctica (and South Shetlands, South 
Orkneys, South Sandwich Islands), New Zealand, New Zealand islands, Macquarie 
Island, Australia, southern Africa, southern Madagascar and subantarctic Indian 
Ocean (Kerguelen, Crozet, Heard, Marion and Prince Edward Islands). There have 
been no detailed studies of geographical variation in the species, and populations 
have not proved to separate clearly into subspecies on the basis of measurements 
(Dwight 1925), but Higgins & Davies (1996) suggested that latitudinal and longitudinal 
analyses of measurements might reveal clines. Kinsky (1963) considered, from 
measurements of New Zealand birds, that all measurements increase up to three 
years old; though often quoted in later literature, this was never tested statistically. 

The Kelp Gull has customarily been divided into two subspecies (Brooke & Cooper 
1 979): L. d. vetula breeding in South Africa and Namibia and recognised by its large 
size and dark iris in breeding adults (Brooke & Cooper 1979), and the nominate 
subspecies breeding in all other locations. Birds from Madagascar are of unknown 
status (Brooke & Cooper 1979, Morris & Hawkins 1998, Sinclair & Langrand 1998). 
Previous studies of geographical variation in this species have considered biometrics 
and iris colouration, but not plumage characters. However, Jiguet et al. (200 1 ) recently 
illustrated the existence of marked geographical variation in primary pattern and bare 
parts colouration. Nominate birds show the classic wing pattern of the species: one 
white mirror - on the longest outermost primary - and an average of two white tongues 
on median primaries, isolating the black tip of the feather on the inner web. 

In this study, I first investigate the relationship between biometrics and age in 
one population, in order to test Kinsky 's (1963) hypothesis. I also investigate latitudinal 
clinal variation of biometrics for populations inhabiting South America. I finally 
segregate birds of different geographical origin using biometrics alone, or biometrics 
and wing pattern, and identify groups that could correspond to distinct subspecies. 



Frederic Jiguet 5 1 Bull. B. O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Material and methods 

Study material 

Birds used in the analyses were the 243 specimens held at the Museum national 
d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN) and the Natural History Museum, Tring, 
UK (BMNH). Each bird was referenced according to the locality of collection. Not all 
specimens were sexed, so sample sizes used in the analyses vary according whether 
sex is taken into account. One specimen preserved at the BMNH, said to have been 
collected in South Africa, was part of the Meinertzhagen collection (registration n° 
1965/m/3982). Due to concerns over the mis-labelling of Meinertzhagen specimens 
(Knox 1993), this was excluded from further analyses on biometrics, but was included 
in principal components and discriminant analyses to verify its geographical origin. 

Biometrics and wing pattern 

Maximum wing chord, tarsus length, culmen length, bill depth at gonys and bill depth 
at the base of the nostrils were measured (nearest mm) by the author on all specimens. 
Birds in active moult of the longest primaries were excluded from analyses involving 
wing length. Two wing plumage characters of adult birds were recorded (Fig. 1): (1) 
the number of white mirrors on the two longest primaries (primaries numbered 
decendantly; recorded as 1 if present on P10 only; 1.5 if present on P10 and very 
restricted on P9; 2 if obviously present on both P9 and PI 0); (2) the number of white 
tongues between black tip and sooty black base on median primaries from P4 outwards 
(range 1-3). 

Age-related variations in biometrics 

To test whether size increases with age (Kinsky 1963), only males from subantarctic 
Indian Ocean islands provided an adequate sample of known-age birds. Twenty-four 
birds available were 7 first-, 3 second-, 5 third-years and 9 adults. Their biometrics 
were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests. 

Latitudinal variations in biometrics 

Clinal variations of biometrics (tarsus and wing lengths) were sought in Kelp Gulls 
from South America, involving birds collected from 6°S (Lobos de Tierra, off Peru) to 
56°S (Cape Horn, Patagonia), and including the Falklands and South Georgia. Only 
adult birds were considered to limit the inclusion of vagrant birds, as non-breeding 
immature birds are more inclined to disperse than adults (Higgins & Davies 1996). 
Pearson's correlation coefficients between biometric variables and latitude of 
collection were calculated for each sex. 

Geographical variations 

Univariate and descriptive statistics (Analysis of Variance) of biometrics and 
multivariate statistics (Principal Components Analysis, Multiple Analysis of Variance 
and Discriminant Analysis) of biometrics alone or both biometrics and wing plumage 
variables were used to look for geographical variations. 



Frederic Jiguet 



52 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 





Figure 1. Outer primary pattern (from P5 to P10, primaries numbered descendantly) of adult 
Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus from different geographical origins, to show how the mirror and 
tongue scores were recorded, a) a nominate dominicanus from eastern South America (mirror 
score MS 1, tongue score TS 2); b) an Antarctic bird (MS 1, TS 3); c) a Malagasy bird (MS 1, TS 
1); d) a bird from Kerguelen (MS 2, TS 3) 



I performed two different Principal Component Analyses (PCA). In a first PCA, 
I considered only the five biometric variables, for birds at least 3 years old (as some 
measurements increase until this age, see Kinsky (1963) and below). In a second 
PCA, I included both biometrics and wing plumage variables for adults only. 



Frederic Jiguet 5 3 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 . 1 22( 1 ) 

I further used parametric Discriminant Analysis and an error rate estimate in 
classification - the jack-knife cross-validation technique (Wilkinson 1990) - to test 
how birds from geographically distinct origins discriminate. This technique provides 
an upper limit of error count estimates. The jack-knife classification matrix uses 
functions computed from all data except the case being classified. I performed two 
different discriminant analyses involving only adult birds. The first involved only 
biometrics, the second biometrics and plumage variables. The locations of collection 
were grouped into ten different global areas that are well separated geographically: 
southern Africa, eastern South America (from 23° to 34°S: north Argentina, Brazil and 
Paraguay, where the nominate form/,, d. dominicanus is supposed to occur), western 
South America (from 6° to 4 1 °S: Peru, north and central Chile), Patagonia (from 5 1 ° to 
56°S: southern Argentina and southern Chile, i.e. southern South America), Falkland 
Islands (52°S), South Georgia (55°S), Antarctica (64-65°S), New Zealand, Madagascar 
and subantarctic Indian Ocean islands (Kerguelen, Crozet and Heard Islands). Adult 
birds of both sexes and of unknown sex were used together in the discriminant 
analyses. Therefore, populations that would highly discriminate should be controlled 
for sex-ratio, to verify that they are not totally biased towards one sex, and that the 
statistical model is not merely discriminating males and females. Unfortunately, sample 
sizes were too small to separate sexes in the multivariate analyses. 

All statistical analyses were performed using SYSTAT (Wilkinson 1990). Statistical 
tests were considered significant at P < 0.05. 

Results 

Age-related and latitudinal variations in Kelp Gull biometrics 

The biometrics of males of different ages from the subantarctic Indian Ocean islands 
revealed that neither wing chord (df = 3; H = 3.45, P = 0.327), nor tarsus (H = 0.94, P = 
0.816) nor culmen length (H = 4.94, P = 0. 1 76) varied with age. Only bill depth increased 
with age (H= 12.68, P = 0.005 for depth at gonys,andH= 10.83, P = 0.013 for depth at 
nostrils), but no significant differences remained between 3 -year old and adult birds 
(df = 1 ; H = 3.24, P > 0. 1 for gonys, and H = 0.04, P > 0.8 for nostrils). For these reasons, 
further univariate analyses involving wing chord, tarsus and culmen lengths include 
data on birds of all ages mixed (from fully grown juveniles to adults), while those 
involving bill depths include only data on birds at least three years old. All multivariate 
analyses use only data on adult birds. 

Pearson's correlation coefficients between biometric variables and latitude of 
collection for each sex of Kelp Gull in South America showed that culmen length 
varied significantly with latitude in both males and females, with the longest culmen 
in the north, the shortest in the south (Table 1). Wing chord was not significantly 
related to latitude, while tarsus was weakly so for females. 

Biometrics, wing plumage pattern and geographical location of origin 

I found differences in biometrics when comparing birds from different populations 
using univariate statistics, with most differences concerning wing and culmen lengths 



Frederic Jiguet 



54 



Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



TABLE 1 



Pearson's correlation coefficient between latitude and biometric variables in adult male 

(n = 33) and female (n = 22) Kelp Gulls of South America, from Peru to Patagonia 

(including the Falklands and South Georgia). P values are two-tailed, 

and values in bold are still significant after Bonferroni correction. 







Male 






Female 




Variable 


r 




P 


r 




P 


Wing 


-0.085 




n.s. 


-0.119 




n.s. 


Tarsus 


-0.145 




n.s. 


-0.540 




< 0.01 


Exposed culmen 


-0.619 




< 0.001 


-0.637 




< 0.002 


Gonys depth 


0.098 




n.s. 


-0.022 




n.s. 


Nostrils depth 


0.088 




n.s. 


0.102 




n.s. 



(Table 2; see also Table 6). A Principal Components Analysis, performed to visualise 
the geographical variations in the five biometric variables for adults (Table 3), did not 
suggest a clear separation between birds from different origins, or between already 
recognised subspecies, with large overlaps between all of them (Fig. 2a). However 
Antarctic birds appeared to separate well on a graph with principal components 1 and 
3 as axes (Fig. 2b). I further performed a Discriminant Analysis, considering the ten 
groups of geographically different origins as different a priori groups (Table 4; n = 

TABLE 2 

Univariate tests comparing biometrics of Kelp Gulls from different populations. See Table 7 
for details on biometrics of all populations considered and their name abbreviations. 



Sex 




Statistic 1 


P 


Male 


Wing length 


F 9 , 99 =H-3 


< 0.001 




Tarsus length 


F „02 = 3 - 55 


0.001 




Exposed culmen 


F„o 2 = 15.5 


< 0.001 




Gonys depth 


F , 59 = 2 - 57 


0.014 3 




Nostril depth 


F , 59 = 3 - 21 


0.030 3 


Female 


Wing length 


F 9g3 = 6.89 


< 0.001 




Tarsus length 


F , 84 = 2 - 31 


0.023 3 




Exposed culmen 


p 9 ,3 = 10.8 


< 0.001 




Gonys depth 


F 953 = 2.35 


0.026 3 




Nostril depth 


F 953 = 0.85 


> 0.5 



differing populations 2 

Ju/Do, Ju/Pa, Ju/Au, Me/Au, Au/Nz, Au/Fa, 

Au/SA 

Ju/Ve 

Ju/Ve, Ju/SA, Ju/Me, Me/SG, Do/Fa, Do/SG, 

Do/Au, Au/Ve, Au/SA, Fa/SG, Fa/SA, Fa/ 

Ve, SG/Ve, SG/Nz, SG/Pa, SG/SA 



Ju/Pa, Ju/Au, Au/Do, Au/Ve, Au/SA, Au/Fa 

Ju/Ve, Ju/SA, Ju/Me, Me/Fa, Me/SG, Ve/Fa, 
Ve/SG, SA/Fa, SA/SG 



1. Comparisons using One-way ANOVA 

2. Using Scheffe a posteriori test (significance level at 0.05) 

3. Not significant after Bonferroni correction 



Frederic Jiguet 



55 



Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



2 -i 



1 



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o 

Q_ 



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•• 




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• A+ « A 






2 4 

PC1 



■ Eastern S. America 
a Western S. America 
+ Patagonia 

* Antarctica 
a Falklands 

a South Georgia 

South Africa 
o Madagascar 

• sub. Indian Ocean 
- New Zealand 

<8> Meinertzhagen spec. 



CO 

O 

Q. 



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■ Eastern S. America 
a Western S. America 
+ Patagonia 
x Antarctica 

Falklands 
a South Georgia 

South Africa 

Madagascar 
• sub. Indian Ocean 
- New Zealand 

Meinertzhagen spec. 



Figure 2. Scatter plots of the first three Principal Components by pairs (a: PCI and PC2, b: PCI 
and PC3), resulting from a PCA performed on 131 adult Kelp Gulls, using five biometric characters. 
The Antarctic birds are individualized on both figures. 



Frederic Jiguet 



56 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



TABLE 3 



Results of a Principal Components Analysis performed on 131 adult Kelp Gulls, using five 

biometric characters. PCI is positively correlated to all biometric variables, while PC2 is 

negatively correlated to the bill depths measures and positively to the other three measures. 





PC 1 


Eigen value 


3.169 


% variance explained 


63.39 


Cumulative % 


63.39 


Correlation with axis : 




- Wing 


0.748 


- Tarsus 


0.799 


- Culmen 


0.741 


- Depth at gonys 


0.836 


- Depth at nostril 


0.850 



PC 2 

0.859 
17.18 
80.57 

0.348 
0.315 
0.411 
-0.499 
-0.470 



PC 3 
0.483 

9.66 
90.23 

-0.532 
0.056 
0.443 
0.014 
0.016 



130 individuals; five biometric variables only). Multivariate Analysis of Variance 
was highly significant (Wilk's Lambda = 0.120, F = 7.05, df = 45, P < 0.001). Using 
resubstitution and error count estimates, no individual from Antarctica and South 
Georgia, and only 12% of Malagasy birds, were mis-classified. As resubstitution 
gives an optimistic estimate of error rate, we also used cross-validation error rate 
estimate (with a jack-knife classification matrix), which again correctly classified 100% 
of Antarctic birds, 88% of Malagasy birds, but 0% of South Georgian birds (though 
expected as sample size is very small, n = 2). No mis-classified bird from Patagonia 
was attributed to the Antarctic group. In conclusion, segregation is well achieved 
between Antarctic and to a lesser degree Malagasy birds and all others on the basis 
ofbiometrics. 

TABLE 4 

Results of a discriminant analysis performed on 130 adult Kelp Gulls (the Meinertzhagen 
specimen is excluded), using five biometric variables only. 



Geographical origin 


No. of 


% 


correct 


in 


% correct in jack-knife 




birds 


classi 


fication 


matrix 


classification matrix 


eastern South America 


8 




50 




25 


western South America 


17 




35 




24 


Patagonia 


1 1 




45 




27 


Falklands 


22 




45 




45 


South Georgia 


2 




100 







Antarctica 


7 




100 




100 


New Zealand 


17 




41 




41 


Madagascar 


8 




88 




88 


South Africa 


15 




33 




27 


subantarctic Indian Ocean 


23 




57 




52 



Frederic Jiguet 57 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1] 

TABLE 5 

Results of a Principal Components Analysis performed on 131 adult Kelp Gulls, using five 

biometric and two wing plumage characters. PCI is positively correlated to all five biometric 

measures, and negatively to the mirror number. PC2 is positively correlated to the wing 

plumage variables and bill depth measures, and negatively to the culmen length. 

PC 1 PC 2 

Eigen value 3.27 1.51 

% variance explained 46.7 21.6 

Cumulative % 46.7 68.3 
Correlation with axis : 

- Wing 0.771 -0.092 

- Tarsus 0.803 -0.043 
-Culmen 0.782 -0.381 

- Depth at gonys 0.785 0.491 

- Depth at nostril 0.805 0.444 

- Number of white mirror(s) -0.375 0.660 

- Number of white tongue(s) -0.132 0.694 



The second Principal Components Analysis, that examined geographical variations 
using biometrics plus the two wing plumage variables for adults (Table 5), suggests 
a separation between birds from the subantarctic Indian Ocean from all other Indian 
Ocean populations (Fig. 3). Birds from Madagascar also separate from all other 
populations, with no overlap, even with birds from the closest populations 
(subantarctic Indian Ocean and southern Africa). I further performed a Discriminant 
Analysis, considering again the ten groups from geographically different origins as 

TABLE 6 

Results of a discriminant analysis performed on 131 adult Kelp Gulls 

(the Meinertzhagen specimen is included with South African birds), 

using five biometric and two plumage characters. 



Geographical origin 


No. of birds 


% correct 


in 


% correct in jack-knife 






classification 


matrix 


classification matrix 


eastern South America 


8 


63 




38 


western South America 


17 


41 




29 


Patagonia 


11 


55 




27 


Falklands 


22 


68 




59 


South Georgia 


2 


100 







Antarctica 


7 


100 




100 


New Zealand 


17 


29 




24 


Madagascar 


8 


100 




100 


South Africa 


16 


38 




25 


subantarctic Indian Ocean 


23 


100 




100 



Frederic Jiguet 



58 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



O 
Q. 



-1 



-6 




2 

PC1 



a South America 

+ Patagonia 

x Antarctica 

a Falklands 

a South Georgia 

o South Africa 

o Madagascar 

• sub. Indian Ocean 

- New Zealand 

© Meinertzhagen sp. 



Figure 3. Scatter plot of the first two Principal Components, resulting from a PC A performed on 
131 adult Kelp Gulls, using five biometric and two plumage characters. The three populations 
breeding in the south-western Indian Ocean are individualized (top: subantarctic; middle: southern 
Africa; bottom: Madagascar). 



different a priori groups (Table 6). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was highly 
significant (Wilk's Lambda = 0.027, F = 9.27, df = 63, P < 0.001). Using resubstitution 
and error count estimates, no individual from Antarctica, South Georgia, subantarctic 
Indian Ocean and Madagascar was mis-classified. The cross-validation error rate 
estimate again correctly classified 100% of Antarctic, subantarctic Indian Ocean and 
Malagasy birds. No mis-classified bird from Patagonia was attributed to the Antarctic 
group. In conclusion, segregation is well achieved between at least three groups and 
all other populations, on the basis of biometrics and wing pattern combined. All of 
these groups include males and females with no highly skewed sex ratio. In this 
discriminant analysis, the Meinertzhagen specimen was classified with subantarctic 
Indian Ocean birds; this origin is also supported by its position on Fig. 3 and its 
observed phenotype (very short bill: 44.2 mm, two white mirrors, three obvious white 
tongues; see Tables 7 and 8). This bird could be either mis-labelled (Knox 1993), a 
vagrant from e.g. Marion Island collected on mainland Africa (records of non vetula 
birds are very scarce but have occurred; Brooke et al. ( 1 982)), or a bird collected on 
e.g. Marion Island (a South African possession) and labelled 'South Africa'. It was 
excluded from calculations in Tables 7 and 8. 



Frederic Jiguet 



59 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



60 



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E 

c 

£ 50 

c 
CD 



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=3 
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"D 
CD 
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O 
Q. 
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40 



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480 



460 



440 c 

3 

420 cq 
o 

400 ! 

3 
380 — 



f m f m f m f m f m 

dominicanus vetula judithae melisandae austrinus 



360 



25 



23 



E 
E 
c 21 



QL 

■o 19 



CD 



17 



15 



• Bill depth at gonys 

° Bill depth at base of nostrils 



fm f m fm fm fm 

dominicanus vetula judithae melisandae austrinus 



Figure 4. Comparisons of some biometrics (in mm) of females (0 and males (m) of the five 
different subspecies of Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus; a) maximum wing chord (black dots and 
unbroken lines) and exposed culmen length (white dots and dotted lines); b) bill depths at gonys 
(black dots and unbroken lines) and at base of nostrils (white dots and dotted lines). 



Frederic Jiguet 60 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

TABLE 7 

Measurements (in mm) of Larus dominicanus from different subspecies and / or 
geographical localities and of L. f. fuscus and L. f. intermedius (for comparison). 

Bill 

Sex/;/ (n2) Maximum wing chord Tarsus length exposed culmen length depth at gonys depth at nostril 
Do - Larus dominicanus dominicanus (Brazil, North Argentina, Paraguay) 

M 7 (5) 432.7 ±18.5 (417-464) 64.4 ± 4.5 (57.9-72.1) 54.0 ± 3.9 (51.2-61.2) 21.4 ± 1.6 (20.5-23.5) 19.8 ± 1 .2 ( 18.8-2 1.1) 

F 5 (3) 404.7 ± 13.7 (395-425) 60.2 ± 4.0 (54.5-65.6) 48.5 ± 4.1 (45.0-54.7) 18.7 11.3(17.4-20.0) 17.0+1.1(16.0-18.1) 

Ve - Larus dominicanus vetula (South Africa) 

M 12(7) 423.7 i 11.1 (408-440) 66.7 ± 4.4 (57.6-72.0) 54.2 ± 2.5 (48.4-57.3) 22.2 ± 1.5 (19.8-24.7) 20.2 + 1.0 (18.6-21.4) 

F 11 (9) 400.1 ± 13.0 (373-417) 61.2 ± 2.3 (56.6-64.1) 50.3 + 1.6(47.5-52.7) 19.9 ± 0.5 (19.0-21.0) 17.9 + 0.5(17.1-19.0) 

Ju - Larus dominicanus judithae ssp. nov. (subantarctic Indian Ocean) 

M 24(14) 406.5 ± 11.2 (382-428) 61.8 + 3.2(55.8-68.9) 48.0+1.6(44.4-50.5) 21.2 + 0.8(19.5-22.4) 19.7 + 0.9(18.2-21.3) 

F 9(9) 385.2+13.1(362-410) 58.3 + 1.6(55.7-60.4) 44.5 ± 1.9 (41.8-47.9) 19.3 + 1.1(18.0-22.0) 17.4+1.1(15.7-19.4) 

Me - Larus dominicanus melisandae ssp. nov. (Madagascar) 

M 5(3)408.3+10.4(400-420) 59.3 + 1.2(58.0-60.0) 55.4+1.6(53.8-57.0) 19.7 + 0.5(19.2-20.2) 18.7 ± 0.6 (18.0-20.2) 

F 7 (5) 402.2 ± 14.6 (380-418) 60.5 + 1.8(58.3-63.2) 52.1+2.3(49.6-54.6) 18.2 + 0.6(17.4-18.8) 17.2 + 0.6(16.8-18.3) 

Au - Larus dominicanus austrinus (Antarctica and Antarctic Islands) 

M 13(5) 442.0 ± 8.3 (421-457) 62.0 + 2.4(58.1-65.2) 49.0+1.8(46.0-51.9) 19.9 + 0.6(19.3-20.7) 18.2 + 0.9(17.1-19.3) 

F 7(2) 429.1 ± 8.6 (414-442) 59.8 ± 3.6 (55.1-65.2) 45.9+1.5(43.7-47.4) 18.9-19.8 17.0-17.3 

A: - Larus dominicanus (New Zealand) 

M 9(6)418.1 + 11.7(396-432) 62.9 ± 2.7 (58.4-67.2) 50.2 + 2.4(45.4-53.2) 20.8+1.5(18.5-22.6) 18.6+1.0(17.1-20.2) 

F 11(6)405.8+14.6(391-436) 61.0 + 2.7(57.0-66.3) 47.4 + 3.2(42.1-51.5) 19.9+1.0(18.6-21.9) 17.2 + 0.7(16.6-18.7) 

SA - Larus dominicanus (North and Central Chile, Peru, i.e. western South America) 

M 14(9) 417.2+ 15.4(390-444) 64.9 + 4.3(56.7-73.8) 53.0 + 3.3(46.4-59.0) 20.5+1.3(18.2-21.9) 18.8 ± 1.4 (17.0-20.8) 

F 19(9)400.2+11.5(379-422) 62.3 + 3.1(58.0-66.8) 49.9 ± 3.2 (46.0-58.9) 19.9 + 0.8(18.9-21.3) 17.9+1.0(16.8-19.8) 

Pa - Larus dominicanus (Patagonia) 

M 8 (4) 438.7 ± 10.5 (425-455) 63.4 + 2.2(60.0-67.4) 51.0+1.9(49.0-54.3) 22.4+1.5(20.9-24.4) 20.6+1.2(19.8-22.4) 

F 9 (6) 412.2 ± 13.6 (398-440) 58.7 ± 3.1 (54.5-63.6) 47.6 + 1.4(46.0-50.8) 19.3 + 0.8(17.9-20.2) 17.7+1.1(16.7-19.4) 

Fa - Larus dominicanus (Falkland Islands) 

M 20(14)418.6+ 10.4(401-432) 63.7 + 2.4(59.5-68.0) 49.3 + 2.3(45.0-53.4) 21.3 + 1.1(19.8-23.9) 19.7 ± 1.0 (17.9-21.2) 

F 11(8)401.2 + 9.2(385-416) 60.3 ± 3.3 (55.1-64.5) 44.7 + 2.5(40.8-49.4) 19.2 + 0.8(18.1-20.3) 1 7.6 ± 0.9 ( 16.4-19. 1 ) 

SG - Larus dominicanus (South Georgia) 

M 4(2) 418.7 + 5.1(413-423) 61.0+1.9(58.1-62.2) 43.7 ± 2.0 (41.0-45.4) 19.7-21.6 17.6-19.1 

F 4(2) 401.7 ± 8.4 (394-410) 59.0 + 4.2(54.6-64.6) 42.0+1.6(40.1-43.5) 18.6-19.0 16.7-17.0 

/.. fuscus fuscus (collected in Middle East and East Africa) 

M 9' 435.6 + 7.1(426-446) 59.5 ± 2.6 (55.2-62.3) 50.5 ± 1.6 (48.1-52.7) 16.4 + 0.9(15.5-18.5) 15.9 ± 0.8 (15.2-17.2) 

F 5 410.6+10.9(394-422) 59.1 + 1.7(56.8-61.0) 46.1 ± 2.1 (44.4-49.7) 15.5+1.2(14.2-17.4) 14.7 ± 1.0 (13.9-16.1) 

L. fuscus intermedins (collected in North Europe and North Africa) 

VI 6 416.8+14.6(403-437) 61.0 ± 1.1 (59.3-62.4) 50.9 ± 2.0 (47.7-53.0) 15.8 + 0.6(15.0-16.6) 15.1+0.8(14.3-16.0) 

F 6 396.2 + 6.3(389-404) 56.6 ± 1.8 (53.9-58.8) 46.1+2.7(42.4-50.0) 14.7 + 0.5(14.1-15.5) 14.2 + 0.6(13.6-15.1) 

Nous. Measurements are mean ± standard deviation (range), M = male, F = female. Area and 
place names in parentheses indicate where specimen were collected, nl: sample size including 

adult and all immature birds for which I present wing, tarsus and exposed culmen 
measurements. n2: sample size of adult and immature birds at least three years old for which I 
present also bill depth measurements. 



Frederic Jiguet 




61 
TABLE 8 


Bull. 


B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 


Mirror and tongue scores of Larus 


dominicanus from different localities 


and of L. f. fuscus 


and L. f. intermedins (for 


comparison). 


Means ± s.d. (ranges). 


Taxon and / or locality 




N 


Mirror score 


Tongue score 


Larus dominie anus dominicanus 




8 


1 


1.8 ± 0.3 (1.5-2) 


L. dominicanus vetula 




15 


1.0 ± 0.1 (1-1.5) 


1.9 ± 0.5 (1,5-3) 


L. dominicanus austrinus 




7 


1 


2.9 ± 0.4 (2-3.5) 


L. dominicanus judithae ssp. nov. 




23 


2 


2.4 ± 0.5 (2-3) 


L. dominicanus melisandae ssp. nov. 




8 


1 


1.2 ± 0.3 (1-1.5) 


L. dominicanus - western South America 


18 


1 


1.9 ± 0.4 (1-3) 


L. dominicanus - Patagonia 




11 


1.1 ± 0.2 (1-1.5) 


2.5 ± 0.5 (2-3) 


L. dominicanus - Falklands 




22 


1.1 ± 0.2 (1-1.5) 


2.7 ± 0.4 (2-3) 


L. dominicanus - South Georgia 




3 


1 


2.7 ± 0.6 (2-3) 


L. dominicanus - New Zealand 




17 


1.2 ± 0.4 (1-2) 


2.2 ± 0.6 (1-3) 


L. fuscus fuscus 




14 


1.1 ± 0.3 (1-2) 


0.8 ± 0.5 (0-1.5) 


L. fuscus intermedius 




12 


1.0 ± 0.1 (1-1.5) 


0.7 ± 0.4 (0-1.5) 




Discussion 





Age-related and clinal variations in biometrics 

Kinsky's (1963) hypothesis that, apart from tarsi and toes, Kelp Gulls continue to 
grow during their first three years of life was not supported by my statistical analysis 
of males from subantarctic islands. Here, wing length, tarsus and culmen length 
attained full size within the first year, and only bill depth continued to increase up to 
the third year. However, the generality of this conclusion requires confirmation through 
statistical analysis of adequate samples from females from the subantarctic islands 
and from both sexes of other populations. Table 7 presents biometric data for males 
and females of different geographical origins, with wing, tarsus and culmen 
measurements considering all birds from fully-grown juveniles to adults, while bill 
depth measurements concern only birds at least three years old. 

In terms of geographical variation, Saunders ( 1 896) claimed that within Kerguelen, 
Kelp Gulls exhibited a range of variation in size that equalled variation throughout 
the rest of the species' range. Kinsky (1963), however, thought that within New 
Zealand Kelp Gulls did vary in size geographically, but this conclusion was not 
supported statistically. Here, I demonstrated clinal variation in the bill and tarsus, but 
not wing length, over the species' latitudinal range in South America, the only regions 
for which adequate samples of specimens were available. Within South America and 
its southern islands, however, statistically significant non-clinal variation in wing 
length was discovered. Birds from the Falklands and South Georgia, which are resident 
( Murphy 1 936, Prince & Payne 1 979), had the shortest wings, while birds of continental 
origin from Patagonia and the eastern coast had significantly longer wings. This 
difference might be related to differing migration tendencies if continental birds prove 
to move longer distances than the island forms. 



Frederic Jiguet 62 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Distinctiveness of Kelp Gull populations 

This study revealed that biometrics of vetula are similar to that of nominate 
dominicanus (contra Brooke & Cooper 1979), while both are obviously larger than 
birds from the southern Indian Ocean (Brooke & Cooper 1979). As dark iris colour in 
breeding adults occurs in many parts of the species' range (Jiguet et al. 2001), vetula 
is probably best identified in the field by its bare parts colours (especially orange - 
not red - orbital ring turning to pale yellow in winter), though vetula is in fact largely 
discriminated by skull morphology, as pointed out by Chu (1998). Antarctic birds 
differed clearly from other populations in having short and slim bills and long wings. 
Birds from subantarctic Indian Ocean islands and from Madagascar are distinct from 
all other populations of Kelp Gull. The characteristic wing patterns of these two 
populations are: white mirrors on P9 and P10 for subantarctic Indian Ocean birds, and 
very restricted white mirror on PI and white tongues on P5 (P4) of Malagasy birds. 
The only other population where mirrors commonly occur on the outer two longest 
primaries is that from New Zealand (c. 35% of birds with two mirrors; Higgins & 
Davies 1996, Jiguet et al. 2001). The population from subantarctic Indian Ocean 
islands is the only one that always shows two obvious white mirrors in full adult 
plumage whatever the sex or age. Additionally, birds from Kerguelen and Crozet were 
the smallest of all populations, and birds from Madagascar showed the longest 
culmen. Birds from South Georgia also showed a surprisingly short culmen (Table 7), 
and might constitute a distinct taxon, but sample size analysed for this population is 
very small and further work is needed. Fleming ( 1 924) suggested that birds from the 
Falklands were probably different from those on the South American continent, but 
this study failed to find statistically significant differences in the characteristics 
examined. 

Isolation of Kelp Gull populations 

The limited evidence from studies of ringed birds supports the idea that most 
populations of Kelp Gulls, separable on morphological characteristics, are indeed 
isolated from each other. Antarctic birds are migratory and most leave their breeding 
sites during winter (Murphy 1936, Parmelee 1992), some reaching Patagonia (ringing 
recoveries cited in Higgins & Davies 1996). There is no evidence of movement away 
from breeding islands in the subantarctic Indian Ocean (Weimerskirch et al. 1985) or 
at South Georgia (Prince & Payne 1 979). In New Zealand and Tasmania, the maximum 
distance covered by birds banded as nestlings was 450 km (Higgins & Davies 1996). 
In South Africa, the maximum dispersal distance of juveniles is 880 km within Africa 
(Steele & Hockey 1990). Except on the South American mainland, where nothing is 
known about dispersal, the different Kelp Gull populations are well isolated from 
each other geographically, with discontinuous breeding ranges in sometimes very 
different habitats (e.g. Malagasy birds breed on shores of desert lakes, and the 
geographically-close southern Indian Ocean birds breed on isolated islands subject 
to a subantarctic climate). Only Antarctic and/or subantarctic birds seem to straggle 
anecdotally to southern Africa, with only a few observations in tens of years (Brooke 



Frederic Jiguet 63 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

et al. 1982, Crawford 1997). According to the dispersal pattern of the species and 
the isolated breeding ranges of most populations, gene flow between populations is 
most probably very restricted, and selection pressures encountered by them are 
likely to be different. Even if some Antarctic birds reach Patagonia in winter, the 
studied specimens from both areas discriminated well in the present analysis, with 
none being mis-classified with the other group. In this context, recognising the three 
groups that totally discriminated in this study (on the basis of biometrics and plumage 
pattern) as distinct subspecies has to be valid, even if data on vocalizations or DNA 
sequences are not available at the moment. 

Studies on biometrics and plumage pattern using discriminant approaches have 
already proved to be pertinent in segregating birds belonging to different subspecies 
(see e.g. Bretagnolle et al. (2000) for the study of Puffinus Iherminieri bailloni and P. 
I. nicolae, with a discrimination rate of 86%, a lower value than that observed in this 
Kelp Gull study). 

Proposed taxonomy of Kelp Gulls 

On the basis of the statistical analyses above, three populations of Kelp Gulls are 
totally separable from nominate dominicanus and South African vetula on the basis 
of their biometrics and plumage. These populations are those breeding in 1) the 
subantarctic Indian Ocean, 2) Madagascar, and 3) Antarctica. I propose that these 
should be recognized as distinct subspecies, fully accepting that further study, 
especially of DNA, might further modify our understanding of the taxonomy of the 
Kelp Gull. For the first two of these populations new names are needed, while for the 
third population a name already exists. I propose the following systematic treatment 
of these populations. 

For the populations that breed in the subantarctic Indian Ocean, I propose the name 

Larus dominicanus judithae, subsp. nov. Kerguelen Kelp Gull 

Holotype. Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, n° 1974-1955, adult female 
collected on Kerguelen Islands at Anse du Pacha on 22 February 1971 (coll. Derenne 
- Lufbery). 

Diagnosis. Similar to L. d. dominicanus and L. d. vetula, but the smallest of all Kelp 
Gulls, with short and deep bill, vermilion red orbital ring and always pale ivory or pale 
yellow iris during the breeding season; no breeding birds with a dark iris have been 
reported. The main differences from other subspecies are always white mirrors on the 
outer two primaries, and obvious white tongues on at least two or three median 
primaries. Juveniles are particularly dark, with uniform sooty-brown plumage (Fig. 5). 
Extensive dark on the head and body can be retained until three years old. 
Measurements of males and females from this subspecies are given in Table 7, mirror 
and tongue scores in Table 8. 

Description of holotype. Saddle and upperwing uniform slate black (though with a 
brown cast due to wear); head and body pure white. Very large mirror on P10 (5 cm 



Frederic Jiguet 



64 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 




Fig. 5. Above: flying adult showing the typical wing pattern of Larus dominicanus judithae, with 
white mirrors on P10 and P9 and obvious white tongues on median primaries; below: adult pair 
and offspring of Larus dominicanus judithae, showing general structure (short and deep bills) and 
extensive white on wing tips of adults, and the dark plumage of the juvenile. Photographs by F. 
Jiguet. 



Frederic Jiguet 65 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

long) merging into the white tip of the feather, with some black on each side of the 
tip. Small mirror on P9 restricted to the inner web, which it crosses completely. 
Large white tips to primaries, secondaries and tertials. Obvious white tongues on 
P5, P6 and P7 (though less prominent outwards). No black on P4. P9 is 4 mm longer 
than P10, and four primary tips visible beyond the tertials. Measurements (mm) of 
holotype are: wing 392; tarsus 60.4; culmen 47.0; bill depth at gonys 18.6; bill depth 
at nostrils 16.3. 

Paratypes. Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, n° 1974-1950, adult male 
collected on Kerguelen Islands on 22 February 1971 (coll. Derenne - Lufbery); n° 
1974-1957, adult female collected on Kerguelen Islands at Pointe Denis on 23 January 
1971 (coll. Lufbery); n° 1951-663, adult male collected on Kerguelen at Baie des 
Francais on 27 January 1 95 1 (coll. Ph. Milon). 

Paratypic variation. Differences from the holotype are white tongues on P6-7 only 
and then P5 with black outer and white inner web; or white tongues on P6-7-8. Large 
white mirror on P 1 either separated from white tip by a black bar, or continuous with 
white tip with small amount of black, or complete merging with no black at all. Very 
rarely, a very small whitish mirror is present on P8. 

Distribution of taxon. Breeds in southern Indian Ocean on subantarctic islands 
(5,000- 1 0,000 pairs): Kerguelen (4,000-8,000 pairs), Crozet (700- 1 ,400 pairs), and also 
very probably Heard (100+ pairs), Marion (200 pairs) and Prince Edward (30 pairs) 
Islands, though specimens from these three islands were not examined during this 
study (population sizes after Higgins & Davies 1 996). Measurements given by Brooke 
& Cooper (1979) for Kelp Gulls on Marion Island are similar to those obtained on 
Kerguelen and Crozet Islands, while birds there all display white mirrors on outermost 
two longest primaries (Jiguet etal. 2001). 

Etymology. Judithae is derived from the feminine first name Judith. This subspecies 
was named in honour of Judith who supported my one-year long works on seabirds 
at Kerguelen Islands. 

For the population that breeds in Madagascar, I propose the name 

Larus dominicanus melisandae, subsp. nov. Malagasy Kelp Gull 

Holotype. Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, n° 1974-76, adult female 
collected on Madagascar at Nosy Manitra on 1 9 July 1 948 (coll. Ph. Milon). 

Diagnosis. Smaller than vetula, and with smaller white tongues on median primaries, 
but with similarly long but thinner bill. Differs from nominate dominicanus in long 
bill, and one or rarely two very restricted white tongues on median primaries (none on 
P6-7), in the fashion of L.fuscus intermedins or L.ffuscus, thus close - and at closest 
within Kelp populations - to L.fuscus. White mirror only on longest primary and very 
small (c. 1 cm 2 ). Different authors described the iris as pale yellow and the orbital ring 
as red (Langrand 1 990, Morris & Hawkins 1 998, Sinclair & Langrand 1 998, Jiguet et al. 
200 1 ). Measurements of males and females from this subspecies are given in Table 7, 



Frederic Jiguet 66 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

mirror and tongue scores in Table 8. 

Description of holotype. Saddle and upperwing uniform slate black, sometimes 
suffused grey (new feathers); head and body pure white. Very small white mirror on 
the outermost primary (P10), restricted to the inner web and 1cm long. P9 to P6 
blackish. Small white tips to primaries, large white tips to secondaries and tertials. 
One white tongue on P5, while P4 shows some black on outer web. White marginal 
coverts on upperwing producing obvious white leading edge to the wing. No indication 
of bare part colours on label. P 10 slightly longer than P9, so that five primary tips are 
visible beyond the tertials. Measurements (mm) of holotype are: wing 418; tarsus 
60.7; culmen 54.6; bill depth at gonys 18.8; bill depth at nostrils 17.3. 

Paratypes. Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, n° 1932-161, adult male 
collected on Madagascar south of Tulear on 27 February 1930 (coll. Delacour); n° 
1932-162, adult female collected on Madagascar at Androka on 7 March 1930 (coll. 
Delacour); the latter had yellow iris and red eye ring when collected (from label). 
Paratypic variation. Differences from the holotype are: white tongue also present 
on P4, but black separating white tongue and tip interrupted on inner web. White 
mirror on P10 slightly extending onto outer web, but on a few mms only. Fine grey 
streaks on head and neck in March, at the beginning of the post breeding complete 
moult. 

Distribution of taxon. Along coasts of south-west and south Madagascar, from 
Toliara to Tolanaro. The species is common on Lake Tsimanampetsotsa (Langrand 
1990, Morris & Hawkins 1998). Since Brooke & Cooper (1979), breeding between 
October and January on Madagascar has been reported by Langrand (1990). 
Population size unknown. 

Etymology. Melisandae is derived from the feminine first name Melisande, itself 
derived from the greek melanos, which means black, and fits well the dark wing 
pattern of Malagasy Kelp Gulls, which is the blackest in the species. 

For the populations that breed in Antarctica, I propose to resurrect the name austrinus 
Fleming. The name austrinus was already attributed to birds from the South Shetlands 
in Antarctica (Appendix). As there is no evidence that birds from the Antarctic 
Peninsula differ from those breeding on the South Shetland Islands, a conservative 
approach is to group all of these under the name L. d. austrinus, Antarctic Kelp Gull. 
The holotype is the one referred to by Fleming (1924): n° 28492 of the personal 
collection of J.H. Fleming, adult male collected on 13 March 1922 on Deception 
Island, South Shetlands. This type is now preserved at the Royal Ontario Museum, 
Toronto (registration n° 39471). The description of austrinus by Fleming does not 
relate differences between nominate and Antarctic birds, but the description of the 
type specimen provided by Dr Brad Millen fits the Antarctic birds I examined in Paris. 
Further studies involving measurements, wing pattern and also bare parts 
colouration should provide more information about the taxonomic status of some 



Frederic Jiguet 67 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Kelp Gull populations. For example, there is no doubt that, in a study considering 
iris and orbital ring colours, vetula would highly discriminate from dominicanus, 
judithae, melisandae and austrinus. Larger sample sizes for birds from South America, 
the Falklands and especially South Georgia should allow sex-specific analyses of 
biometrics and wing pattern, which could reveal further unrecognised taxa. In 
addition, DNA sequencing is needed to help with further clarifying the taxonomy 
and eventual specific status of over-looked or recognised subspecies. 

Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to Christian Jouanin for digging out many of the references for me, and to Jean- 
Francois Voisin for sharing his experience in zoological nomenclature. I am most grateful to P. - 
A. Crochet, J. -M. Pons, B. Arroyo & W.K. Steele for their comments on the manuscript; to 
Chris Feare and Peter Ryan for very useful comments that greatly improved the quality of the 
paper; to Pierre Defos du Rau for his help at the Tring Museum. Invaluable assistance was 
provided by the following during my museum visits or my searches for type specimens: Jean- 
Marc Pons, Guy Le Corvee & Michel Tranier, MNHN; Mark Adams & Michael Walters, BMNH; 
Jon C. Barlow & Brad Millen, Royal Ontario Museum; Paul Sweet & Manny Levine, AMNH; 
James Dean, National Museum of Natural History, Washington; Sylke Frahnert, Museum fur 
Naturkunde, Berlin; Fritz Geller-Grimm, Wiesbaden Museum N.H.; Jochen Martens, Institut fur 
Zoology, Mainz Museum; Gerard Mayr, Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt Museum. 

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Cape Town. 
Steele, W.K. & Hockey, P.A.R. 1990. Population size, distribution and dispersal of Kelp Gulls in 

the South Western Cape, South Africa. Ostrich 61: 97-106. 
Weimerskirch, H., Jouventin, P., Mougin, J.L., Stahl, J.C. & Van Beveren, M. 1985. Banding 

recoveries and the dispersal of seabirds breeding in French Austral and Antarctic Territories. 

Emu 85: 22-33. 
Wilkinson, L. 1990. SYSTAT: the system for statistics. SYSTAT Inc., Evanston, IL. 

Address: C.R.B.P.O., Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France. 
E-mail: fjiguet@mnhn.fr 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

Appendix 

Nomenclatural review 

In the early literature, the Kelp Gull was listed erroneously under specific names of black-backed 
gull species from the Northern Hemisphere, i.e. L. marinus and L. fuscus (reviews in Peters 
1934). The following names that have been applied to the Kelp Gull L. dominicanus are compiled 
from Saunders (1896), Dwight (1925), Peters (1934), Murphy (1936), Fleming (1924), Hellmayr 
& Conover (1948), and from original descriptions cited and personal observations at the BMNH 
and the MNHN. I also contacted all museums that could potentially hold type specimens described 
under all names I came across. Museums contacted were: MNHN, BMNH, Natural History 
Museums in New York (AMNH), Washington, Toronto (Royal Ontario Museum, Canada), 



Frederic Jiguet 69 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

Wellington (Dominion Museum, New Zealand), Wiesbaden, Mainz, Frankfurt and Berlin (Germany). 
There is no type specimen of I. dominicanus in the BMNH collection {fide Mr M. Walters). 
Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823, was described from coasts of Brazil. The original description is 
in a catalogue of duplicate specimens for sale by Lichtenstein (then director of the museum in Berlin). 
The type is still in the collection at the Museum fur Naturkunde in Berlin (catalogue n° ZMB 13566). 

The type of Dominicanus vetula Bruch, 1853, comes from South Africa. It is an unsexed adult 
preserved at the MNHN in Paris (registration n° 14469), collected in 1820 by M. Delalande at Cape of 
Good Hope. Measurements (mm) of the type are: wing 417; tarsus 62.5; culmen 47.5; bill depth at 
gonys 21 .0; bill depth at base of nostrils 19.0. The name Gabianus vetulus is also found on the label of 
an African specimen preserved at the MNHN, with no description associated. 

The type of Larus dominicanus austrinus Fleming, 1924, collected on the South Shetland 
Islands, was part of J.H. Fleming's private collection, and is now in the collection of the Royal 
Ontario Museum (catalogue n° 39471). The type specimen (a male) has been examined on my 
behalf by Dr Brad Millen. Measurements (mm) of the type are: wing 415; tarsus 62.8; culmen 
48.8; both wings show one white mirror and three white tongues. Fleming described this subspecies 
on the basis of slightly paler slate black upperparts. The subspecific status of austrinus was later 
invalidated by Dwight (1925) and Murphy (1936) who examined very large series from many 
localities. Dwight (1925) noticed only a slight difference between austrinus birds and other 
dominicanus, insufficient for subspecific recognition, arguing that specimens in fresh plumage 
are greyer in tone and that austrinus birds were indistinguishable from those in a series taken in 
South America and New Zealand. 

According to Hellmayr & Conover (1948), Larus verreauxi Bonaparte, 1854 is a nomen 
nudum. Bruch and Bonaparte simultaneously published descriptions of verreauxi in 1855. Both 
described specimens from Chile, though while Bruch reported that he consulted Dominicanus 
verreauxi at the MNHN, Bonaparte omitted to cite the location of type(s) (Hellmayr & Conover 
1948). Bruch also cited Bonaparte's paper (with the pre-publication or erroneous date 1854) in 
his text, so that verreauxi should be attributed to Bonaparte, 1855 (1854) (cf. Art. 21.8 of ICZN 
1999). The name is also found with different spellings in subsequent publications: verreauxii, 
verrauxii, and verrauxi, which are therefore lapsi calami (Art. 32.5.1 of ICZN 1999). The only 
Chilean specimens still preserved at the MNHN arrived there in 1872, and no previous bird from 
Chile was registered in the exit catalogue from 1844 to the present. The type or type series of 
verreauxi has thus been lost. 

Dominicanus vociferus Bruch, 1853, was described from South America, with no more precise 
location. Bruch added 'Anglorum' after 'vociferus', signaling this name was used in England. 
Bruch (1853) inferred that no labelled type specimens of vociferus ever existed in England, an 
absence confirmed by Mr M. Walters, BMNH. Rather than seeing English skins, Bruch appears to 
have based his remarks on the literature or correspondence using what he understood to be the 
current English terminology. Bruch (1855) stated later that he based his description of D. 
vociferus on specimen(s) preserved at the Mainz museum (where he worked), and thus the type 
or type series had to be there. However, the whole Mainz collection was destroyed during the 
second world war. 

Dominicanus pelagicus Bruch, 1853, was described from birds collected in 'Indien und 
Oceanien', also with the term 'Anglorum' added to the name. As for vociferus, Bruch did not see 
English skins, and no type ever existed in England. Bruch (1855) specified he consulted specimen(s) 
of pelagicus in Mainz, but the whole collection there was lost. There is no record of Kelp Gull in 
India (Grimmett et al. 1998), and Australia was colonised only in the 1940s (Higgins & Davies 
1996). As there is no type specimen to verify its true taxonomic status, I consider pelagicus a 
nomen dubium. 

Larus antipodus Gray, 1844, is reported from New Zealand. However, Gray (1844) just cited 
specimens in his catalogue as "Larus antipodus?" , and no description was associated to this name. 
At this stage, antipodus is a nomen nudum. Bruch (1853) gave a short description of Dominicanus 
antipodus based on specimens preserved in Mainz, thus antipodus should be attributed to this 
author {Dominicanus antipodus Bruch, 1853) - D. antipodum, Bruch, 1855, is the same name, 



Frederic Jiguet 70 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

differently accorded. As the collections in Mainz have been lost, there is actually no type for antipodus. 

Larus azarae Bonaparte, 1857, was described from Brazil and Patagonia (see also Lesson 1831). 
The description by Lesson of "La Grande Mouette d' Azara" (no Latin name) from Brazil states that the 
taxon has yellow bill, white body and brown wings and tail. Lesson (1831) probably omitted to signal 
that he was first describing an adult bird, then an immature bird in the last part of his text. Bonaparte 
( 1 857) first used the name azarae for this taxon, and it should be attributed to him. Bonaparte based his 
description on specimens from Brazil and Patagonia consulted at museums in Frankfurt and Paris ("Mus. 
Francof. Paris"), so the type series of azarae should be in the collections of these museums. The MNHN 
holds two specimens from Brazil (one juvenile and one adult), collected in July 1820 by M. Auguste de 
Saint Hilaire (registration n° 2001-77 and 2001-78), and one first-winter specimen from Patagonia 
donated in February 1831 by M. d'Orbigny. Although four specimens from Patagonia were donated by 
M. d'Orbigny, according to the MNHN donation catalogue, only one is still present in the collection in 
2001 (registration n° 2001-80). All these birds were present at the MNHN when Bonaparte described 
azarae. The Museum at Frankfurt holds one specimen from Brazil, donated in 1822 by Freireiss 
(registration n° SMF 15068). According to Art. 72.4.1.1 (and associated example) of ICZN 
(1999), all the specimens cited by Bonaparte constitute the type series, in which can be designated 
lectotypes (ICZN 1999, Art. 74). 

The type of Dominicanus fritzei Bruch, 1855, collected at Straits of Sunda, Java, by Dr. Fritze 
(under the name Larus fuscus), was deposited in the Wiesbaden Museum, and is still there 
(registration n° 2233). Bruch (1855) accepted the specific status of this bird on the basis of its 
large size, as large as L. marinus. However, the locality of collection seems unreliable for Kelp 
Gull, but also for any other large black-backed gull species. Dr. Fritz Geller-Grimm provided me 
with photographs and measurements (mm) of the type: wing length 445; bill length 59; bill depth 
at gonys 28; bill depth at base of nostrils 24; tarsus 70. This specimen has yellow legs and only 
one white mirror, on the outermost primary (P10). The huge bill depths alone indicate that this 
bird is not a Kelp Gull, and must be regarded as unidentified. 

Larus flavipes Temminck, 1840, was described from the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. 
It thus potentially antedates vetula, Bruch, 1853. However, Wolf & Meyer first described Larus 
flavipes in 1805 from a type specimen belonging to L. f. fuscus, according to Dwight (1925) (see 
also Lesson 1831). Bruch (1853, 1855) already considered flavipes a junior synonym of fuscus. 

Larus littoreus Forster, 1 844, was described from the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. The 
name littoreus (sometimes written litoreus, a lapsus calami) therefore potentially antedates 
vetula. Forster was however preoccupied by L. littoreus, Forster, 1781, which is indeterminate but 
should probably be referred to L. f heuglini, Bree, 1876 (Saunders 1896), which name it would 
antedate (for further details see Brooke & Cooper 1979). Accordingly, littoreus should not be 
considered to refer to L. dominicanus (Brooke & Cooper 1979). 

The type of Lestris antarcticus Ellman, 1861, was collected in New Zealand. However, Lestris 
antarcticus was already used by Lesson (1831) to describe Catharacta antarctica, and reporting 
this name for a Kelp Gull is a misapplication (ICZN 1999, Art. 49). The true synonymy of L. 
antarcticus is with C. antarctica. 

The name Larus capensis (Smith) was reported by Saunders (1896) from the label of a 
specimen from South Africa preserved at the BMNH, but without a description. Accordingly, 
capensis is a nomen nudum. 

Larus melanoleucus Boies, 1844 (Isis, p. 196), from New Zealand is a nomen nudum (see 
Matthews & Iredale 1913). 

In addition to these names, a specimen from Nightingale Island, Tristan da Cunha, labelled 
Larus dominicensis (BMNH, registration n° 1922-12-6-41), has no published reference, and 
should be considered a nomen nudum. 

Larus pacificus Layard, 1863, was given to Kelp Gulls observed in New Zealand, but the 
author confused the Latin name of the Pacific Gull, already known as Gabianus pacificus (Lath.) 
by Bruch (1853). 

It appears pertinent to designate a lectotype for azarae, and neotypes for antipodus and verreauxi, 
in order to help to clarify their true taxonomic status (ICZN 1999, Art. 75.3.1). Concerning 



Frederic Jiguet 71 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(1) 

vociferus (locality of collection given as a general 'South America'), I decided not to designate a 
neotype, especially because of the poorly defined locality of collection and therefore non 
evident interest of maintaining a particular taxonomic status. 

Lectotype of Larus azarae Bonaparte, 1857: Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, 
adult from Brazil donated by M. A. de Saint Hilaire and received in July 1820 (n° 795 of his 
catalogue), current registration n° 2001-78. As Bonaparte (1857) first cited Brazil as the type 
locality, this being the sole locality also cited by Lesson (1831), and as the largest part of the type 
series is at the MNHN, I designate the adult specimen from the MNHN as the lectotype of 
azarae. 

Neotype of Larus verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855 (1854): Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in 
Paris, n° 2001-79, adult male collected in Chile, donated to the MNHN in 1872 by Boucard (Coll. 
Reed). 

Neotype of Dominicanus antipodus Bruch, 1853: Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in 
Paris, n°1846-1233, adult collected in New Zealand, donated by M. Arnoux in 1846. The 
neotype was chosen from those specimens from New Zealand already present in the MNHN 
collections in 1846, thus certainly seen by Bruch during his visits to Paris. 

Junior synonyms of dominicanus 

Birds from Patagonia, western South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are best 
still regarded as belonging to nominate subspecies, though further work is needed to clarify their 
true taxonomic status. On current knowledge, and as long as there is no evidence of differences 
between birds from the east and west coasts of South America and from New Zealand, all names 
azarae, verreauxi, vociferus and antipodus should be considered junior synonyms of dominicanus. 



Notes on the generic citation of the Oilbird 
Steatornis caripensis (Steatornithidae) 

by Nigel Cleere 

Received 7 April 2001 

The Oilbird Steatornis caripensis is a monotypic, neotropical species that was 
described by Alexander von Humboldt, who gave it a generic name in 1814 (von 
Humboldt 1814) and a specific name three years later (von Humboldt 1817a). The 
citation for the generic name Steatornis has long been given as 'Humboldt 1814, Voy. 
Inter. Am. 1, p. 416' (cf. Peters 1940), but this appears to be inaccurate and requires 
comment and correction. 

Between 1 799 and 1 804, von Humboldt and the French botanist Aime Bonpland 
travelled widely in South America and published the results of their travels in an 
immense work entitled ' Voyage aux regions equinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, 
fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804\ This was accomplished through a 
series of livraisons and livres that were issued between 1 805 and 1 835, bound in 30 
volumes to form six parts: Relation Historique, Zoologie, Essai Politique, Astronomic 
Physique Generale and Botanie (Sherborn 1899, Lowenberg 1960). 



Frederic Jiguet 72 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

The first description of the bird and its habits given by von Humboldt, appeared 
in part one, volume one of von Humboldt and Bonpland's work (von Humboldt 1 814). 
The full title of this volume reads ' Voyage aux regions equinoxiales du Nouveau 
Continent, fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804, par Al. de Humboldt et A. 
Bonpland; redige par Alexandre de Humboldt. Avec deux atlas, qui renferment, 
I 'un les vues des cordilleres et les monumens des peuples indigenes de VAmerique, 
et T autre des cartes geographiques et physiques. Tome premier', and is dated 1814. 
A second title page, reads 'Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland. Premiere partie. Relation 
Historique. Tome premier'. The Oilbird is discussed in Livre 3, Chapter 7, entitled 
'Convent de Caripe. Cavern du Guacharo. Oiseaux nocturnes', and the chapter covered 
pages 409 - 431. von Humboldt began his account of the Oilbird on page 416, and 
gave the generic name Steatornis in a reference to a monograph of the species that 
was to appear in a later volume. He continued, however, to refer to the species by its 
local name of Guacharo (a Castilian word meaning 'one who cries and laments'). He 
also stated that 'it forms a new genus that differs from Caprimulgus by the loudness 
of its calls, its strong beak with a double tooth and its feet that lack the membranes 
uniting the anterior phalanges of the claws'. The first of three footnotes to this page 
also listed features of the beak, rictal bristles, feet and claws as generic characters. 

The nomenclature of this species then remained in limbo for three years, with only 
a generic name in place, but was eventually given the specific name caripensis by 
von Humboldt in a separate publication (von Humboldt 1 8 1 7a). A monograph of the 
Oilbird then appeared in part two, volume two of the 'Voyage aux regions equinoxiales 
du Nouveau Continent' (von Humboldt 1817b). The title page of this volume reads 
'Recueil d 'observations de zoologie et d'anatomie comparee, faites dans V ocean 
atlantique, dans Vinterieur du nouveau continent et dans la mer du sud pendant les 
annees 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802 et 1803; par Al. de Humboldt et A. Bonpland. 
Deuxieme volume.' and is dated 1833. The monograph, written by von Humboldt, is 
entitled 'Memoire sur le Guacharo de la Caverne de Caripe, nouveau genre d'oiseaux 
nocturnes de la famille des passereaux', covered pages 1 39 - 144, and contained a full 
description of Steatornis. According to Sherborn (1899), this volume was issued in 
livraisons, and the Oilbird monograph formed part of livraison 1 0, which was actually 
published in 1817. 

Subsequent authors generally quoted von Humboldt (1817b) when citing the 
genus Steatornis (e.g. Lesson 1 843, Gray 1 844, Bonaparte 1 850), until Hartert ( 1 892) 
strangely cited 'Humboldt 1810, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (3)17, p. 295'. However, this 
work did not contain the generic name Steatornis. Sherborn (1922) also quoted von 
Humboldt (181 7b), but listed the citation as ' Voy. Inter. Amer. (Obs. Zool. 11.1817), 
141'. Peters (1940) correctly cited von Humboldt (1814), but followed Sherborn's 
usage of the title 'Voy. Inter. Amer.', and this was followed by modern authors such 
as Cleere ( 1 998), but not Sibley & Monroe ( 1 990), who cited von Humboldt ( 1 8 1 7b). 
Thomas ( 1 999) incorrectly stated in her introductory text that von Humboldt did not 
publish his account of his first encounter with the Oilbird until 1817, but then cited 
von Humboldt ( 1 8 1 4) in the species account. 



Nigel Cleere 73 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

It seems clear that most of the early taxonomists only had access to von Humboldt 
(181 7b), and the title of that work was abbreviated to ' Voy. Inter. Amer.' by Sherborn 
(1922) without explanation. The correct citation by modern authors, of von Humboldt 
(1814), can be traced back to Peters (1940), although the incorrect usage of 'Voy. Inter. 
Amer.' as the title of that work has continued, resulting in a strangely inaccurate 
citation for the genus Steatornis. Having examined copies of all of the literature 
mentioned above, I suggest that the correct citation for the genus Steatornis is as 
follows: 

Steatornis von Humboldt 1814, In von Humboldt & Bonpland, Voy. Nouv. 
Cont.Vi. l,Vol. l,p.416. 

Acknowledgements 

For helping me locate the relevant literature, I am greatly indebted to Effie Warr at the 
Natural History Museum, Tring ; Linda Birch at the Alexander Library, Edward Grey 
Institute, Oxford, and Christine Mason at the Bodlian Library, Oxford. I would also 
like to thank Rimy Bruckert at the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris for 
checking additional copies of von Humboldt and Bonpland's work held in Paris. 

References 

Bonaparte, C.L. 1850. Conspectus generum avium Vol. 1. Lugduni Batavorum. 

Cleere, N. 1998. Nightjars. A guide to nightjars and related nightbirds. Pica Press, Sussex. 

Gray, G.R. 1844. The genera of birds, Vol. 1. Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, London. 

Hartert, E. 1892. Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, Vol. 16. British Museum, 

London, 
von Humboldt, F.H.A. 1814. In von Humboldt, F.H.A. & Bonpland, A. J. A. Voyage aux regions 

equinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804 Vol. 1. 

F. Schoell, Paris, 
von Humboldt, F.H.A. 1817a. Sur le Steatornis, nouveau genre d'oiseau nocturne. Bull. Sci. Soc. 

Philom. Paris, 51 - 52. 
von Humboldt, F.H.A. 1817b. In Humboldt, F.H.A. & Bonpland, A. J. A. Recueil d 'observations 

de zoologie et d'anatomie comparee Vol. 2. J. Smith & Gide, Paris. 
Lesson, R.P 1843. Index ornithologique. L'echo du Monde Savant 10, Pt. 1 (45), col. 1067 - 

1068. 
Lowenberg, J. 1960. Alexander von Humboldt. Bibliographische iibersicht seiner werke, schriften 

und zerstreuten Abhandlungen. FA. Brockhaus Komm. - Gesch. GmbH. Abt. Antiquarium. 

Stuttgart. 
Peters, J.L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 4. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge. 
Sherborn, CD. 1899. A note on the date of the parts of 'Humboldt and Bonpland's Voyage : 

Observations de Zoologie'. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7 th series, 3(17): 428. 
Sherborn, CD. 1922. Index Animalium. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 

London. 
Sibley, C.G. & Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale Univ. 

Press, New Haven. 
Thomas, B.T. 1999. Family Steatornithidae (Oilbirds). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. 

(eds) Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 5. Pp. 302 - 386. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 

Address : Nigel Cleere, 2 Hawthorn House, Roundfields, Upper Bucklebury, Berks. RG7 6RQ, U.K. 
© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Ben E King 74 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

The Hierococcyx fugax , Hodgson's Hawk 
Cuckoo, complex 

by Ben E King 

Received 31 January 2001 

All four forms of the Hierococcyxfugax species complex, H. (f.) hyperythrus (Gould), 
H. (f.) nisicolor (Blyth), H. (f.) pectoralis, Cabanis and Heine, and H. (f.) fugax 
(Horsfield), were originally described as separate species. Peters (1940) lumped them 
all into a single species, H. fugax, and that view has generally been followed ever 
since, including Sibley & Monroe (1990) and Howard & Moore (1991). Sibley & 
Monroe (1993) even synonomized nisicolor with fugax. However, Payne (1997) split 
H. pectoralis from the H. fugax species complex on the basis of its song, which 
differs from the other three forms. 

Recent field work and tape recording have shown that the group has three distinct 
song types: (1) hyperythus, (2) pectoralis, and (3) fugax/ nisicolor, suggesting a 
strong basis for also splitting hyperythrus from fugax. Study of specimens shows 
that the adult plumages of fugax and nisicolor are quite different, indicating that, 
despite sharing similar songs, the current treatment as a single species needs to be 
re-evaluated. 

The genus Hierococcyx is herein used for the Asian group of Cuculus cuckoos 
known as hawk-cuckoos. The hawk-cuckoos differ markedly in their broader, more 
rounded wings, which in flight lend the birds a remarkably A ccipiter-like appearance, 
which is close enough to regularly lead to misidentification of these cuckoos as 
hawks. Further, their plumages more closely resemble the patterns of Accipiter spp., 
resemblances that are strong enough to suggest a case for mimicry. Their songs tend 
to be more shrill than the remaining Cuculus cuckoos, which lack the repetition of 
their songs to a crescendo. 

Voice 

Hierococcyx hawk-cuckoos have two kinds of vocalizations, song and "long call." 
The three song types are as follows (Fig. 1): 

(1) H. hyperythrus utters a weeweepeeit or weeweepeeweit. 

(2) H. pectoralis utters a wee-wee-wee-tee-too or wee-wee-wee-tee-tee-too or wee- 
wee-wee-tee-too-too . 

(3) Both H. nisicolor and H. fugax utter ?ifee-weet or wee-weet (or gee-whiz of some 
authors). 

All regularly repeat their loud, shrill, whistled songs in a series, each subsequent 
song sounding a little more frantic, reaching a sort of crescendo, and then taking a 
short break before beginning again. 

The songs of both fugax and nisicolor on the sonograms appear to vary in 
frequency. Further tape recordings are needed to ascertain if this is due to taking the 



Ben F. King 75 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

individual songs from different parts of the call sequence, or actual individual or 
population variation. 

Although no quantitative analysis of sonograms has been undertaken, these 
songs appear to be universal for each form. This is based on my experience of song 
as follows: hyperythrus in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China and Japan; 
pectoralis at several localities in Luzon, Cebu, Negros, and Mindanao in the 
Philippines; nisicolor in Nepal, Bhutan, Yunnan and Vietnam; and fugax in Peninsular 
Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. 

During the courtship/breeding season, song of these hawk-cuckoos is heard at 
all times of day or night. The stereotyped nature of the calls over large geographical 
areas and constant calling suggest strong selective pressure for maintenance of the 
particular song. 

Each of the four forms has a long call. The long call is uttered much less frequently 
than the song and its function is unknown. Other cuckoos of the genera Hierococcyx 
and Cuculus have similar long calls and other cuckoos of the genera Cacomantis and 
Surniculus have what appear to be analogous long calls. H. fugax forms often 
appear somewhat agitated when using the long call, but this is not always the case. 

The long calls of the four forms are more variable than the song and may or may 
not show consistent differences. More recordings are needed to assess this. Each of 
these calls is a loud, shrill whistle, rising in pitch and sounding increasingly frantic, 
reaching a crescendo, then tailing off. 

(1) H. (f.) hyperythrus can be syllabicated as follows: weeteetitditdiditdidit 
titititititititi. 

(2) H. (f.) pectoralis: weetaweetaweetaweetaweetaweetaweetaweetawee 
tatootootootootootoo too. 

(3) H. (f.) nisicolor: wititititititititititititi-ti ti. 

(4) H. (f.) fugax: wadawadawadawadawadaquedeequedeequedeequedeetototototo- 
to-to to. 

Immature (first basic) plumage 

The immature (first basic of Humphrey & Parkes 195 1) plumages of the four forms are 
much alike. Head, neck, and chin and sides of throat slaty-grey, tinged brown, with a 
whitish band separating the grey of chin and sides of throat, often with a partial or 
complete whitish band around hindneck. Rest of upperparts of body, primaries and 
secondaries blackish-brown with narrow dark rufous bars, the rufous barring often 
less conspicuous on the back (the rufous barring is lacking or faint on the back, 
upper wing coverts and tertiaries of hyperythrus). There is often a largely white 
tertiary. Tail is brownish-grey, often suffused with rufous, with a broad subterminal 
black band, a narrow rufous tip and two or three visible narrow blackish bands. 
Throat, breast and belly buffy white, with blackish brown streaks, often with some 
rusty blotching. Under tail coverts buffy white. 

Some specimens are intermediate between immature (first basic) and adult 
(definitive basic) plumage suggesting a gradual, and possibly protracted transition. 



Ben E King 



76 



Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



- H. pectoralis 

A 11 " /*»■■ hr h- 1 Up km 

Philippines 


H. hyperythrus 
Heilongjiang 


Japan 


_ H. nisicolor 

; JLJL 

Bhutan 


Yunnan 


Guangdong 


H. fugax 
Malaysia 


Borneo 



1 2 seconds 3 4 5 

Fig 1. Songs of the four forms of the Hierococcyx fugax complex. All are loud shrill whistles. The 
songs of nisicolor and fugax are nearly identical while those of pectoralis and hyperythrus are 
quite different in structure. The Malaysian H. fugax recording was supplied by the Library of 
Natural Sounds at the Laboratory of Ornithology at Cornell University; Guangdong H. nisicolor 
by M.C. Michener; Japan H. hyperythrus from a commercial tape recording by NHK. The 
remaining recordings were made by Ben King and will eventually be on deposit at the Library of 
Natural Sounds at Cornell University. 



H. pectoralis Philippines 



^h^^&^^^w 



H. hyperythrus Japan 



iiuHiHiiimmim 



H. nisicolor Yunnan ,, k fe, Jfe, , 

;ijt!!i! I III If »if $fe$M 1 1 1 



H. nisicolor Bhutan 



/.MfPrtti 



'Pj H' 



H. fugax Malaysia 



^wM irMM^f^^m^i ; , i , 



2 3 

seconds 



Fig 2. Long calls of the four forms of the Hierococcyx fugax complex. All are loud, shrill whistles, 
rising in pitch and sounding increasingly frantic, reaching a crescendo, then tailing off. This call's 
function is unknown. The long calls are more variable than the songs and it is not known if there 
are consistent differences between taxa. The Malaysian H. fugax recording was supplied by the 
Library of Natural Sounds at the Laboratory of Ornithology at Cornell University; Japan H. 
hyperythrus from a commercial tape recording by NHK. The remaining recordings were made by 
Ben King and will eventually be on deposit at the Library of Natural Sounds at Cornell University. 



Ben E King 11 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122( 1 ) 

There were not enough specimens at AMNH to describe the juvenile (Juvenal) 
plumages. 

Adult (definitive basic) plumage 

Adult (definitive basic) plumages of the four forms have slaty-grey head and upperparts 
with blackish primaries, usually with one of the shorter tertiaries pale grey to whitish, 
forming two pale spots. (Some fugax have a complete or partial white collar around the 
base of the hindneck.) The tail is brownish grey with two or three visible narrow 
blackish bands, a broad subterminal blackish band and a narrow rufous tip. 

The chin and sides of the throat are slaty-grey (concolourous with the head), 
with an intervening white or whitish band, starting from the rear edge of the mandible 
and running into the pale lower throat. This white whisker mark sets off the grey 
extending down the sides of the throat and gives the birds a falcon-like (e.g. Peregrine 
Falco peregrinus) head pattern. This is most pronounced in hyperythrus but readily 
noticeable in the other three forms. 

In hyperythrus, pectoralis and nisicolor, the throat is whitish, usually with a 
rusty or greyish tinge. The breast, upper belly and flanks are rufous, darkest in 
pectoralis, paler in hyperythrus. The breast of nisicolor has vague grey streaks, and 
the breast of pectoralis has faint grey shaft streaks. The centre of the belly and 
under-tail coverts are white. 

In striking contrast, the underparts of fugax are entirely buffy white (except for 
the grey on the chin and sides of throat), with narrow blackish-brown streaks on the 
lower throat, breast, upper belly and flanks. Some individuals have some rusty 
splotches on the upper breast. Thus in fugax, the adult plumage is a modified immature 
plumage rather than the fully different adult plumage of the other three forms. 

The wing lining and axillaries of nisicolor are buff to rusty buff with some blackish 
brown markings, while these areas on the other three forms are unmarked (or very 
sparsely marked) buff to rusty buff (but axillaries rufous, as breast, in pectoralis). 
The pale bands on the underside of the primaries tend to be broader in fugax than in 
the other three forms. 

It should be noted that while Chasen ( 1 939) accurately described the plumages of 
fugax and nisicolor and their differences, Wells (1999) erroneously described a 
subadult (intermediate basic) plumage of fugax as the adult (definitive basic) plumage. 

Morphometries 

The migratory forms hyperythrus and nisicolor have more pointed wings than the 
resident pectoralis and fugax (Table 1). H. hyperythrus has distinctly longer wings 
and tail than the other three, while nisicolor has somewhat longer wings man fugax. 
The bill of fugax is noticeably longer and more robust than that of any of the other 
three forms. 



Ben E King 78 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(1) 

Range 

The known breeding ranges of the four forms are allopatric. 

H. hyperythrus breeds from southern Amurland (Vaurie 1965 and Dementiev et al. 
1966) in southeastern Siberia south to northeastern China (south to Hebei Province, 
Cheng 1987), and Honshu in Japan. Winters in Borneo and Philippines (although 
Kennedy et al. 2000, said they have been unable to substantiate its presence in the 
Philippines), rarely to Sulawesi and Bum in Indonesia. Migrant Eastern China. 

H. pectoralis is resident in the Philippines. 

H. nisicolor breeds in the lower Himalayas from Nepal east to southern China (Sichuan 
and southern Jiangsu Provinces south). Himalayan birds are apparently altitudinal 
migrants, wintering at lower altitudes nearby (but possibly migrating elsewhere, Ali 
& Ripley 1981), while Chinese breeders apparently all leave China in winter. Wintering 
birds are found in Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia), Sumatra, Borneo and Java. 

The situation in mainland South-East Asia is much less clear. Smythies (1953) 
stated that nisicolor is resident in the plains and Karen Hills of southern Burma, the 
Southern Shan States and Tenasserim. Robson (2000) listed nisicolor as resident 
(subject to some movements) in Thailand (except Central), North and Central Laos, 
and West Tonkin and central Annam in Vietnam. While nisicolor certainly breeds in 
parts of mainland South-East Asia (the author has heard it in central Annam and P. 
Round (pers. comm.) has heard it in several areas of Thailand; these are mostly 
presumed identifications since the birds were not seen and only nisicolor is known 
to be present), this form's status needs re-evaluation. It seems possible that it is 
merely a breeding, migrant or wintering bird in some of those areas where it is currently 
thought to be resident. 

There is no proof that H. nisicolor is actually resident anywhere in South-East 
Asia. Since calling is entirely restricted to the courting/breeding season in this species, 
a calling bird is reasonable presumptive evidence of breeding. However, there appears 
to be no way to distinguish a local breeding bird from a migrant outside the breeding 
season. Further, their quiet, retiring nature and uncommon status result in few 
observations. 

H. fugax is resident in southern Tenasserim, southern Peninsular Thailand, Malaya 
(Peninsular Malaysia), Sumatra and Borneo, and some of their satellite islands. 

While breeding sympatry between nisicolor and fugax is not known, with fugax 
known to occur and likely resident in South Tenasserim and nisicolor known to 
occur in Tenasserim, the possibility exists. Further fieldwork is needed to resolve 
this. 

Discussion 

Payne ( 1 997) split H. pectoralis from the fugax group, based largely on the different 
song of H. pectoralis. He was unaware that the song of H. hyperthyrus is also 



Ben F. King 



79 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 



TABLE 1 



Measurements (mm) of specimens of the four forms of the Hierococcyx fugax complex. Note 

the long bill of fugax, the long wings and tail of hyperythrus, and the more pointed wings of 

the migratory hyperythrus and nisicolor. All the specimens are housed in the American 

Museum of Natural History in New York. S.d.=standard deviation. 





H. hyperythrus 

(5 specimens) 


H.pectoralis 
(7 specimens) 


H. nisicolor 

(7 specimens) 


H.fugax 

(8 specimens) 


Culmen (from skull), 
mean (range), s.d. 


26.8(25.2-27.5) 
1.07 


25.6(24.2-27.3), 
1.03 


25.8(24.7-27.1), 
0.85 


29.2(28.1-30.4), 
0.78 


Wing (flattened), 
mean (range), s.d. 


202.1(184.9-211.0), 
11.01 


172.6(167.5-179.6), 
4.24 


177.0(164.9-181.9), 
6.64 


173.8(166.6-178.1), 
4.18 


Tail, mean (range), 
s.d. 


142.8(138.8-148.0), 
3.65 


129.1(125.5-135.1), 
3.53 


127.4(122.4-135.7), 
4.51 


130.4(124.9-135.3), 
3.03 


Longest primary # 


8 


7=8 


8 


8=7 


Second longest primary- 
Mean distance from tip (range) 


7 (9 once), 
4.8(1.7-8.2) 


7 (8 twice), 
3.1(1.6-4.2) 


7, 
5.1(0.9-8.6) 


8 (7 thrice), 
1.9(0.4-3.8) 


Third longest primary- 
Mean distance from tip (range) 


9 (7 once), 

14.4(12.5-15.5) 


6 (9 once), 
7.4(5.1-12.4) 


9 (6 once), 
13.1(10.4-19.0) 


6 (9 once), 

8.0(7.1-16.8) 


Fourth longest primary- 
Mean distance from tip (range) 


6, 

20.7(14.5-32.2) 


9 (6 once), 
13.9(12.5-15.4) 


6(9 once), 
17.6(12.1-22.2) 


9 (6 once, 5 once) 
14.7(12.1-18.1) 


Fifth longest primary — 
Mean distance from tip (range) 


5, 
35.8(28.1-42.3) 


5, 
19.4(16.1-23.8) 


5, 
30.1(23.7-35.1) 


5(9 once) 

20.6(18.8-22.5) 



different. He stated, "If the songs are the same, then the populations are likely to be 
conspecific — if the songs are different, then the populations are likely to represent 
distinct species. If the populations differ both in morphology and song, then it is 
very probable that the cuckoos involved are different species." 

H. hyperythrus and H. pectoralis are readily distinguished from each other and 
from H. nisicolor and H.fugax by their distinct songs. It would be highly unusual for 
conspecific cuckoos to have different songs. Further, hypeiythrus is a highly migratory 
form with much longer wings and tail, and a much more pointed wing than any of the 
other three forms. Thus we have a clear case for treating hyperthrus and pectoralis 
as separate species. 

While the song of nisicolor is identical to that of fugax, their adult plumages are 
quite distinct, the adult plumage of nisicolor being completely different from their 
similar immature plumages, while that of fugax is a modified immature plumage. Neither 
breeding sympatry nor hybrids have been recorded between nisicolor and fugax. H. 
nisicolor is migratory (at least some populations) with a longer more pointed wing, 
and a shorter, less robust bill, than fugax, which is resident. Thus adult fugax with its 
very different plumage and longer bill is the most distinct of the four forms here 
considered. It is concluded that because the morphological differences between 



Ben E King 80 Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(1) 

fugax and nisicolor are so pronounced, they are best treated as separate species in 
spite of the fact that their songs are identical. 

The recommended English names for the four species are: H. hyperythrus, 
Northern Hawk-Cuckoo; H. pectoralis, Philippine Hawk-Cuckoo; H. nisicolor, 
Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo; H. fugax, Malaysian Hawk-Cuckoo. 

With its combination of slaty grey upperparts and streaked underparts, adult H. 
fugax can be distinguished in the field from all the other forms of the H. fugax complex. 
However, except for song and range, field identification of adults of the other three 
species and the immatures of all four species is quite difficult. 

Acknowledgements 

Jeff Groth prepared the sonagrams. I wish to thank John Fitzpatrick and Greg Budney of the 
Library of Natural Sounds at the Laboratory of Ornithology of Cornell University for the use of 
tape recording equipment. Mr. Tsuruhiko Kabaya provided a second identical tape of hyperythrus 
from Japan. Reviewer David Wells provided a useful critique. Personal communication with 
Robert Payne was very helpful. 

References: 

Ali, S. & Ripley, S.D. 1981. Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan: together with those of 

Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Ceylon. Vol. 3. Oxford Univ. Press, London. 
Chasen, F.N. 1939. The birds of the Malay Peninsula: a general account of the birds inhabiting 

the region from the Isthmus of Kra to Singapore with the adjacent islands. Vol. IV: The birds 

of the low-country jungle and scrub. Witherby, London. 
Cheng, Tso-hsin. 1987. A synopsis of the avifauna of China. Scientific Press, Beijing. 
Dementiev, G.P., Gladkov, N.A., Ptushenko, E.S., Spangenberg, E.P. & Sudlilovskaya, A.M. 

1966. Birds of the Soviet Union. Vol. 1. Israel Program for Scientific Translation. 
Grimmett, R. Inskipp, C, and Inskipp, T. 1999. A guide to the birds of India, Pakistan, Nepal, 

Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton. 
Howard, R. & Moore, A. 1991. A complete checklist of the birds of the world. Academic Press, 

London. 
Humphrey, P.S. & Parkes, K.C. 1959. An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76: 

1-31. 
Kennedy, R.S., Gonzales, PC, Dickinson, E.C., Miranda, Jr., H.C. & Fisher, T.H. 2000. A guide 

to the birds of the Philippines. Oxford Univ. Press, London. 
Payne, R.B. 1997. Cuckoos Cuculidae. In Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 4 (eds. del 

Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp. 508-607. 
Peters, J.L. 1940. Check-list of the birds of the world. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Robson, C. 2000. A field guide to the birds of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers (U.K.) 

Ltd., London. 
Sibley, C.G. & Monroe, Jr., B.L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale 

Univ. Press, New Haven. 
Sibley, C.G. & Monroe, Jr., B.L. 1993. A supplement to distribution and taxonomy of birds of the 

world. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven. 
Smythies, B.E. 1953. The birds of Burma. Oliver & Boyd, London. 

Vaurie, C. 1965. The birds of the Palearctic fauna: Non-Pas serif qrmes. Witherby, London. 
Wells. D.R. 1999. The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Academic Press, New York. 

Address: Ben King, Ornithology Dept., American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West 
at 79th St., New York, NY 10034. USA. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



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Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 

ISSN 0007-1595 

Edited by Professor Chris Feare 

Volume 122, Number 1, pages 1 - 80 

CONTENTS 

CLUB NOTICES 1 

DE VASCONCELOS, M.F., D'ANGELO NETO. S. & RODRIGUES, M. A range extension 
for the Cipo Canastero Asthenes luizae and the consequences for its conservation 
status 7 

BOURNE. W.R.R The nomenclature and past history in Britain of the Bean and 

Pink-footed Geese 1 1 

DAVID, N. & GOSSELIN, M. Gender agreement of avian species names 14 

JIGUET, F. Taxonomy of the Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein inferred 
from biometrics and wing plumage pattern, including two previously undescribed 
subspecies 50 

CLEERE, N. Notes on the generic citation of the Oilbird Steatornis caripensis 

(Steatornithidae) 7 1 

KING, B.E The Hierococcyx fugax, Hodgson's Hawk Cuckoo, complex 74 



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COMMITTEE 

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[THE NATURAL 
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MEETINGS are held at Imperial College, South Kensington, London, SW7, usually in the Sherfield 
Building. The nearest Tube station is at South Kensington; a map of the area will be sent to members, on 
request. See also website: http://www.boc-online.org. 

(Limited car parking facilities can be reserved, on prior application to the Hon. Secretary). 

The cash bar is open from 6.15 pm and a buffet supper, of two courses followed by coffee, is served at 
7.00 pm. (A vegetarian menu can be arranged if ordered at the time of booking). Dinner charges are 
currently £18.00. Informal talks are given on completion, commencing at about 8.00 pm. 

FORTHCOMING MEETINGS 

25 June - Dr Clifford Frith - 'Artful sex - the bowerbirds and their amazing bowers '. 
Clifford is a self-employed natural history photographer, author, publisher, and ornithologist. Early orni- 
thological positions include The Natural History Museum, London, and the Royal Society of London Re- 
search Station on Albabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. His PhD was awarded for intensive long-term evolutionary 
studies of bowerbirds and birds of paradise. A life member of the BOU and AOU, Clifford is an Honorary 
Research Fellow of the Queensland Museum and, jointly with his wife Dawn, recipient of the RAOU's 
D.L. Serventy Medal for Ornithology. Together with Dawn he has written, illustrated, and published sev- 
eral small Australian natural history books as well as the large Cape York Peninsula - a Natural History 
(Reed, 1996). Clifford is senior author of The Birds of Paradise - Paradisaeidae (1998) of the acclaimed 
OUP 'Bird Families of the World' series. He and Dawn have recently completed a companion volume 
about The Bowerbirds - Ptilonorhynchidae for a 2002 release. The Friths live within upland rainforest of 
Queensland, Australia, which they share with Southern Cassowaries, two megapode and four bowerbird 
species, a bird of paradise, and much more. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 11 June please. 

24 September - Dr Joanne Cooper - 'Storm Petrels in the soapdish and Black Robins on the verandah: the 
birds of the Chatham Islands, New Zealand'. 

From a background in geography and geology (but with a long-term interest in birds), Jo studied the Late 
Pleistocene avifaunas of Gibraltar for her PhD in the Bird Group of The Natural History Museum. During 
this time, she also began looking into the Museum's extensive collections of sub-fossil bird remains from 
the Chatham Islands, originally gathered for Lord Walter Rothschild in the 1 890s. One thing led to another 
and eventually she headed off to New Zealand to pursue the work further. Based at the Museum of New 
Zealand in Wellington, she also had an opportunity to visit the Islands themselves as a volunteer with the 
Department of Conservation. Since arriving back in the UK in August 2001, she has returned to the Bird 
Group, where she now works as a curator. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 11 September please. 

5 November - Professor Ian Newton - 'Population limitation in birds: a review of the experimental evidence '. 
Ian began his ornithological career by studying the ecology and feeding behaviour of finches, supervised by 
David Lack at the University of Oxford. He then moved to work with the Natural Environment Research 
Council in Edinburgh, studying first waterfowl and then birds of prey. For more than 25 years, he con- 
ducted a population study of the Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus in south Scotland. He has authored about 
250 papers in the scientific literature, and several books, including Finches (1972), Population ecology of 
raptors (1979), The Sparrowhawk (1986) and, more recently, Population limitation in birds (1998). He was 
elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1993, and awarded an OBE for 'services to ornithology' in 1999. He 
is a past President of the British Ecological Society and is current President of the British Ornithologists' 
Union. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 23 October please. 

Future meeting - advance notice 

Tuesday 3 December - Jon Hornbuckle - 'The birds ofBeni Biological Station, Bolivia '. 

Overseas Members visiting Britain are especially welcome at these meetings, and the Hon. Secretary 
would be very pleased to hear from anyone who can offer to talk to the Club, in 2003, giving as much 
advance notice as possible - please contact: Michael Casement, Dene Cottage, West Harting, Petersfield, 
Hants., GU31 5PA. UK. Tel/FAX:0 1730-825280 (or Email: mbcasement@aol.com). 



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Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



t 



Bulletin of the 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 

Vol. 1 22 No. 2 Published 1 7 June 2002 

CLUB NEWS 

"A passion for natural history": a two-day seminar based on the life, times and 
acquaintances of Edward Smith Stanley, the 13 th Earl of Derby. As announced in Bulletin 
122(1): 2, members are invited to attend a two-day seminar on 5 and 6 July 2002. Background 
information will be found in the summary of Clem Fisher's talk (Bulletin 122(1): 5). On 5 July, 
attendees will visit Knowsley Hall, which houses volumes of zoological and botanical art dating 
back to the 18 th century, for a guided tour and lunch. The day will also include a visit to the 
Liverpool City Library Rare Books Rooms. On 6 July there will be a series of lectures in the Rex 
Makin Theatre, County Sessions House, William Brown Street, detailing the work of the 13 th Earl 
of Derby and his colleagues world-wide. The cost will be in the range of £30-35, plus 
accommodation. For further details contact Dr Clem Fisher (0151 478 4360) and to book 
contact Sandra Henderson, National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside (0151 478 4538). 

Membership News 
We regret to report the deaths of M.A. Walmsley (1986-2001), Professor Dr. K.H. Voous (1976- 
2002), J.D. Lindsay (1968-71, 1989); also former member W. Peckover (1979-1998). 



The 907th meeting of the Club was held on Tuesday 26 February, at 6.15 pm, in the Sherfield 
Building Annexe, Imperial College, and was attended by 20 Members and 14 guests. 
Members present were: Dr C.F MANN (Chairman), Miss H. BAKER, Sir David BANNERMAN 
Bt, P.J. BELMAN, D.R. CALDER, Cdr M.B. CASEMENT RN, Dr R.J. CHANDLER, Revd. T.W 
GLADWIN, J.A. JOBLING, D.J. MONTIER, Mrs A.M. MOORE, R.G. MORGAN, P.J. OLIVER, 
Dr P.W.G. SALAMAN, Dr R.C. SELF, T.R. SMEETON, S.A.H. STATHAM, C.W.R. STOREY, 
Miss R. TINGAY (Speaker) and C.E. WHEELER. 

Guests attending were: Lady P. BANNERMAN, Mrs J.B. CALDER, Mrs C.R. CASEMENT, 
Mrs J.M. GLADWIN, Miss S.I. LARA, Ms K. HOFF, Col and Mrs B.M LEES, P.J. MOORE, Miss 
K.A. MURRAY, Mrs M. MONTIER, M. NICHOLL, Miss B. RYAN, and Miss PR. WEBSTER. 

Ruth Tingay gave a fascinating presentation of her continuing study of the Madagascar Fish 
Eagle under the title "Three-in-a-nest sex romp shocker: implications for the critically endangered 
Madagascar Fish Eagle ". The following is a brief synopsis: 

Previously described as a common species, the island endemic Madagascar Fish Eagle Haliaeetus 
vociferoides is now considered critically endangered. The current distribution of 63 known breeding 
pairs appears to consist of two geographically isolated sub-populations, occupying increasingly 
disturbed habitat on the NW and western side of the island. A review of the historical literature 
suggests a previous distribution across the entire island and indicates a drastic population decline 
over the last 50 years. 

Compounding this apparent decline is an unusual breeding strategy amongst some Madagascar 
Fish Eagles, consisting of one or two extra-pair birds involved with the nesting activities of 
breeding pairs. This behaviour may be influencing the species' current distribution and abundance, 
and may also limit its potential for population recovery. 

The current study aims to use DNA fingerprinting techniques to compare the historical and 
modern genetic diversity of the Madagascar Fish Eagle, to infer population history and dynamics. 



Club News 



82 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



and to assess the level of in-breeding amongst the extant population. Blood samples collected 
from living specimens will be compared with tissue samples taken from Madagascar Fish Eagle 
museum specimens to facilitate a population history over a 144-year period, and thus the 
detection of genetic bottlenecks, which will either confirm or refute the supposition that the 
population has suffered a recent drastic decline. Blood samples from contemporary individuals in 
both sub-populations will be used to examine the extent of gene flow both within and between 
sub-populations, to determine whether they are both geographically and genetically distinct. 
DNA fingerprinting will also be used to test for paternity amongst polyandrous trios and their 
offspring which, coupled with detailed behavioural observations at the nests, should provide a 
greater insight into the social hierarchy of this unusual breeding strategy. 

Preliminary results indicate a more complex social hierarchy and range of breeding strategies 
than was first thought. The following breeding strategies have been observed within one sub- 
population over a three-year period: monogamy, polyandry, polygyny, polygynandry, and potentially 
homosexuality. This diversity is unique amongst raptor species and very rare amongst other 
avian taxa, perhaps with the exception of the Dunnock Prunella modularis. Co-operative 
breeding in other species has often been explained as a response to a specific environmental 
condition. For example, polyandry (at least 2 males with 1 female at one nest) may occur as a 
result of food shortage, which may favour the co-operation of males to permit a higher probability 
of successful reproduction. However, polygyny (at least 2 females mating with the same male) 
may occur as a result of high food availability, whereby the single male is able to provide food for 
two females and thus double his probability of successful reproduction. If these two breeding 
strategies are occurring within the same locality, it would seem unlikely that they evolved as an 
environmental response to two opposing food conditions and therefore another explanation 
must be sought. 

Preliminary DNA results indicate that the primary pair of some polyandrous trios are first- 
order relatives, thus increasing the possibility that in-breeding may be occurring. Unsurprisingly, 
the primary male has been shown to be the dominant male and invests the most paternal effort 
at the nest. However, DNA fingerprinting has demonstrated that the subordinate male sired all 
the offspring at each nest. 

The remaining genetic analyses are due to take place later this year and it is anticipated these 
may offer further insight into the bizarre social hierarchy of this critically endangered species. 
The results of the current study will be used to inform conservation planning should a re- 
introduction of the Madagascar Fish Eagle be necessary. 




Ruth Tingay and Eloi Fanameha ring 
and take a blood sample from a 7- 
week-old Madagascar Fish Eagle. 
DNA paternity tests have revealed 
an unlikely father at many nests. 
Photograph by Martin Gilbert. 



Club News 83 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 

Registered charity No. 279583 

TRUSTEES ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2001 

LIST OF TRUSTEES - COMMITTEE 

Dr. C.F. MANN Chairman (2001); Reverend T.W. GLADWIN Vice-Chairman (2001); 
Cdr. M.B. CASEMENT, O.B.E., R.N. Hon. Secretary (1996); D.J. MONTIER Hon. Treasurer 
(1997); R.E.SCOTT (1998); J. A. JOBLING (1999); Professor R.A.CHEKE (2001); 
Mrs M.N. MULLER (2001); Dr P.G.W SALAMAN (2001) 

Correspondence and enquiries to the Hon. Secretary, Dene Cottage, West Harting, Petersfield, 

Hants. GU31 5PA 
Auditors and Independent Examiners - Porritt Rainey & Co., 9 Pembroke Road, Sevenoaks, 

Kent. TNI 3 1XR 
Bankers - Barclays Bank pic, Dale House, Wavertree Boulevard, Liverpool, L7 9PQ 

CONSTITUTION 

The British Ornithologists' Club was founded in October 1892. It currently operates under Rules 
revised in 2000 and approved at a Special General Meeting on 31st October of that year. 
Members of the Committee, who are also the trustees of the Club, are listed above with the dates 
of their appointment. Committee members are elected for a term of four years, with the exception 
of the Honorary Secretary and Honorary Treasurer, who are both subject to re-election at each 
Annual General Meeting. 

OBJECTS OF THE CHARITY 

The promotion of scientific discussion between Members of the British Ornithologists'Union 
and others interested in ornithology, and to facilitate the dissemination of scientific information 
concerned with ornithology, with a particular emphasis on avian systematics, taxonomy and 
distribution. 

MEETINGS 

Eight evening meetings were held in 2001 at Imperial College, London; the 900th meeting was 
celebrated with a special dinner on 3 April, at the Rector's Residence, 170 Queensgate. A total of 
275 (196 members and 79 guests) attended these meetings, which represented an average 
attendance of 34.4. The programme of speakers during the year again covered a wide variety of 
ornithological subjects in both Britain and overseas. As for the past three years, the May meeting 
following the AGM was in the form of a social evening, during which informal short talks and 
brief discussions were contributed by eight participants, on a range of topical subjects. Summaries 
of all these talks are to be found in the Club News section of the Bulletin. 

THE BULLETIN 

The 280 pages of Volume 121 contained 38 papers. As usual these were global in their geographical 
coverage and included studies of a wide range of taxonomic, nomenclatural and distributional 
topics. Two new species were described, a laughingthrush from Vietnam and a wagtail from 
Cambodia, and a new subspecies of Red Knot was described from Siberia. Further papers justified 
the elevation of three tapaculo taxa to species rank and highlighted the occurrence of a probable 
new taxon of owl from Indonesia. The interval between receipt of papers and publication ranged 
from six to 30 months, averaging 13 months. The longer intervals, over 20 months, resulted 
from delays in the review process (many reviewers and authors spend considerable periods in the 
field) and from authors requiring extended periods to complete revisions. In 2001, 60 papers 
were received and 31 have been accepted to date. 

The readership questionnaire that was distributed with the Bulletin in 2000 elicited 99 responses. 
The vast majority of these indicated approval of the current content and coverage. During 2001, 



Club News 84 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

however, some changes have been introduced. The "Club Notices" have been retitled "Club 
News" and, in addition to reports of meetings and the annual report and accounts, they now 
include brief announcements and news of members, together with a small number of short book 
reviews. Our successful move to the new printer, Crowes, in 2000 facilitated production on an 
improved quality of paper and we have taken advantage of this to increase the number of colour 
illustrations. Criticism of the "cardboard" cover of 2000 led to a complete redesign, kindly 
prepared by Julian Hume. This received majority approval by the Club Committee and most Club 
members who have commented have done so favourably; two members, however, expressed 
horror! A number of non-members who encountered the new appearance on library showcases 
sent messages expressing surprise that the Bulletin had undergone such a transformation, 
commenting further that this had stimulated them to open the journal, leading to further surprise 
at the interesting content. Whether this, and the change in membership structure, will promote 
membership remains to be discovered. 

As ever, the Hon. Editor is greatly indebted to the reviewers who devote their time and 
expertise that enables us to sustain the quality of papers published. Eng-Li Green, of Alcedo 
Publishing, who converts the electronic files into their final publishable form, works with efficiency 
and speed to meet the deadlines imposed by the Editor and produces the attractive and readable 
format in which our journal now appears. Crowes work with similar alacrity through the printed 
proof stage to meet our publication dates. Gratitude also goes to Mary Muller, who prepares the 
index, Effie Warr, who helps in many ways and in 2001 took on the additional task of preparing 
authors' reprints, and Michael Casement, who produces the cover information and Club News 
section. 

BULLETIN SALES 

Sales to Institutional Subscribers totalled 126, with 26 in the UK and 100 overseas (26 countries). 
Of the latter, 41 were to the United States of America, 8 to Australia and 7 to Germany Figures 
include 8 free copies in UK (to meet legal requirements and for copyright libraries) and 8 free 
copies/exchanges abroad. 

OTHER PUBLICATIONS 

In May the Committee restructured the Publications Sub-Committee and appointed the Revd. T 
W.Gladwin to succeed Dr R.P. Prys-Jones as Chairman, the other members being Prof. R.A. 
Cheke; S.P. Dudley, representing the British Ornithologists' Union (BOU); the Honorary 
Publications Officer, J. A Jobling; the Honorary Treasurer, D. J. Montier; and N.J. Redman. In 
addition Mrs. A M. Moore kindly served on the Sub-Committee for a short period for the benefit 
of continuity and her experience. 

As a result of delays, to both the Bird Atlas of Uganda and Proceedings of the Conference: 
Why Museums Matter ; Avian Archives in an Age of Extinction, no new publications appeared 
during the year. The Bird Atlas of Uganda has made good progress in accordance with revised and 
more realistic schedules, and it is hoped that both works will finally be published in 2002. 

The Committee having approved reductions in prices for Birds, Discovery and Conservation and 
Avian Egg-shells; An Atlas of Scanning Electron Micrographs, these titles were placed on 
special offer. As a result of the continuing demand for the Club's past publications, sixty-six books and 
various back numbers of the Bulletin and copies of specific articles were sold during the 
year. As reported last year it has been agreed that future publications in the BOU Checklist series will be 
a joint venture between the BOC and BOU and the first jointly produced titles are planned 
to appear in 2002. The mutual benefits to both organisations and the potential benefits to ornithology 
from such co-operation are considerable. Proposals for the establishment of a 
Joint Publications Committee have been approved both by the Committee and the Council of the BOU 

COMMITTEE 

The Committee met six times during the year, and the attendance was 85%. The chief topics for 
discussions were the Club Publications and their storage and distribution. The Committee accepted, 



Club News 8 5 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

with regret, the resignation of Dr Robert Prys-Jones, due to the pressures of other work, and the Revd. 
T.W. Gladwin was elected as Vice-Chairman, and Chairman of the Publications Sub-Committee, in his 
place. 

The BOC website was launched in January, mainly due to the commendable efforts and expertise of 
Dr. P.G.W Salaman, who was subsequently elected to the Committee and appointed Hon. Website 
Manager. Plans were progressed for the electronic archiving and marketing of the complete set of Bulletin 
BOC. 

Other matters discussed concerned the exploration of closer links with the BOU for the joint 
publication and marketing of the BOU Checklist and BOC Occasional Publications series, and 
opportunities for sharing storage facilities. 

Following further cost increases by Imperial College, dinner charges were increased to £18, 
with effect from January 2002. 

The Committee continues to be most grateful to the Trustees of the Herbert Stevens Trust 
Fund (Mr Nigel Crocker, Mr Richard Price and Mr Peter Oliver) for their time and expertise 
advising on the performance of the Fund. 

MEMBERSHIP 

There were 561 paid-up Members at 31 December 2001 - 299 with addresses in the U.K, and 262 
overseas (46 countries). The Club welcomed 30 new Members, including 7 previous non-Member 
Subscribers, taking advantage of the Rule change to join as full Members. 

But it is with great regret that the Committee reports the deaths in the past year of seven 
Club Members: Dr PA. Clancey (1938-2001, Hon. Life Member), P.B. Clarke, (1989-2001), 
H.J. Dickinson (1965-2000), P. Gladstone (1998-2000), E. Gorton (1953-2001), N.S. Malcolm 
(1989-2001), and M.L.R. Romer (1962-2001, Committee 1964-68). 

There were 13 resignations, and 21 were removed under Rule(7), resulting in a net decrease 
in membership of 1 1 , during the year. 

The publication of the Members'Address List annually with the Index, was discontinued in 
1997, in order to reduce costs. The Hon. Secretary continues to prepare a list annually, and 
duplicated copies of the Membership 2002, including e-mail addresses (if known) are available, 
free of charge, for any Member requesting a copy, though a stamped and addressed envelope (A5), 
or a contribution towards the cost of postage, will be gratefully received. 

LEGACY 

In December 2001, the Club was notified that it would be receiving a bequest from the estate of 
the late Dr Phillip Clancey, an Honorary Life Member who joined the Club in 1938. The exact 
amount will not be known for some months. 

RISK REVIEW 

The Committee has reviewed the major risks to which the Club is exposed, and operates systems 
that are designed to mitigate those risks. 

FINANCE 

Unrestricted Funds. A further £5,000 was transferred to the Unrestricted Designated Fund 
during the year, bringing the total at 31 December 2001 to £10,000 as a reserve for future 
publications, particularly for those already in progress. The Club's unrestricted resources, largely 
built up from a bequest in 1964 from the estate of Herbert Stevens and subsequent growth in the 
underlying investments, support the Club's objective of publishing specialised ornithological 
works that would be viewed as uneconomic by commercial publishers. These reserves also allow 
the Club to continue in developing its selective publishing role in a planned joint venture with the 
British Ornithologists' Union 

Investment Policy. The Herbert Stevens Fund, which covers almost the whole of the investments, 
is managed by independent trustees on behalf of the Club. The Committee reviews their reports at least 



Club News 86 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

twice a year and considers that the individual investments in charity unit trusts are appropriate to the 
Club and provide a satisfactory level of income and scope for capital growth. Although the market value 
of the investments fell by 8.7% over the year, this proved to be a more resilient performance than the 
stock market as a whole, while maintaining an income yield of 4.7%. 

Financial results for the year ended 31 December 2001. Total revenue for 2001 amounted 
to £32,410, approximately £3,300 less than the previous year. Subscription income, including 
tax recovered on Gift Aid and remaining covenants, was virtually unchanged at £10,900. 
Investment income was down on the previous year by only about £500, which was a satisfactory 
outcome in a year of falling interest rates and slowing dividend growth. Sales of "other publications" 
fell by £2,700 after the boost in 2000 when the Con Benson Type Specimens catalogue caused an 
initial flurry of sales. 

Expenditure during 2001 rose by about £3,000, with two items accounting for most of the 
additional costs. Firstly, the Committee agreed a donation of £1,500 to the National Museums 
and Galleries on Merseyside towards the cost of the catalogue for the forthcoming 13th Earl of 
Derby Exhibition. Secondly, a total of £1,099 was spent on computer software and equipment for 
the development of a comprehensive index and database of Bulletin back-numbers, as part of the 
Club's website. Cost of meetings increased during the year, further expenditure was incurred on 
editing the forthcoming Bird Atlas of Uganda, and a small amount was spent on purchasing an 
additional stock of Birds, Discovery and Conservation at a favourable price. 

The overall result for the year was an excess of income over expenditure of £8,173 compared 
with £14,569 in 2000. Despite the lower figure, the surplus was still sufficient to allow a further 
£5,000 to be added to the Unrestricted Designated Fund towards the cost of future publications. 
Nevertheless, total assets of the Club fell by nearly £13,000, the decline of £21,000 in the 
market value of investments, principally in the Herbert Stevens Fund, overshadowing the year's 
operating surplus. This Fund of £218,000 is invested in three charity unit trusts and, as in many 
trusts investing in quoted securities, they suffered from falling share values, offsetting most of 
the growth of the previous two years, though still leaving the Club at 31st December 2001 with 
overall net assets of about £310,000. 

TRUSTEES' RESPONSIBILITIES 

Under the Charities Act 1993, the trustees are required to prepare a statement of accounts for 
each financial year which give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the charity at the end 
of the financial year and of the incoming resources and application of resources in the year. In 
preparing the statement the trustees are required to : 

select suitable accounting policies and then apply them consistently; 

make judgements and estimates that are reasonable and prudent; 

state whether applicable accounting standards and statements of recommended practice have 

been followed, subject to any material departures disclosed and explained in the statement of 

accounts. 

prepare the financial accounts on the going concern basis unless it is inappropriate to 

presume that the charity will continue its operations. 
The trustees are responsible for keeping proper accounting records which disclose with reasonable 
accuracy at any time the financial position of the charity and to enable them to ensure that any 
statement of account prepared by them complies with the regulations under section 41(1) of the 
Charities Act 1993. They are also responsible for safeguarding the assets of the trust and hence 
for taking reasonable steps for the prevention and detection of fraud and other irregularities. 

Approved and signed on behalf of the Trustees 

C. F. Mann 

Chairman 

Date: 30th April 2002 



Club News 



87 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



BALANCE SHEET — 31st December 2001 



2001 



Notes 
2 



FIXED ASSETS 

Tangible Assets 

INVESTMENTS 

At Market Value 



CURRENT ASSETS 

Stock of Publications 
Cash at Bank and in hand 
Cash on Deposit 
Prepayments 
Other Debtors 



CURRENT LIABILITIES 

Subscriptions in advance 

Creditors falling due within one year 



TOTAL ASSETS 

FUNDS 

Unrestricted 

Designated 4 

Other 5 



Restricted 



219,097 



10,000 
291,404 

301,404 
8,720 

310,124 



2000 

£ 

10 

240,075 



100 
2,314 
94,801 

375 
654 


219,097 


100 

4,407 

86,343 

375 

103 


240,085 


98,244 

(3,728) 
(3,489) 


91,328 

(4,161) 
(4,323) 






91,027 


82,844 




310,124 


322,929 



5,000 
309,623 

314,623 
8,306 

322,929 



Approved and Signed on behalf of the Trustees 

C. F. Mann 

Chairman 

Date: 30th April 2002 



STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES— 31st December 2001 



INCOMING RESOURCES 

SUBSCRIPTIONS 

Members 

Non-member subscribers 
Income Tax recoverable under 
Gift Aid & Deeds of Covenant 



DONATIONS 



Unrestricted 
£ 


2001 

Restricted 

£ 


Total 
£ 


2000 

Total 

£ 


7,302 
3,046 


- 


7,302 
3,046 


6.711 

3,778 


552 


- 


552 


409 


10,900 


- 


10,900 


10.898 


38 


- 


38 


78 



Club News 
Statement continued.. 



INVESTMENT INCOME 

Herbert Stevens Trust Fund 
Barrington Trust Fund 
Interest received 



SALES OF PUBLICATIONS 

Bulletin 

Other publications 



MEETINGS 
OTHER INCOME 

TOTAL INCOME 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



Notes 



Unrestricted 

£ 

10,350 

37 

4,103 



2001 
Restricted 

£ 



414 



Total 
£ 

10,350 

37 

4,517 



2000 

Total 

£ 

10,633 

40 

4,747 



14,490 


414 


14,904 


15,420 


694 
981 


- 


694 
981 


929 
3,680 


1,675 


- 


1,675 


4,609 


4,884 
9 


- 


4,884 
9 


4,707 
47 


31,996 


414 


32,410 


35, 759 



RESOURCES EXPENDED 
CHARITABLE EXPENDITURE 

MEETINGS 

Room and equipment 

hire, speakers' expenses, etc. 

Restaurant 

SPONSORSHIP 13th Earl of 
Derby Exhibition Catalogue 

BOC BULLETIN 

Production, printing and distribution 
Computer software for developing a 
comprehensive index for website 

OTHER PUBLICATIONS 

Purchases 

Future Publications 

Publicity, postage and packing 

ADMINISTRATION 7 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE 

EXCESS OF INCOME OVER EXPENDITURE 

(Reduction) / Increase in value of investments 



TOTAL FUNDS 

brought forward at 1st January 2001 

TOTAL FUNDS 

at 31st December 2001 



1,630 


- 


1,630 


1,239 


5,391 


- 


5,391 


4,693 


1,500 


- 


1,500 


- 


11,348 


- 


11,348 


12,542 


1,099 


- 


1,099 


- 


100 


_ 


100 




930 


- 


930 


367 


163 


- 


163 


293 


2,076 


- 


2,076 


2,056 


24,237 


- 


24,237 


21,190 


7,759 


414 


8,173 


14,569 


(20,978) 


- 


(20,978) 


8,851 


(13,219) 


414 


(12,805) 


23,420 


314,623 


8,306 


322,929 


299,509 


301,404 


8,720 


310,124 


322,929 



Club News 



89 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



NOTES TO THE ACCOUNTS — 31st December 2001 



ACCOUNTING POLICIES 



a) 



Basis of Accounts. The Financial Statements are prepared under the historical cost convention as modified by the 
inclusion of investments in the Herbert Stevens and Barrington Trust Funds at market values. They are also prepared 
in accordance with the Financial Reporting Standard for Smaller Entities (effective March 2000) and follow the 
recommendations in Accounting and Reporting by Charities : Statement of Recommended Practice Issued in Oc- 
tober 2000. 

b) Investments and Cash Deposits. The Herbert Stevens and Barrington Trust funds are invested in quoted UK charity 
unit trusts and shown in the Balance Sheet at year-end market values. Income from these funds and from cash deposits 
is included in the Statement of Financial Activities on a receipts basis. 

c) Subscriptions. Subscriptions for the current year and any arrears are included in Incoming Resources in the Statement 
of Financial Activities. Subscriptions received in advance are carried forward in the balance sheet as current liabili- 
ties. 

d) Expenditure is accounted for on an accruals basis. 

e) Depreciation. Depreciation is calculated to write off fixed assets over their expected useful lives at an annual rate of 
10% on cost. 

f) Publications. The cost of publications is written off in the Statement of Financial Activities as incurred except for a 
nominal stock value of £100 carried in the Balance Sheet. 



2 .TANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS 

Cost at 1st January and 31st December 2001 

Accumulated depreciation at 1st January 2001 
Charge for the year 

At 31st December 2001 

Net Book Value: At 31st December 2001 

At 31st December 2000 



Projection Equipment 

£ 
100 



100 



10 



3 . INVESTMENTS - at market value 

Herbert Stevens Trust Fund 
Barrington Trust Fund 



2001 


2000 


£ 


£ 


218,027 


238,832 


1,070 


1,243 



219,097 



240,075 



4 . UNRESTRICTED DESIGNATED FUND 

for future publications 
Balance at 1st January 2001 
Designated during the year 

Balance at 31st December 2001 



2001 

£ 

5,000 

5,000 

10,000 



5 . OTHER UNRESTRICTED FUNDS 



Balances at 1st January 2001 
Reduction in value of investments during 
Surplus of income over expenditure 
Transfer to Unrestricted Designated Fund 

Balances at 31st December 2001 





HERBERT 






GENERAL 


STEVENS 


BARRINGTON 




FUND 


TRUST FUND 


TRUST FUND 


TOTAL 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


69,548 


238,832 


1,243 


309,623 


:ar 


( 20,805) 


( 173) 


( 20,978) 


7,759 


- 


- 


7,759 


( 5,000) 


- 


- 


( 5,000) 



72,307 



218,027 



1,070 



291,404 



Club News 90 

Notes to the Accounts — 31st December 2001 continued... 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



6. RESTRICTED FUNDS 

Balances at 1st January 2001 
Interest - gross 

Balances at 31st December 2001 

7 .ADMINISTRATION EXPENSES include; 

Audit and Independent examination fees 
Depreciation of tangible fixed assets 



8 . REIMBURSEMENT OF EXPENSES 

Committee members are reimbursed for expenses incurred by them on behalf of the Club. The amount reimbursed during 
the year was £2,364 (2000 £879 ) 





BIRD ATLAS 




PUBLICATIONS 


OF UGANDA 




FUND 


FUND 


TOTAL 


£ 


£ 


£ 


4,998 


3,308 


8,306 


249 


165 


414 


5,247 


3,473 


8,720 




2001 


2000 




£ 


£ 




550 


550 




10 


10 



INDEPENDENT EXAMINERS REPORT TO THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 

This is a report in respect of an examination carried out on the accounts set out on pages 7 to 1 
under Section 43 of the Charities Act 1993 and in accordance with directions given by the Charity 
Commissioners under Sub-section 7(b) of that Section. 

Respective responsibilities of trustees and independent examiners 

As described on page 6 the Trustees are responsible for the preparation of the accounts and they 
consider that Charities Act 1993 Section 43(2) (audit requirement) does not apply. It is our 
responsibility to carry out procedures designed to enable us to report our opinion. 

Basis of Opinion 

This report is in respect of an examination carried out under section 43 of the Charities Act 1993 
and in accordance with the directions given by the Charity Commissioners under section 43(7)(b). 
An examination includes a review of the accounting records kept by the charity trustees and a 
comparison of the accounts presented with those records. It also includes a review of the accounts 
and making such enquiries as are necessary for the purposes of this report. The procedures under- 
taken do not constitute an audit. 

Opinion 

No matter has come to our attention in connection with our examination which gives us reasonable 

cause not to believe that in any material respect: 

(i) accounting records have been kept in accordance with Section 41 of the Charities Act 1993; or 

(ii) the accounts accord with those records; or 

(iii)the statement of accounts complies with the accounting requirements of the Charities Act 

1993. 
No matter has come to our attention in connection with our examination to which, in our opinion, 
attention should be drawn to enable a proper understanding of these accounts. 

Porritt Rainey & Co. 
Chartered Accountants 



Club News 



91 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



ERRATUM 

In the paper by Frederic Jiguet, on the taxonomy of the Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus {Bull. Brit. 
Orn. CI. 122 : 50-71, 2002), the scatter diagram in Fig. 2b was in fact the same as that reproduced 
in Fig. 2a. The correct scatter plot is below, and shows the plot of Principal Components PCI and 
PC3, resulting from a PCA performed on 131 adult Kelp Gulls, using five biometric characters. 
Antarctic birds are enclosed by the line. 



OJUco 





















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o 














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A 


o 








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A 








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o 








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• 




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• 
A "A 




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■ 




u • 


A °A 

• 

+ 


• A. a A - 

■ ■% . 


A 


■ 






A 


A 

1 


X / 

x/ 


+ 







-4 



PC1 



BOOK RECEIVED 

Watling, D. 2001. A guide to the birds of Fiji and Western Polynesia including American Samoa, 
Niue, Samoa, Tokelau, Tuvalu and Wallis & Fortuna. 272 pp, 16 colour plates by Chloe Talbot 
Kelly. Environment Consultants (Fiji) Ltd, Suva, Fiji. ISBN 982-9047-01-06. Obtainable from: 
Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd, Box 2041, Government Buildings, Suva, Fiji, or by email 
to watling@is.com.fj, or through www.pacificbirds.com US$20. 

Dick Watling laments, in his Preface, that his wonderful Birds of Fiji, Tonga and Samoa (Millwood 
Press, 1978) did not stimulate an interest in the region's birds in the local people, or contribute 
significantly to the birds' conservation. This was at least in part because the book was too large 
and its production too glossy to be affordable to local people. His attempt to rectify this has led 
to the evolution of this excellent guide. 

The book describes and illustrates the birds of the island groups covered. Each species account 
is simple, with brief details of identification, behaviour, distribution, possible confusion species 
and breeding status and, where appropriate, conservation concerns and geographical variation. 
Small vignettes in the margin highlight habitats and threats. Introductory chapters describe the 
region and its ornithology, and conservation problems and possible tactics. Concluding sections 
offer advice on birding in the region, a glossary of terms and acronyms, and checklists for the 
island groups. 



Club News 92 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Dick Watling expresses clear concerns for bird conservation in the region and his Preface 
ends by listing two major requirements. First, conservation strategies must benefit local people, 
rather than calling for sacrifices on their part. Second, " and perhaps more importantly, we need 
flourishing wildlife clubs for local children, so as to build a constituency of aware and concerned 
citizens who are prepared to mount a locally credible campaign for the conservation of birds in 
their own right. This will be far more effective for conservation than any amount of planning, 
external assistance and intervention." Thanks to the South Pacific Regional Environment 
Programme, 1,500 copies of the book are being distributed free to schools, universities, colleges 
and libraries throughout the region, and cost price copies are available from the author to 
regional students. The compilation of the book, and its distribution in this way, are initiatives 
that will hopefully contribute to Dick Watling's identified requirements. I wish him every success 
and also hope that this very reasonably priced volume will find its way in to the libraries of those 
interested in island ornithology and conservation world-wide. 

Chris Feare 



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Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 9 3 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

The Kimberley Pipit: a new African species 

Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 

Received 28 November 2000 

The biology of African pipits Anthus is poorly known. For example, the incubation 
and fledging periods are known for only two of the eleven breeding species in Southern 
Africa. This lack of interest has been exacerbated by the confusion provoked by 
several recent changes in and conflicting opinions about the taxonomy of this genus 
in the major ornithological works covering pipits in the region (Clancey 1 990, Keith et 
at. 1992, Voelker 1999a). 

During investigations aimed at discovering the extent to which pipit taxa separated 
on morphological/behavioural grounds were also separable on the basis of their 
DNA, primarily to establish the validity of the Long-tailed Pipit Anthus longicaudatus 
(Liversidge 1996), DNA evidence suggested that one of the specimens examined 
was, in fact, a new taxon (Voelker 1999a). One of the freshly-collected specimens, 
from Kimberley, South Africa, had been identified as the Long-billed Pipit Anthus 
similis, but it proved to be a distinct species closer in relationship to the Malindi Pipit 
A. melindae, from coastal Kenya, than any other pipit (Voelker 1999a). Its DNA 
configuration was referred to as "similis (1)" in the text and cladogram by Voelker, 
whereas the established Anthus similis species was referred to as "similis (2)." 

Referring back to the voucher specimen of similis (1) and comparing it with a 
series of Anthus similis loaned from the Bloemfontein National Museum, several 
differences were established between the two forms. Indeed, from the six specimens 
loaned it was found that one had also been misidentified and belonged to this new 
species, "similis (1)". 

Four years of fieldwork have allowed us to establish satisfactory differences that 
can be observed in the field, and to record courtship, song and nesting of the new 
species. Other specimens have been collected from the same locality as the original 
specimen. The new species can be identified, with difficulty, both in the hand and in 
the field, and we name it: 

Kimberley Pipit Anthus pseudosimilis^ sp.nov. 

Holotype 

McGregor Museum, Kimberley registration no. MMK/B/2548 adult male. 13 July 
1995, Keeley Park (28° 45' S. 24° 47'E) Kimberley, South Africa. Collected by 
C.Anderson, B.Wilson and R. Liversidge. Skin, blood and tissue deposited at the 
McGregor Museum and blood at Burke Museum, Seattle. 

Diagnosis 

The holotype of the Kimberley Pipit was first identified as a Long-billed Pipit. However, 
its DNA profile differed from the latter species and we have now established that 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 



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Figure 1. The five larger streaked-backed pipits that occur in sub-equatorial Africa. Top left: 
Mountain Pipit Anthus hoeschii, which is darker and more heavily patterned. Middle left: Wood 
Pipit Anthus nyassae. Bottom left: the smaller African Pipit Anthus cinnamomeus. Top right: 
Kimberley Pipit Anthus pseudosimilis. Bottom right: Long-billed Pipit Anthus similis 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 95 Bull. B. O.C. 2002 122(2) 

there are morphological differences between these two very similar birds. The 
Kimberley Pipit is a streak-backed, streak-breasted, long-legged terrestrial pipit, with 
conspicuous superciliary stripe, buff or rufous patch on side of face, distinct black 
malar stripe and pale unmarked chin. Gape conspicuously yellow, sometimes orange- 
yellow, when feeding. Wing formula with P6-8 emarginated, and P5 markedly shorter 
than P6. Differs from geographically sympatric Buffy A. vaalensis and Plain-backed 
Pipits A. leucophrys in having streaked back and breast, from African Pipit A. 
cinnamomeus in having darker brown streaks on back, a more extensive breastband 
with generally heavier streaking, and by its larger size. Distinguished from very 
similar Long-billed Pipit by different wing formula and primary emargination, shorter 
bill, longer hind-claw, more distinct cream superciliary stripe, rufous ear coverts 
and black malar stripe, and also by behaviour and breeding biology (see below). 
Readily separable from geographically allopatric but genetically closely related 
Malindi Pipit which has heavier streaking on the back, thinner malar stripe and 
streaking on the belly and flanks. 

Description of the holotype 

Upper parts generally umber-brown, feathers with darker brown centre and paler 
edges forming a neat pattern on the crown and with broader dark centres on nape and 
mantle extending less noticeably onto back, scapulars and tail coverts. Supercilium 
distinct and pale creamy-buff, face with rufous ear-coverts streaked finely with buff 
and then buff below this. Paler moustachial stripe with dark thin line above extending 
from the ear coverts to meet the centre of the thin dark line of the lores at the mandible. 
Distinct dark brown malar stripe. Pale chin. Underparts pale buff with slightly darker 
chest band on which broad dark brown streaks extend across the chest. Remiges dark 
brown, edged narrowly buff, as are the greater and lesser wing coverts, with broader 
pale buff at the ends forming two pale bars. Underwing buff with paler base of 
remiges. Tail dark brown with very narrow buff edges. Outer tail feathers with 
noticeably white outer vane and inner terminal half. Dorsally the quill of the outer tail 
feather is very dark. Bill dark horn with pale yellowish at the base of lower mandible. 
Legs pale horn. 

Paratypes 

The following paratypes were collected at the same locality as the holotype in 
accordance with Article 72. 1 .2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 
(ICZN 1999). 1.MBM5735 adult male, 9 August 1998, Keeley Park (28°45' S24°47' E) 
Kimberley. Collected by G. Voelker and R. Liversidge. Skin and associated tissue 
(GAV1088) deposited at Barrick Museum of Natural History, University of Nevada, 
Las Vegas. 2. MBM5736 adult male, 9 August 1998. Keeley Park (28° 45' S. 24° 47'E), 
Kimberley. Collected by G. Voelker and R. Liversidge. Skin and associated tissue 
(GAV 1 100) deposited at Barrick Museum of Natural History, University of Nevada, 
Las Vegas. 3. MBM5738 adult male, 9 August 1998, Keeley Park (28° 45' S 24° 47' E), 
Kimberley. Collected by G. Voelker and R. Liversidge. Skin and associated tissue 



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Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



(GAV 1087) deposited at Barrick Museum of Natural History, University of Nevada, 
Las Vegas. 4. Collector's No. 1089. Adult male, 9 August 1998, Keeley Park (28° 45' S. 
24° 47' E), Kimberley. Collected by G. Voelker and R. Liversidge. Skin deposited at The 
Natural History Museum, Tring, England (BM(NH) Reg. No. 2002.1.1); associated 
tissue (GAV 1 089) deposited at the Barrick Museum of Natural History, University of 
Nevada, Las Vegas. 5. MBM5734 adult female, 9 August 1998, Benfontein Farm (28° 
50' S 24° 50' E), 8 km east of Kimberley. Collected by G. Voelker and R. Liversidge. 
Skin and associated tissue (GAV 1096) deposited at Barrick Museum of Natural History, 
University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 

Table 1 lists 1 7 specimens considered to be Kimberley Pipits, mainly by virtue of 
their wing formula and Fig. 1 shows the Kimberley Pipit together with four other 
southern African streaked-backed pipits with which confusion is possible. 



© 


pseudo similis 


p pseudo similis 




nyassa 


S^S 


similis 




Figure 2. The known distribution of the Kimberley Pipit: P indicates the locations of specimens, 
P in a circle indicates the locations of confirmed sightings. The distributions of two species, A. 
similis and A. nyassae, that are and are possibly, respectivelty, sympatric with the Kimberley 
Pipit follow Harrison et al. (1997). 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 97 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(2) 

Paratype variation. 

The ear coverts are variable in the amount of buff or browner colouration. The malar 
stripe is generally darker and more prominent than in the holotype, except in MBM 
5738, which has a thinner stripe. MBM 5736 has buffy-tinged outermost rectrices, 
unlike the white outer rectrices of other paratypes and the holotype. BMNH 2002. 1 . 1 
and MBM 5736 have one or two (respectively) streaked undertail coverts. 

Nest and eggs 

Two nests have been found, one on 9 November 1998 with two eggs, which were 
broken by cattle before being measured, and the other with three chicks from 27 
October to 1 1 November 1998. One had a roundish tunnel entrance into a low grass 
tuft, the tunnel being c. 15 cm long through grass to the nest cup. The second nest 
was very well concealed at grass roots level, deeply hidden under overhanging 
leaves and not visible from above. 

The eggs have a pale bluish-white background with neat dark blobs widely 
dispersed. 

Habitat 

Generally found where the vegetation is short, usually < 1 5 cm but sometimes < 30 cm 
where there is also bare ground. The Kimberley Pipit has been observed by the 
authors in open grassveld, on open red Kalahari sandveld, karooid vegetation, panveld 
and open pan surrounds as well as limestone areas and dry river beds. 

Distribution 

The first specimens, identified by DNA, all came from Kimberley. The other specimens 
listed in Table 1 indicate a distribution from Namaqualand to Middelburg in the 
central karoo, through the Free State to Rustenberg in the old Transvaal (Fig. 2). 
There is a published photograph of one, labeled Long-billed Pipit, from Ais Ais in 
southwestern Namibia (Ginn etal. 1989, p. 582). In addition, R.L. photographed one in 
the Kalahari National Park in May 1990 (photograph in R. Liversidge collection). 

Status 

Where it occurs, the Kimberley Pipit is fairly common. It appears to be sedentary but 
variations in numbers at particular sites, and variations in the plumage of individuals 
present at different times, suggest some winter movements from May to August. 

Etymology 

The vernacular name Kimberley Pipit is given because the types were identified from 
Kimberley. The specific name pseudosimilis was given because the first specimen 
identified by DNA had been misidentified as similis, from which it is difficult to 
differentiate morphologically. 



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TABLE 1 
List of known specimens of Anthus pseudosimilis 



Specimen number 


Date 


Locality 


Latitude & 


Where deposited 




collected 


collected 


longitude 




MBM/5734 


9.08.98 


Benfontein 


28°45'S 24°49'E 


Barrick Mus., Univ. 
Nevada, Las Vegas 


MBM/5735 


9.08.98 


Kimberley 


28°45'S 24°47'E 


" 


MBM/5736 


9.08.98 


Kimberley 


28°45'S 24°47'E 


" 


MBM/5738 


9.08.98 


Kimberley 


28°45'S 24°47'E 


" 


BNM/00668 


17.12.86 


Warden OFS 


27°49'S 28°58'E 


National Mus., 
Bloemfontein 


BNM/01454 


27.08.97 


Springfontein 


30°17'S 26°44'E 


" 


BNM/01664 


28.08.97 


Springfontein 


30°17'S 26°44'E 


" 


BNM/02245 


24.09.96 


Philipstown 


30°16'S 25°17'E 


" 


BNM/03787 


13.06.91 


Trompsberg 


30°03'S 25°07'E 


" 


BNM/05041 


24.10.96 


Middelburg 


31°30'S 25°17'E 


" 


1905.12.20.34 


20.12.05 


Rustenberg 


25°04'S 27°15'E 


Nat. Hist. Mus., Tring 


1905.12.29.1515 


29.12.05 


Klipfontein 


29°13'S 17°40'E 


" 


1903.3.9.509 


9.03.03 


Deelfontein 


30°59'S 23°48'E 


" 


1903.3.9.512 


9.03.03 


Deelfontein 


30°59'S 23°48'E 


" 


1965. M. 9004 


1965 


Middelburg 


31°30'S 25°17'E 


" 


2002.1.1 


9.08.98 


Kimberley 


28°45'S 24°47'E 


" 


MMK/2458 


13.09.95 


Kimberley 


28°45'S 24°47'E 


McGregor.Mus 



Comparison with other species 

In most of the Kimberley Pipit's known range, it is most likely to be confused with 
the Long-billed Pipit and it is therefore with this species that we make most 
comparisons below. Although genetically most closely related to the Malindi Pipit 
(Voelker 1999a) the Kimberley Pipit is easily separated by its larger size, less well- 
streaked chest, lack of streaks on flanks, and by the colour of the base of the bill, 
which is horn to yellowish, rather than bright yellow as found in A. melindae. 



Plumage 

Fig. 1 illustrates the five larger streaked-backed pipit species that occur in Africa 
south of the equator. Although not well shown in the illustration, the crown of the 
Kimberley Pipit often gives the impression of being neatly marked by its streaked 
pattern and this appears to be darker brown than the back (Fig. 3). The back feathers 
have darker centres and broad pale margins and these often form five or six lines 
down the back (Fig. 3). 

Females are generally less distinctly marked, but overlap in plumage detail between 
male and female renders it difficult to sex individuals in the field with any confidence 



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Figure 3. Photographs of two Kimberley Pipits showing the various characteristics mentioned in 
the text. Note the distinctly streaked crown, broad pale margins to otherwise dark back feathers, 
lightly streaked breast, unstreaked flanks, and underparts generally paler than upperparts. 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 100 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Both sexes of A. pseudosimilis have a distinct pale creamy-coloured stripe above 
the eye from the base of the bill to the back of the ear-coverts (Fig. 3). A. similis has 
a much less conspicuous eye-stripe in the Kimberley region. A. pseudosimilis has a 
distinct buff to rufous patch on side of face below the pale eye-stripe, covering the 
ear-coverts and extending down to the moustachial stripe (Fig. 3). This is more apparent 
on live birds than on study skins and is a good field characteristic. The rear of this 
rufous patch appears square-ended or merges with the side of the neck. There is 
frequently a distinct paler creamy line that curves upwards, a short distance below 
and posterior to the ear-coverts (Fig. 3). In breeding pairs, females have paler rufous 
ear coverts than males. 

The A. pseudosimilis specimens have a distinct black malar stripe and this is 
noticeable in the field, where the male bird usually has a darker malar stripe than the 
female. Nine often A. similis specimens in the BMNH collection had no malar stripe, 
while the tenth had a less distinct one. One A similis specimen (BMNH 1903.3.9.5 1 1) 
from Deelfontein had a malar stripe on its left side and nothing on the right side 

The underparts are usually paler than the back. The chin is pale and unmarked; 
the chest usually has markings, sometimes forming a darker chest band, but is rarely 
heavily streaked; belly and flanks are pale and unmarked. First plumage birds and 
breeding males have distinct heavier markings on the chest. In contrast, the underparts 
of the Long-billed Pipits that occur in the Kimberley region are generally uniform and 
not paler than the back. 

The pale areas of the outer-tail feathers vary in colour from buff to white in both 
A. pseudosimils and A. similis, and in many other pipits, so that this is not a reliable 
species characteristic (but in A. cinnamomeus they are always white). There is also 
substantial variation in the pattern of the pale outer rectrix marking in A pseudosimilis 
(Fig. 4), but rarely is the extent of pale marking as great as in A. similis, and this 
difference is apparent in the field when birds take off with the tail fanned. 

Bare parts and morphometries 

The base of bill and legs of A. pseudosimilis are straw to flesh-coloured, as in A. similis. 
The gape of the Kimberley Pipit is conspicuously yellow inside, sometimes orange- 
yellow, when open and feeding. In A. similis the gape is flesh-coloured and 
inconspicuous. The culmen of male A. pseudosimilis is significantly shorter than that 

TABLE 2. 

The of biometrics of five male Anthus pseudosimilis and four male A. similis (insufficient 

females were available for comparison). Data are mean ± 1 standard deviation (range). 

Measurement A. pseudosimilis 

Culmen 14.36 ± 0.25 (14.2-14.8) 

Hind claw 12.20 ± 0.75 (11.1-13.2) 

Tarsus 27.34 ± 2.09 (26.0-31.0) 

Wing 97.20 ± 2.59 (93.0-100.0) 

Mass 31.56 ± 2.88 (28.0-35.2) 



A. similis 


t-test 




15.20 ± 0.16 (15.0-15.4) 


t 7 = 5.75, 


P = 0.001 


9.30 ± 0.48 (9.0-10.0) 


t 7 = 6.69, 


P < 0.001 


28.58 ± 2.59 (26.0-32.0) 


t 7 = 0.79, 


NS 


95.50 ± 7.19 (86.0-102.0) 


t 7 = 0.50, 


NS 


30.45 ± 1.04 (29.8-32.0) 


t 7 = 0.73, 


NS 



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pseudo similis 




nyassa 




similis 



Figure 4. Diagrammatic illustration of the variation found in the pattern of the outer tail feathers 
of the Kimberley Pipit, compared with those of the Long-billed Pipit and the northern Wood 
Pipit. 



of the Southern African forms of A similis (Table 2). The name "Long-billed" Pipit 
applies to the nominate subspecies from India and is a misnomer for African birds, in 
which the bill is shorter and similar to that of other African species. 

The 5 th primary (P5) is noticeably shorter than P6 and this is a reliable diagnostic 
feature with A pseudosimilis in the hand. In all A similis specimens in the collection 
at the Natural History Museum, Tring, except one from Sudan, P5 and P6 are similar in 
length. 

The tertiaries of A. pseudosimilis extend to P4/P5, whereas in A. similis they extend 
to only P5/P6. In A pseudosimilis P8, P7 and P6 have emarginated outer webs (Fig. 5), 
while in A similis four primaries, P8, P7, P6 and P5, are emarginated (Keith etal. 1992, 
Clanceyl990). 

The hind claw of male A . pseudosimilis is significantly longer than in male A .similis 
(Table 2). 



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Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 




4. 





Figure 5. Open wings of a Kimberley Pipit 
(NMB 05041, above) and Long-billed 
Pipit (NMB 03429, below), with drawings 
of these to show the differences in wing 
formula and primary emargination 
described in the text. 



Kimberley Pipits and Long-billed Pipits do not differ in wing length, tarsus length 
or body mass (Table 2) but in the field the former appear longer-legged and smaller, 
as does the Malindi pipit (Keith et al. 1 992). 



Habitat 

The Kimberley and Long-billed Pipits occupy different habitats, the former occurring 
on plains and grassveld and the latter on boulder-strewn hillsides with trees. The 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 103 Bull. B. O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Wood Pipit A. nyassae, which on present knowledge is also allopatric with both 
Kimberley and Long-billed Pipits, occurs in open savanna with tall grasses and trees. 
The commonest and most widespread pipit in southern Africa is the smaller African 
Pipit A. cinnamomeus which prefers shorter open grasslands devoid of trees and 
often near water or other moist areas. The Mountain Pipit A. hoeschii occurs in the 
Kimberley area as a rare passage migrant on calcrete with short grasses (Sporobolus) 
and karooid short hardy shrubs. 

Behaviour 

Pipits feed on the ground with short runs followed by a stop, when they may peck at 
food and/or move their tails. The Kimberley Pipit usually crouches when pecking. 
Both the number of paces taken between stops and the manner the tail is moved by 
each species of pipit can vary in a characteristic manner. 

The number of steps taken by birds between stops and the number of tail flicks 
made were quantified using a digital video camera that could be slowed down 30 
times. The footage obtained covered 209 seconds for A pseudosimils, relating to 
21 separate observation periods of at least three individuals, and 300 seconds for 
A. similis, involving nine separate observation periods of one individual. The 
Kimberley Pipit takes more steps between stops than the Long-billed Pipit (Median 
5.00, range 1-16, for Kimberley Pipit, n of stops =119; median 3.00, range 1-9, for 
Long-billed Pipit, n = 65, Mann- Whitney W = 13027, P < 0.001). During these 
observation periods, Kimberley Pipits made 68 tails flicks while Long-billed Pipits 
made 6 (% { 2 = 66.9, P < 0.00 1 ), indicating that the former flick their tails much more 
frequently when moving. 

Kimberley Pipits are usually seen on the ground, less often perched on a tuft of 
grass. When alarmed they may perch on fences or telephone wires but have not been 
seen to perch on bushes or trees. By contrast, Long-billed Pipits are rarely seen on 
the ground except when feeding; they normally perch in prominent positions on thin 
branches on tops of trees or bushes, or on boulders. During feeding bouts on the 
ground they often hop onto rocks to look around. When disturbed from the ground, 
Wood Pipits fly up into a tree and settle on an exposed thick branch, often running 
along it. Unlike Long-billed Pipits, Wood Pipits utilise branches that confer good all- 
round vision, without themselves being conspicuous. 

Horizontal flight of A. pseudosimilis and A similis is undulating but not exaggerated. 
However, the dips of A. similis appear to be slightly greater, possibly because its tail 
is slightly longer and held more widely fanned. In courtship or territorial flight the 
Kimberley Pipit rises with a fluttering flight to 20 - 30 m, sometimes > 50 m, and then, 
during descending loops c. 70° off the horizontal, it calls in each loop with both head 
and tail held above the horizontal. This is similar in description to the song flight of 
the Olive-backed Pipit A hodgsoni (Cramp 1988). In contrast, the Long-billed Pipit 
calls mainly from a tree or boulder but may take off from such a perch with a fluttering 
flight, ascending a short distance and calling at the same time (R.L. pers.obs ). 



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Seconds 



H pseudo similis - Springfontein 
33 pseudo similis - Fauresmith 
|| similis after Gibbons 
— nyassae after Gibbons 



Figure 6. Diagrammatic representation of sonograms of the songs of the Kimberley and Long- 
billed Pipits, together with the song of the Wood Pipit, superimposed upon each other. Despite 
the similarity of the songs, the descending notes of the Kimberley Pipit are discernible and 
contrast with the more similar notes of the Long-billed Pipit. 



10r 



8 



N 

X 
J* 



Figure 7. Sonograms of the flight calls of three individual Kimberley Pipits. 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 



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Vocalization 

The song of A. pseudosimilis is usually given in flight and consists of three deepish 
notes "chreep-choop-chreep", in a descending series (Fig. 6), often repeated during 
courtship. The song of A similis usually consists of three notes, rarely two, of similar 
timbre but is most often uttered from a perch in a tree or on a boulder, and the three 
notes are always at the same pitch. Flight calls (Fig. 7) are usually single but two or 
three notes may be produced; on rare occasions both species may give three notes in 
horizontal flight when disturbed. 



Nest and eggs 

Most pipits conceal their nests in depressions on the ground or at the base of some 
shelter such as a tuft of grass or a rock. Of the two Kimberley Pipit nests so far 
discovered, one had a roundish c. 1 5 cm tunnel entrance through grass to the nest 
cup in a low grass-tuft. The second nest was very well concealed at grass roots level, 
deeply hidden under overhanging leaves and not visible from above. Only two other 
pipit species appear to have such well covered nests: Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis 
from India which "conceals its nest on some bank well concealed by grass " (Ali & 
Ripley 1973), and Yellowish Pipit A lutescens from South America, which also has a 
short tunnel entrance to a nest concealed in a large, isolated grass tuft in pasture (GV 




Figure 8. Nest and eggs of the Kimberley Pipit. Covering grass was held back to allow photography. 
Note that the bluish background colour of the eggs, described in the text, is not clear from this 
photograph. 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 106 Bull B.O. C. 2002 122(2) 

pers. obs.). The Long-billed Pipit usually nests "on a slope and situated against the 
underside of a sloping rock", whilst the Wood Pipit sites its nest "into a shallow 
scrape or hollow against the side of a grass tuft" (Tarboton 2001). 

The eggs of the Kimberley Pipit have a pale bluish-white background with neat 
dark blobs all over (Fig. 8). In contrast the eggs of the Long-billed Pipit are densely 
marked by fine lines forming a greyish background (well illustrated in Priest 1948). All 
southern African Long-billed Pipits eggs that have been examined are similar. The 
two Kimberley Pipit eggs were more rounded, less pointed at the small end than those 
of A.similis and appeared smaller. The eggs of the Wood Pipit are described (Maj.J.F.R. 
Colbrook-Robjent, pers.comm.) as very similar to those in the photograph of the 
Kimberley Pipit nest. 

Nestling Kimberley Pipits are much darker brown than adults, with the back 
feathers showing a fine light cream margin giving a scaly appearance. The fledgling 
Long-billed Pipit has a broader buff-brown edge to its dorsal feathers (de Swardt 
200 1 ). The face, chin and chest do not show the darker head markings that characterize 
the fledgling Plain-backed Pipit Anthus leucophrys or the Buffy Pipits, vaalensis. 

Discussion 

The taxonomy of the Afrotropical pipits remains confused despite two recent 
taxonomic reviews (Clancey 1990, Keith et al. 1992) and subsequent examination of 
the DNA profiles of all but three of the species currently recognised (Voelker 1999b). 
The confusion stems from mis-identification of specimens, different techniques of 
describing wing formulae, different applications of species limits, and the recent 
recognition of new taxa. Furthermore, genetic studies have shown that morphological 
similarity does not necessarily imply relatedness. For example, we now know that 
there is no foundation for Hall & Moreau's (1970) "super-species" that brought all 
the larger plain-backed pipits together. Adaptation to sometimes subtly different 
habitats seems to have led to convergent evolution of morphological characteristics. 
This is also exemplified by the demonstration here that two morphologically very 
similar forms, A. pseudosimilis and A. similis, are not closely related and comprise 
two species of which the former is new to science. 

Following the demonstration, through genetic studies (Voelker 1999a), that two 
species are involved, we have sought morphological, behavioural and ecological 
features that permit the separation of these two taxa in the hand and in the field. 
Through comparisons of the six specimens that comprise the type series, and known 
from their DNA profiles to represent the new species, with specimens of A similis we 
conclude that wing formulae and emargination and culmen and hind claw length are 
reliable characteristics for the separation of the two taxa. They are also separated by 
habitat preferences, nest site characteristics and possibly egg colour and pattern, 
although examination of more clutches of A. pseudosimils is needed to ascertain 
variability within this species. There are also differences in behaviour, with Kimberley 
Pipits taking more steps between stops, and making more frequent tails flicks, than 
Long-billed Pipits. 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 107 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(2) 

Taxonomic considerations 

Voelker (1999a) suggested that, based on DNA analysis, the holotype of A. 
pseudosimilis was most closely related to A. melindae. Subsequent analysis of 590 
bp of cytochrome b, from all other pseudosimilis specimens detailed in this paper, 
provided a confused picture of relationships, in that two pseudosimilis (GAV 1089, 
GAV 1 100) appear to share the mtDNA of Anthus leucophrys, while the remaining 
three specimens share the mtDNA of A . cinnamomeus. Sequence divergence between 
the two groups of hybrids is 5-6%, suggesting that divergence occurred roughly 2.5 
million years BP. This evidence of shared mtDNA among three species of pipits 
implies that hybridisation among southern African pipits is, or has been in the past, 
quite common. This is not particularly surprising, nor does it mean that pseudosimilis 
is not a valid species; hybridization often occurs between avian species (Grant & 
Grant 1990), and as such is not an obstacle to recognizing valid taxa (Zink & McKitrick 
1995). Indeed, recent studies have shown that females of one species can actually 
prefer and mate with males of another species (e.g., Rohwer & Wood 1 998; Pearson & 
Rohwer 1998; Pearson & Manuwal 2000, Thor Veen et al 2001, Hasselquist 2001). 
Thus, hybridization and/or clear genetic evidence of monophyly is not necessarily a 
barrier to recognising valid species; note also that a lack of genetic evidence for 
monophyly has not precluded the recent recognition of avian species (e.g., Eames & 
Eames 2001, Johnson & Jones 2001). 

Our contention then is that pseudosimilis is best recognized as sister to melindae, 
and that the probable past hybridization does not invalidate pseudosimilis, for the 
following reasons. First, the morphological and behavioural differences described 
above clearly support the identification of a new pipit species; the nest architecture 
alone clearly sets this taxon apart from all other African Anthus taxa. Second, although 
we found hybridisation between pseudosimilis and cinnamomeus, the hybrids are 
clearly different from any recognized race of cinnamomeus based on a number of 
morphological and behavioural characters (Clancey 1990, Keith etal. 1992). Third, 
although we found hybridization between pseudosimilis and leucophrys, the well- 
defined streaks both on the breast and back of pseudosimilis clearly show that the 
genetic hybrids are not conspecific with leucophrys, which has no streaking in either 
body region 

We feel confident of our designation of Anthus pseudosimilis as a new species 
which is quite distinct from any other pipit. It has been separated from its apparent 
nearest relative, Anthus melindae (from coastal Kenya) on the basis of DNA 
comparisons, for about 2.5 million years (Voelker 1999a). This type of sister- 
distribution (assuming a more southerly distribution fox pseudosimilis) is part of a 
larger pattern within Anthus (Voelker 1999b). Indeed the 86 bird species listed by 
Moreau (1966) that indicate the ancient link of the arid-corridor from the north east 
horn of Africa to the Kalahari probably provides the strongest supporting evidence 
of such separations. 



Richard Liversidge & Gary Voelker 108 Bull. B.O. C 2002 122(2) 

Acknowledgements 

The authors are grateful for assistance received from many people and institutes and their staff: in 
particular The Barrick and National Bloemfontein Museums, The Natural History Museum, Tring, the 
McGregor and Transvaal Museums; for field work and information Riette Griesel, Mark Anderson, 
Corne Anderson, Beryl Wilson-Aitchison, Ric Nuttal, Werner Sinclair, and Maj J.F.R Colbrook-Robjent; 
to the artist Jill Adam for a fine illustration and to H. Delport and Annette Coetzee for their art and 
computer input; for photographs and assistance Mr and Mrs C.Spangenberg, Riete Griesel and Teet 
Sirotkin; and finally to De Beers Consolidated Mines and Christian Brothers College for permission to 
collect and observe on their properties. Laboratory work was supported by the DNA Lab Fund of the 
Barrick Museum, and NSF 9903544 to GAV Collecting in South Africa was supported by the International 
Development Fund of the Barrick Museum. 

References: 

Ali, S. & Ripley, S.D. 1973. Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Vol. 9. Oxford Univ. 

Press, Bombay 
Benson, C.W., Brooke, R.K., Dowsett, R.J. & Irwin, M.P.S. 1971. The birds of Zambia. Collins. 

London. 
Chapin, J.P. 1953. The birds of the Belgian Congo Part 3. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.75A: 1-821. 
Clancey, PA. 1990. A Review of the indigenous Pipits (Genus Anthus Bechstein:Moticillidae) of 

the Afrotropics. Durban Museum Novit. 15:42-72. 
Cramp, S. (ed.)1988. The birds of the Western Palearctic Vol.5. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 
de Swardt, D.H. 2001. Nestlings and nestling period of the Long-billed Pipit Anthus similis. Bird 

Numbers 10: 36. 
Dowsett, R.J. & Dowsett-LeMaire, F. 1980. The systematic status of some Zambian birds. 

Gerfaut 70: 188-190. 
Eames, J.C. & Eames, C. 2001. A new species of Laughingthrush (Passeriformes: Garrulacinae) 

from the central highlands of Vietnam. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 121:10-23. 
Gibbon G. 1991. Southern African bird sounds. Southern African Birding, Durban. 
Ginn,PJ., McIlleron,W.G. & Milstein, PleS. 1989 The complete book of South African birds. 

Struik, CapeTown. 
Grant,P.R. & Grant,B.R. 1992. Hybridisation of bird species. Science 256: 193-197. 
Hall, B.P. & Moreau, R.E. 1970. An atlas of speciation in African Passerine birds. British 

Museum (Nat. Hist.), London. 
Harrison, J.A. Allan, D.G., Underhill, L.G., Herrimans, M., Tree, A. J., Parker, V & Brown, C.J. 

1997. The atlas of Southern African birds, Vol. 1. BirdLife.S.A., Johannesburg. 
Hasselquist, D. 2001 Hybrid costs avoided. Nature 411: 34-35 
ICZN. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 4 th edition 1999. International 

Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London. 
Jackson, F.J.J. 1938. The birds of Kenya Colony and the Uganda Protectorate. Vol. 2. Gurney & 

Jackson, London. 
Johnson, N.K.. &. Jones, R., E. 2001. A new species of tody-tyrant (Tyrannidae: Poecilotriccus) 

from northern Peru. Auk 118: 334-341. 
Keith. S., Urban, E.K. & Fry, C.H. 1992. The birds of Africa. Vol. .4. Academic Press. London. 
Liversidge, R. 1996. A new species of pipit in Southern Africa. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI.. 116: .211- 

215. 
Liversidge, R. 1998. The African pipit enigma. Bull. African Bird CI. 5: 105-107 
Moreau, R.E. 1966. The bird faunas of Africa and its islands. Academic Press, New York. 
Pearson, S.F., & Rohwer, S. 1998. Influence of breeding phenology and clutch size on hybridization 

between hermit and Townsend's warblers. Auk 115: 739-745. 
Pearson, S.F, & Manuwal, D.A. 2000. Influence of niche overlap and territoriality on hybridization 

between hermit and Townsend's warblers. Auk 1 17: 175-183. 
Priest, CD. 1948 Eggs of birds breeding in Southern Africa. The University Press, Glasgow. 



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Rohwer, S., & Wood, C. 1998. Three hybrid zones between hermit and Townsend's warblers in 

Washington and Oregon. Auk 115: 284-310. 
Schoutenden, H. 1954. De Vogel van Belgisch Congo en van Ruanda-Urundi. Ann. Du Musee 

Royal du Congo Beige. 6: 1-226. 
Tarboton, W 2001. Nests and eggs of southern African birds. Struik. CapeTown. 
Veen,T., BorgeJ., Griffith, S.C., Saetre, G., Bures,S., Guisstafson, L., & Sheldon, B.C. 2001. 

Hybridization and adaptive mate choice in flycatchers. Nature 411: 45-50. 
Voelker, G. 1999a. Molecular evolutionary relationships in the avian genus Anthus. 

(Pipits:Motacillidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 11: 84-94. 
Voelker, G. 1999b. Dispersal, vicariance, and clocks: historical biogeography and speciation in a 

cosmopolitan passerine genus (^«/7u/s:Moticillidae). Evolution 53: 1536-1552. 
White, C.M.N. 1960. African Motacillidae. In Peter's check list of the birds of the world Vol.9: 

129-167. Museum of comparative zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
Zink, R. M., & McKittrick, M.C. 1995. The debate over species concepts and its implications for 

ornithology. Auk 112: 701-719. 

Addresses: Richard Liversidge, McGregor Museum, Box 316, Kimberley 8301, South Africa. 
Gary Voelker, Barrick Museum of Natural History, Box 454012, University of Nevada Las 
Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Eleven new sub-species of 

babbler (Passer iformes: Timaliinae) 

from Kon Turn Province, Vietnam 

by Jonathan C. Eames 

Received 30 July 1999; revision received 15 September 2001 

The BirdLife International Vietnam Programme, in collaboration with the Forest 
Inventory and Planning Institute (FIPI), recently completed a project to identify and 
incorporate terrestrial forest sites of international importance for biodiversity 
conservation within a revised system of protected areas. During spring 1996, 1998 
and 1999, BirdLife and FIPI teams undertook preliminary ornithological exploration of 
hitherto unexplored high mountains in the Central Highlands of southern Vietnam, as 
part of management planning activities for the establishment of three new nature 
reserves, in Kon Turn, Gia Lai and Quang Nam Provinces (Fig. 1 ) (Le Trong Trai et al. 
1999, LeTrongTraie^/. 2000, Tordoff^ al. 2000). In 1996 and 1998, BirdLife and FIPI 
field activities were focused on the southerly aspect of Mt Ngoc Linh in northern 
Kon Turn Province. Rising to 2,598 m asl, Mt Ngoc Linh ( 1 5°04'N, 1 07° 59'E) is the 
dominant landscape feature and the highest peak in the Central Highlands. In spring 
1999, a BirdLife/FIPI team investigated Mt Kon Ka Kinh ( 14° 1 9'N, 1 08°24'E), 1 ,748 m 
asl, one of the highest peaks in the massif and 95 km SE of Mt Ngoc Linh. Also in 



Jonathan C. Eames 



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Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



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Jonathan C. Eames 1 1 1 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

spring 1999, a survey team visited the northern slopes of Mt Ngoc Linh in Quang 
Nam Province with a view to researching a feasibility study for a nature reserve, 
which would be contiguous with the protected area in adjacent Kon Turn Province. In 
addition to BirdLife and FIPI staff, this survey team also included ornithologists from 
the Department of Ornithology at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) 
and colleagues from the Institute for Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR) in 
Hanoi. 

From the geographical isolation of these mountains, their height and lack of 
earlier exploration, we expected to make interesting ornithological findings. On Mt 
Ngoc Linh in Kon Turn Province it was immediately apparent that the area supported 
several undescribed taxa of babbler (Passeriformes: Timaliinae). This was not so on 
Mt Kon Ka Kinh, but at both localities we attempted to collect a representative 
sample of Timaliinae and other bird specimens we believed would most likely prove 
to be undescribed forms. A paper detailing these collections, including the major 
collection made by ornithologists from the AMNH, will be published at a later date. 
Arising from the BirdLife/FIPI work on Mt Ngoc Linh, my colleagues and I previously 
described two new species of Timaliinae, the Black-crowned Barwing Actinodura 
sodangorum, and Golden-winged Laughingthursh Garrulax ngoclinhensis (Eames 
et al. 1999a; Eames et al. 1999b). A third new species, the Chestnut-eared 
Laughingthrush Garrulax konkakinhensis, was described from Mt Kon Ka Kinh 
(Eames & Eames 2001). Specimens collected from Mt Ngoc Linh, the nearby Cong 
Troi (15° 14'N, 107° 41 'E), and Mt Kon Ka Kinh by LeTrongTrai (LTT), Nguyen Cu 
(NC) and myself (JCE), I diagnosed during visits to the bird skin collections at the 
Natural History Museum, Tring (BMNH), between 1 996 and 200 1 , the AMNH in 1 999 
and 200 1 , The United States National Museum (USNM) in 200 1 , the Thailand Institute 
of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR), Bangkok and the National Science 
Museum (NSMT), Patumthani, Bangkok, Thailand in 1999. 1 here describe 1 1 new 
subspecies of Timaliinae. 

Etymology 

In this paper I have elected to choose commemorative sub-species names. My principle 
motivation in doing so has been to honour ornithological friends and colleagues 
either from, or active in, Vietnam, or from amongst those who have made recent and 
substantial contributions to the ornithology of the Indochinese subregion. In doing 
so I have followed a number of self-imposed guidelines. In the case of Vietnamese 
and Thai names, I have chosen subspecific names based on the persons' given 
name, whereas, I have chosen patronyms when the name is based on an English or 
Russian surname. In Vietnamese and Thai it is the given name (rather than the family 
name) that is used (together with the appropriate pronoun) when addressing an 
individual. The fact that in Thai the given name is written preceding the family name 
(as in English and Russian), whilst in Vietnamese it follows the family name, is therefore 
irrelevant in this context. Using only the Vietnamese given name avoids the confusion 



Jonathan C. Eames 112 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

that would arise if the family name were used, since in Vietnamese these are relatively 
few and some (i.e. Nguyen) are predominant. Using only the Thai given name avoids 
using often very long multi-syllable family names that are common in Thailand. This 
additionally, and most importantly, reduces the opportunities for the subsequent 
future misspelling of these new subspecific names. 

In each case the subspecific names have been constructed as nouns in the Latin 
genitive (possessive) case. Since names based on surnames (family names) are 
considered masculine, where relevant, the subspecific epithet for English and Russian 
names has been created by the addition of merely "i". I have applied this to create the 
subspecies names derived from the Thai and Vietnamese male given names. In two 
instances this results in the epithet ending in "ii". In one instance below the 
subspecific name is based on a woman's given name that ends in an "a". I have 
elected to drop one "a" so that the name may be rendered more easily. 

Subspecies accounts 

In terms of their presentation, the subspecific accounts follow widely accepted 
conventions. Each account contains a brief introduction introducing the new taxon, 
in which a summary of the comparitive material examined is mentioned. This is followed 
by a brief description and diagnosis of the holotype, and paratypes where relevant. 
The soft-part colourations are given as noted in the field, at or soon after death and 
measurements are given for maxilla, wing (flatened chord), tarsus (from ankle joint to 
last complete scutum before the phalanges) and tail (from the tip of pygostyle to the 
end of longest rectrix). Detailed plumage descriptions are omitted (principally for 
reasons of space). The initials of the collectors and preparators concerned are given. 
Very brief notes on ecology and behaviour, habitat, distribution and etymology then 
follow. The last section presents specimen data for all specimens examined, in the 
form: trinomial scientific name, institution where examined, (abbreviated as above, no 
prefix is used for specimens retained at the BirdLife International Vietnam Programme 
office in Hanoi), registration number as on the specimen label, status as holotype, 
paratype or topotype in parentheses if relevant, date of collection, sex, if known, and 
collecting locality, as per the label. If omitted on the label the country of collection 
has been added in the text. Where precise dates of collection are unknown, month 
and year, or sometimes only year, are given. The species order follows Inskipp et al. 
(1996). 

Black-hooded Laughingthrush Garrulax milleti 

A series of four, comprising two collected from Cong Troi, and one each from Mt 
Ngoc Linh and Mt Kon Ka Kinh, were compared with 19 specimens including the 
holotype, three paratypes and four topotypes of the nominate form (Robinson & 
Kloss 1919). The specimens from Cong Troi, Mt Ngoc Linh and Mt Kon Ka Kinh are 
sufficiently distinct to be named as: 

Garrulax milleti sweeti, subsp. nov. 



Jonathan C. Eames 113 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1998.71.5, adult female collected at CongTroi 
(15° 14'N, 107°41'E), Kon Turn Province, Vietnam, c. 1,500 m asl, 23 April 1998. 
Collected by LTT and prepared as a standard museum skin by JCE (Figs. 2 and 3) 

Paratypes. Registration number 200 1.8.1, adult male also collected at Cong Troi (15° 
14'N, 107°41'E), Kon Turn Province, Vietnam, c. 1,500 m asl, 13 April 1998, and 
registration number 200 1 .8.2, adult male collected on Mt Kon Ka Kinh, Gia Lai Province, 
Vietnam, 1 ,400 m asl, 26 March 1 999. Both specimens were collected and prepared as 
standard museum skins by JCE and are retained at the BirdLife office in Hanoi. 
AMNH 833 160, adult male (testis 12x8 mm), light fat, collected 1 1 km south-west of 
Nuoc Xa, Mt Ngoc Linh, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam at 920 m asl on 15/03/99. 
AMNH 833 161, adult female collected 1 1 km south-west of Nuoc Xa, Mt Ngoc Linh, 
Quang Nam Province, Vietnam, 920 m asl, 21 March 1999. Both specimens were 
collected and prepared as a standard museum skin by Paul Sweet (PRS). AMNH 
833 1 6 1 is currently deposited at IEBR in Hanoi. 

Diagnosis. Very similar to the nominate form but lacks brown tones in plumage. The 
head and upper breast is black, rather than blackish-brown. The narrow white breast- 
band is pure white rather than off-white and the entire underparts are cold grey. The 
mantle, back, rump and wing coverts are olive-grey rather than grey-brown as in the 
nominate form. The remiges and rectrices are blacker and lack the brown tones found 
in the nominate race (Figs 2 and 3). Reference was recently made to the diagnostic 
features of this subspecies in Robson (2000). 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 36; tarsus 48; 
wing 132; tail 115; iris brown; legs blackish-brown; bill black. Paratypes. 2001.8.1 
Maxilla 9.5; tarsus 42.5; wing 135; tail 129; iris dark brown; legs black-horn; bill black. 
2001 .8.2 Maxilla 3 1 ; tarsus 48; wing 129; tail 121; iris dark brown; legs grey-horn; bill 
black-horn. AMNH 833 160 Maxilla 30; tarsus 45.5; wing 133; tail 120.5; iris reddish 
brown; legs bluish-grey, soles yellow; bill charcoal grey. 

Ecology and behaviour. At Cong Troi and Mt Kon Ka Kinh this taxon was typically 
observed in large noisy flocks moving through the forest lower storey. This is a wary 
species which when disturbed generally retreats up into the forest canopy and then 
approaches the observer from this vantage point of comparative safety. At Cong Troi 
on 13 April 1999, 1 observed a flock of Black-hooded Laughingthrushes associating 
together with a flock of Red-tailed Laughingthrushes Garrulax milnei. 

Habitat. At Cong Troi, Mt Ngoc Linh and on Mt Kon Ka Kinh this taxon was 
typically found in lower montane evergreen forest. This is a forest laughingthush 
and I have never once seen it in scrub, bamboo or secondary growth at forest edge. 

Distribution. This species was previously considered to be endemic to the Da Lat 
Plateau Endemic Bird Area (EBA) (Stattersfield etal. 1998). However, two specimens 
of this species were previously collected on 1 2 July 1 984 and 2 1 April 1 986 at Buon 
Luoi, Gia Lai Province. Measurements are: Maxilla 29, 28; tarsus 49, 50; wing 132, 
1 34; tail 1 1 8, 1 1 7 (Stepanyan 1 995). These specimens are deposited in either Moscow or St 



Jonathan C. Eames 



114 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 




Figure 2. Ventral view of the holotype of Garrulax milleti sweeti (centre) together with four 
specimens of G. m. milleti (from left to right); BMNH 1919.12.20.268 (Paratype), BMNH 
1919.12.20.266 (Holotype), BMNH 1919.12.20.527 (Topotype), and BMNH 1919.12.20.267 
(Topotype) (photograph by J.C. Eames). 




Figure 3. Dorsal view of the holotype of Garrulax milleti sweeti (centre) together with four 
specimens of G. m. milleti (from left to right); BMNH 1919.12.20.268 (Paratype), BMNH 
1919.12.20.266 (Holotype), BMNH 1919.12.20.527 (Topotype), and BMNH 1919.12.20.267 
(Topotype) (photograph by J.C. Eames). 



Jonathan C. Eames 115 Bull. B. O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Petersburg and have not been subspecifically diagnosed. However, since Buon Luoi 
(14° 15' N, 108°37' E) is located only 20 km from Mt Kon Ka Kinh, the Stepanyan 
specimens are very likely to be G. m. sweeti. The discovery of the species at Cong 
Troi in northern Kon Turn Province and on Mt Ngoc Linh in northern Quang Nam 
Province represents a significant northward range extension. There are additionally 
recent sightings of the species at Xe Sap in southern Laos and the species can no 
longer be considered a true Vietnamese endemic (Thewlis et al. 1998). However, 
without specimens it is not possible to know to which form the Laos birds should be 
assigned, or indeed whether they may represent another, as yet undescribed form. 
This species, and very likely G. m. sweeti, was recently observed at various localities 
about Mt Ngoc Boc in southern Kon Turn Province which is located between Mt 
Ngoc Linh and Mt Kon Ka Kinh (Eames et al. 200 1 ). 

On the basis of our current knowledge these two forms occupy disjunct ranges 
that are separated by unsuitable (lowland) habitat in northern Dak Lak and southern 
Gia Lai Provinces. They are therefore unlikely to meet and intergrade. No specimens 
have yet been collected from Mt Chu Yang Sin in southern Dak Lak Province within 
the Da Lat Plateau EBA, from where there are recent sight records (Eames 1 995, Hill et 
al. 2001). Birds from Mt Chu Yang Sin, on the basis of range, should prove to be the 
nominate form. 

Etymology. This subspecies is named in honour of Paul Sweet, Collections Manager 
at the Department of Ornithology at the AMNH. 

Specimens examined. G. m. milleti: BMNH 1919.12.20.266 (Holotype) 04 April 1918, 
Male, Da Lat, Vietnam; BMNH 1919.92.20.527, 1 1 May 1918, Male, Dran, Vietnam; 
BMNH 1919.12.20.287 (Topotype), 02 May 1918, Female, Da Lat, Vietnam; BMNH 
1919.12.20.268 (Topotype), 01 May 1918, Male, Da Lat, Vietnam; BMNH 1927.6.5.948, 
lOMarch 1 927, Male, Di Linh, Vietnam; BMNH 1927.6.5.95 1,09 March 1927,Male,Di 
Linh, Vietnam; BMNH 1927.6.5.950, 10 March 1927, Female, Di Linh, Vietnam; BMNH 
1927.6.5.949, 02 March 1927, Female, Di Linh, Vietnam; BMNH 1927.6.5.952, 04 March 
1 927, Male, Di Linh, Vietnam; AMNH 587 1 74 (Topotype), 1 May 1918 Male, Da Lat, 
Vietnam; AMNH 587175 (Topotype), 01 May 1918, Female, Da Lat, Vietnam; AM5 87 176, 
09 March 1927, Female, Di Linh, Vietnam; USNM 278399 (Paratype), 07 April 1918, 
Male, Da Lat, Vietnam; USNM 278398 (Paratype), 07 April 1918, Male, Da Lat, Vietnam; 
USNM 278400 (Paratype), 1 1 May 1 9 1 8, Male, Da Lat, Vietnam; USNM 360882, February 
1 940, Male, "along road to Ban Me Thuot 60 km, from Saigon road 36 km," Vietnam; 
USNM 35905 1, July 1939, Female, Forests of Cam Ly, Vietnam; USNM 359050, July 
1 939, Female, Forests of Cam Ly, Vietnam; USNM 359052, July 1 939, Female, Forests 
of Cam Ly, Vietnam. Also examined were two specimens of the very closely related G. 
strepitans ferrarius as follows: USNM 3243 10, 27 December 1929, Male, Kao Kuap, 
Krat, Siam and USNM 3243 11,27 December 1 929, Male, Kao Kuap, Krat, Siam. This 
locality lies within the present borders of the Kingdom of Cambodia. 



Jonathan C. Eames 116 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Coral-billed Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus ferruginosus 

Five specimens collected at two localities, both on Mt Ngoc Linh, plus three specimens 
collected at Mt Kon Ka Kinh, were compared with 1 6 specimens including one topotype 
of P. f. standfordi, three topotypes of P. f. albogularis, and the holotype of P. f. 
namdapha, representing the four subspecies with the closest geographical ranges 
(Deignan 1964, Ripley 1980), and are sufficiently distinct to be named as: 

Pomatorhinus ferruginosus dickinsoni, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1 998.7 1 .7, adult male collected at c. 2,200 m asl, 
Mt Ngoc Linh, 7 April 1998. The holotype was collected and prepared as a standard 
museum skin by JCE (Fig. 4). 

Paratypes. An additional specimen was collected at c. 2,000 m asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 24 
March 1 998 and is currently held at the BirdLife office in Hanoi, registration number 
2001.8.3. This paratype was collected and prepared as a standard museum skin by 
LTT Eight further specimens of this taxon were collected by PRS and Terry Chesser 
(RTC), AMNH, c. 1 ,450 m asl, 1 2 km south-west of Nuoc Xa, Mt Ngoc Linh, Quang 
Nam Province, 20 - 28 March 1999. Three of these were prepared as standard museum 
skins and can be considered Paratypes. They are held in the AMNH. They comprise 
AMNH 833150 a female, collected 20 March 1999 and prepared by PRS, AMNH 
833 1 5 1 a female, also collected 20 March 1999 by RTC, and AMNH 833 152 another 
female, collected on 25 March 1999 also by PRS. Three further specimens were 
collected on Mt Kon Ka Kinh, Gia Lai Province as follows: 2001 .8.4, 26 March 1999, 
male; 2001.8.5, 27 March 1999, female; 2001.8.6 March or April 1999 female. These 
three paratypes were collected and prepared as standard museum skins by JCE and 
are held at the BirdLife office in Hanoi. 

Diagnosis. The seven taxa currently assigned to this species have predominately 
orange or strongly buff underparts. The diagnostic features ofP.f. dickinsoni are its 
entirely white throat, breast and centre to the belly and only slight olive-brown or 
buff flanks. In P.f. orientalis the entire underparts, except the white chin and throat, 
are rich buff. The upperpart colouration of P.f. dickinsoni is slightly more olive than 
P. f orientalis especially on the remiges and rectrices and less rufous than P. f 
orientalis. The underside of the rectrices in P.f dickinsoni are also less rufous, more 
grey-brown (Fig. 4). Reference was recently made to the diagnostic features of this 
subspecies in Robson (2000). 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 26.5; tarsus 35; 
wing 92; tail 105; iris yellow; legs brown horn; bill scarlet-orange. Paratypes. 2001 .8.3 
Maxilla 28.5; tarsus 32; wing 88; tail unknown as broken during collection; iris colour 
not noted; legs brown horn; bill red; AMNH 833 1 50 Maxilla 39.5; tarsus 35; wing 89; 
tail 1 02; iris colour pale yellow; legs; bill red; AMNH 833 1 5 1 Maxilla 38.5; tarsus 34.5; 
wing 88; tail 1 02.5; iris colour pale yellow; tarsi and toes horn brown; bill red-orange. 



Jonathan C. Eames 117 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

AMNH 833152 Maxilla 38.5; tarsus 36.5; wing 92; tail 106; iris colour pale yellow 
legs horn; bill red. 2001.8.4 Maxilla 28; tarsus 33; wing 93; tail 112; iris yellow 
legs yellow horn; bill coral orange: 2001.8.5 Maxilla 29; tarsus 33; wing 89; tail 99 
iris yellow; legs flesh-brown; bill coral orange: 2001.8.6 Maxilla 27.5; tarsus 36 
wing 94; tail 1 10; iris yellow; legs grey flesh; bill coral red. 

Ecology and behaviour. Typically forages in small flocks. Wary and quickly moves 
away through forest undergrowth, calling loudly when disturbed by the approach of 
an observer. 

Habitat Typically observed in bamboo and undergrowth in lower montane evergreen 
forest, especially in second growth containing bananas, at forest edge. 

Distribution. In addition to the specimen records detailed here from the northern and 
southern slopes of Mt Ngoc Linh and Mt Kon Ka Kinh, I have observed this taxon at 
Cong Troi and on Mt Ngoc Boc in Kon Turn Province (Eames et al. 200 1 and Le Trong 
Trai et al. 1999). This species, and possibly this subspecies, has also now been 
observed in Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area on the Bolovens 
Plateau in southern Laos (Thewlis etal. 1996). A colour photograph of a Coral-billed 
Scimitar Babbler trapped in Nakai-Nam Theun National Biodiversity Conservation 
Area in Laos in 1994, matching the description of P. f. dickinsoni, is published in 
Duckworth etal. (1999). 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of Edward C. Dickinson, co-author of the 
first comprehensive field guide to the birds of South-east Asia (q.v. King etal. 1975). 

Specimens examined. P. f. standfordi: BMNH 1941.12.1.125 (Topotype), 1 May 1934, 
Female, Kambaili near Myitkyina, Burma; BMNH 1939.12.8, 8 January 1939, Female, 
Htingnan, Upper Burma; BMNH 1939.12.8.142, 20 August 1938, Male, NamTamai 
Valley, Upper Burma; BMNH 1939.12.8.141, 29 August 1938, Female, NamTamai, 
Upper Burma. P.f. albogularis: BMNH 1 924. 1 2.22. 1 9, 3 January 1 924, Female, Toak 
Plateau, Tenasserim, Burma; BMNH 86.10.1.3572, 10 April 1878, Male, Mwalabo, 
Tavoy District, Burma; BMNH 86.10.1.3570, 3 February 1877 (Topotype), Male, 
Mooleyit Range, Burma; BMNH 86.10.1.3571, 31 January 1877 (Topotype), Male, 
Mooleyit Range, Burma. P.f. albogularis (mariae): BMNH 1948.30.1966, 14 April 
1940, Male, Nattaung, Karenni District, Burma; BMNH 1948.29.1965 (Topotype), 3 
November 1939, Female, Tahndaung, Toungoo District, Burma; BMNH 88.4.20.725, 
1 6 April 1 875, Female, Karen Hills, Burma; TISTR 53-2495, 28/1 0/65, Female, Doi Pha 
Horn Pok, Thailand; TISTR 53-1389, 16 November 1965, Male, Doi Pha Horn Pok, 
Thailand. P.f. orientalis: BMNH 1930.7.16.175, 15 November 1929, Male, Sa Pa, 
Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.176, 15 November 1929, Female, Sa Pa. P. f. namdapha: 
USNM 583 153 (Holotype), 22 March 1979, Male, Mi Camp East of Miao, Nos Dihing 
River Road, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Details of the three dark orange-breasted 
races (P. f. ferruginosus, P. f formosus, and P. f phayrei) examined are not included 
here. 



Jonathan C. Eames 



IS 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 




Figure 4. Ventral view of the holotype of Pomatorhinus ferruginosus dickinsoni (centre) together with 
(from left to right) P. f. ohentalis BMNH 1930.7.16.175 and BMNH 1930.7.16.176, P. f. standfordi 
BMNH 1941.12.1.125 (Topotype) and P. f. albogularis BMNH 86.10.1.3570 (Topotype) (photograph 
by J.C. Eames). 




, n!jlill|im|llffllflpffllipijiiii(«»|.M,,,mi, i|..ii,«u ■ :)p!ii|iimim|iii,jim|mmra(i«u 



Figure 5. Ventral view of the holotype of Cutia nipalensis hoae (centre) together with (from left 
to right) C. n. legalleni BMNH 1919.12.20.333 (Paratype) and BMNH 1919.12.20.530 
(Topotype), and C. n. melanchima BMNH 1900.12.20.430 and BMNH 1903.12.24.410 
(photograph by J.C. Eames). 



Jonathan C. Eames 119 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Cutia Cutia nipalensis 

Three males collected on Mt Ngoc Linh were compared with 3 1 male specimens 
including two paratypes and 1 1 topotypes of C. n. legalleni, and 20 specimens of C. 
n. melanchima, which have the closest geographical ranges (Deignan 1947 and 
Deignan 1964). The series of three differed sufficiently to be named as: 

Cutia nipalensis hoae, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1 998.7 1 .8, adult male collected at c. 2,200 m asl, 
Mt Ngoc Linh, 1 April 1 998 by LTT and prepared as a standard museum skin by JCE 
(Fig. 5). 

Paratypes. Two additional males were collected at c. 2,300 m asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 7 
April 1998 and are both deposited at the BirdLife office in Hanoi, registration numbers 
200 1.8.7 and 200 1.8.8. Both specimens were collected and prepared as standard museum 
skins by LTT. 

Diagnosis. Cutia nipalensis hoae is intermediate between C n. melanchima and C. 
n. legalleni, and is closer to the latter form but has very distinctive and uniquely 
patterned underparts. C n. hoae differs from C n. melanchima and C n. legalleni in 
the following respects: the colour of the mantle, back and upper-tail coverts of C n. 
hoae is very similar to C n. melanchima, being paler and more orange in these two 
forms than the deeper chestnut of C n. legalleni. The scapulars in C. n. hoae are 
dark grey with olive tips. In C n. melanchima however, the scapulars are olive with 
traces of chestnut-orange and in C n. legalleni, the scapulars are browner with dark 
brown centres. In C n. hoae the chin, throat and centres to the breast and belly are 
white. The sides of the breast and flanks are white, finely barred (vermiculated) very 
dark brown or black. In C n. melanchima the chin, throat and breast are white, whilst 
the black barring on the underparts is much broader but is confined to the flanks, the 
ground colour of which are pale buff, whilst the centre of the belly and breast varies 
from off-white to greyish white. The barring on the underparts of C n. legalleni 
covers the entire underparts, including the throat and centre of the breast and belly. 
Underpart barring in C n. legalleni is broader than in C n. hoae but very much 
narrower in both these forms than on C. n. melanchima. In the diagnosis of this new 
taxon specimens of C n. melanchima were examined from Thailand and various 
localities in Burma, including Mt Victoria. E. C. Dickinson (in lift. 1 999) informed me 
that birds from this latter locality are atypical, although this was not borne out by 
direct observation by me at this site in January 2002 and comparison of eight specimens 
from this locality with birds from elsewhere in Burma and Thailand revealed no obvious 
differences. Although C n. melanchima has a large geographical range the underpart 
pattern was consistent in all 14 specimens examined. Specimens were not examined 
from north-west Vietnam. Reference was recently made to the diagnostic features of 
this new subspecies in Robson (2000). 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 24; tarsus 28; 
tail 63; wing 94; bill black horn, but gunmetal at base of lower mandible; legs mustard 



Jonathan C. Eames 120 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

yellow; iris dark brown. Paratypes. Specimen number 2001.8.7: Maxilla 25; tarsus 
27.5; tail 70; wing 9 1 ; bill black; legs yellow; iris black. Specimen Number 2001 .8.8: 
Maxilla 25.5; tarsus 30; tail 64.5; wing 91 ; bill black; legs yellow; iris black. 

Ecology and behaviour. The holotype was singing from the lower canopy immediately 
prior to its collection. 

Habitat. Upper montane evergreen forest above 2,200 m asl. 

Distribution. This taxon is currently known only from Mt Ngoc Linh, Kon Turn 
Province, Vietnam. However, a pair of Cutias was also observed on Mt Kon Ka Kinh 
and the female collected (Le Trong Trai etal. 2000). The subspecific diagnosis of this 
female specimen can only be completed once females have been collected from Mt 
Ngoc Linh; however the underpart pattern strongly resembles C. n. hoae. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of Ms Dinh Thi Hoa who was present at the 
collection of the holotype. 

Specimens examined. C. n. melanchima: BMNH 95.7.14.2365, January 1895, male, 
Daphla, Burma; BMNH 1903. 12.28.57, undated, male, Southern Shan States, Burma; 
BMNH 1941.12.1.390, 13 May 1934, male, Kambaiti, Myitkyina, Burma; BMNH 
1903.12.24.410, undated, male, Southern Shan States, Burma; BMNH 94.7.3.40, March 
1894, male, Byingyu, Shan States, Burma; BMNH 1903.12.24.56, undated, male, Loi 
Maw, Southern Shan States, Burma; BMNH 1900. 12.20.430, undated, male, Southern 
Shan States, Burma; BMNH 1905.9. 10.384, 1904, male, Mt Victoria, Chin Hills, Burma; 
BMNH 1905.9.10.386; 1904, male, Mt Victoria, Chin Hills, Burma; BMNH 1905.9.10.385, 
1 904, male, Mt Victoria, Chin Hills, Burma; USNM 330608, 1 May 1931, male, Pang 
Me Ton (Doi Nang Ka), Thailand; USNM 53495 1 , 04 November 1 965, male, Doi Pha 
Horn Pok, Thailand; USNM 330609, 06 November 1930, male, Doi Nang Ka, Thailand; 
USNM 534952, 04 November 1965, male on plumage (label says female), Doi Pha Horn 
Pok, Thailand. C. n. legalleni: BMNH 1928.6.26.1483, 20 March 1927, male, Di Linh, 
Vietnam; BMNH 1928.6.26.1482, 20 March 1927, male, Di Linh, Vietnam; BMNH 
1928.6.26.1401 (Topotype), 30 July 1927, male, Da Lat, Vietnam; BMNH 1919.12.20.333 
(Paratype),01 May 1918, male, Da Lat, Vietnam; BMNH 1919. 12.20.530 (Topotype), 04 
May 1918, male, Da Lat, Vietnam; BMNH 1927.6.5.1052, 13March 1927, male, Di Linh, 
Vietnam; USNM 278470 (Paratype), 04 May 1918, male, Da Lat, Vietnam; USNM 
359090 (Topotype), June 1939, male, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 359088 
(Topotype), June 1939, male, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 359081 (Topotype), 
June 1939, male, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 359089 (Topotype), June 1939, 
male, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 359080 (Topotype), June 1939, male, Langbian 
Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 359087 (Topotype), June 1939, male, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; 
USNM 475765 (Topotype), 22 May 1 96 1 , male, Mt Lang Bian, Vietnam; USNM 475766 
(Topotype), 29 May 1 96 1 , male, Mt Lang Bian, Vietnam; USNM 475769, 1 1 June 1 96 1 , 
male, Da Lat 6 km s, Vietnam; USNM 475767 (Topotype), 29 May 1 96 1 , male, Mt Lang 
Bian, Vietnam. Specimens of C. n. nipalensis from Nepal, Bhutan and Darjeeling and 
C. n. cervinicrissa from Selangor, Malaysia in the BMNH collection were also examined 
but are not detailed here. 



Jonathan C. Eames 121 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Chestnut-tailed Minla Minla strigula 

The two specimens collected from Mt Ngoc Linh possess a striking head pattern and 
thus differ markedly from 28 specimens examined, including two topotypes of M. s. 
yunnanensis and three topotypes of M. s. castanicauda, which are the two subspecies 
with the closest geographical ranges (Hume 1877, Rothschild 1921, Deignan 1964), 
and I thus propose the name: 

Minla strigula traii, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1 998.7 1 . 1 3 adult female collected at c. 2,300 m 
asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 5 April 1998 by LTT and prepared as a standard museum skin by 
JCE (Figs. 6 and 7). 

Paratype. An additional specimen was collected at c. 2,350 m asl on Mt Ngoc Linh, 29 
March 1998, and is held at the BirdLife office in Hanoi, registration number 2001 .8.9. 
The paratype was collected and prepared as a standard museum skin by LTT. 

Diagnosis. The olive-brown mantle of M. s. trail more closely approaches that of M. 
s. castinicauda from Thailand and Burma than the more chestnut mantle of M. s. 
yunnanensis from north-west Vietnam and China. It should be noted however, that 
whilst the back, rump and upper tail coverts of M. s. yunnanensis were described as 
very strongly marked with olive-yellow, when worn these parts are dark grey only 
slightly tinged with olive (Rothschild 1921), all the specimens I examined showed 
olive-chestnut upperparts rather than olive-yellow or dark grey, tinged olive. In M. s. 
trail, the basal half of the rectrices are chestnut-brown, as in M. s. yunnanensis, 
rather than the orange-brown of M. s. castinicauda. Comparison of the underpart 
colouration is difficult because of the tendency of the yellow pigment to fade. However, 
the underpart colouration of M. s. trail is bright canary yellow, grading to slight olive 
tones on the flanks. All skins examined of M. s. castinicauda and M. s. yunnanensis 
had dirty olive-grey underparts but M. s. yunnanensis showed more traces of yellow. 
The chin and throat feathers of M. s. trail are yellow, narrowly fringed with black, 
which is more conspicuous on the sides of the throat. This is in particular contrast to 
both M. s. yunnanensis and M. s. castancauda which, at least in all specimens examined, 
have white or yellow-white chins and throats with feathers more broadly tipped 
black. In both these latter forms, the black extends across the entire throat. In M. s. 
yunnanensis and M. s. castancauda the lores and ear-coverts are grey-olive with 
pale central shaft streaks (sometimes yellowish) and a black feather tip. The lores are 
much duskier in M. s. castinicauda than in M. s. yunnanensis. However, in M. s. trail 
the lores are off-white and there is a broad off-white line extending from the gape, 
beneath the eye, to behind the ear-coverts that contrasts with its broad black malar 
stripe, which becomes much broader on the cheek. This broad off-white line and solid 
black malar stripe are absent in both M. s. castinicauda than in M. s. yunnanensis 
(Figs. 6 and 7). The distinctive head pattern of this subspecies has recently been 
illustrated in comparison with M. s. castanicauda (Robson 2000). 



Jonathan C. Eames 



122 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 




Figure 6. Ventral view of the holotype of Minla strigula trail (centre) together with (from left to 
right) M. s. yunnanensls BMNH 1930.7.16.303 and BMNH 1930.7.16.304, and M. s. castanicauda 
BMNH 86.10.1.6789 (Topotype) and BMNH 86.10.1.6788 (Topotype) (photograph by J.C. 
Eames] 




Figure 7. Profile view of the holotype of Minla strigula trail (centre) together with (from left to 
right) M. s. yunnanensls BMNH 1930.7.16.303 and BMNH 1930.7.16.304, and M. s. castanicauda 
BMNH 86.10.1.6789 (Topotype) and BMNH 86.10.1.6788 (Topotype) (photograph by J.C. 
Eames). 



Jonathan C. Eames 123 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 16; tarsus 28; 
tail 78; wing 74; bill black; iris dark brown; legs dark flesh. Paratype. Maxilla 17; 
tarsus 28; tail 75.5; wing 72; bill black; iris brown; legs dark flesh. 

Ecology and behaviour. Only observed in the forest canopy near the summit of Mt 
Ngoc Linh. 

Habitat. Upper montane evergreen forest above c. 2,300 m asl. 

Distribution. Currently known only from Mt Ngoc Linh, Kon Turn Province, Vietnam. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of my colleague Le Trong Trai, who collected 
both the holotype and the paratype. Le Trong Trai is co-author of Chim Viet Nam 
(Nguyen Cuetal. 2000). 

Specimens examined. M. s. yunnanensis: BMNH 1930.7.16.305, 07 December 1929, 
female, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.307, 21 November 1929, female, O Quy 
Ho, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.301, 11 Octeber 1929, male, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 
1930.7.16.302, 13 December 1929, male, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7. 16.306, 27 
November 1929, unsexed, O Quy Ho, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.303, 14 December 
1 929, female, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 1 .7. 1 6.304, 1 4 December 1 929, male, Fan Si 
Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.1 6.300, 1 March 1 929, male, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; USNM 
296448 (Topotype), 21 April 1923, male, Li Kiang Mtains, Yunnan, China; USNM 
296444 (Topotype), August 1923, male, Li Kiang Mtains, Yunnan, China; USNM 
314129, October 1923, male, Ndamucho, Yunnan, China; USNM 3 90381, 1 May 1947, 
male, Dreyi, Mishmi Hills, Assam, India; USNM 296457, November 1923, male, Mtains 
of Hofuping, Mekong Valley, China. M. s. castanicauda: BMNH 86.10.1.6787 
(Topotype), 3 1 January 1 877, male, Moolayit, Burma; BMNH 86.10.1 .6789 (Topotype), 
1 9 February 1 977, male, Moolayit, Burma; BMNH 86. 1 0. 1 .6788 (Topotype), 3 1 January 
1977, male, Moolayit, Burma ; BMNH 88.4.20.1210, 13 April 1977, female, Simborg 
(Moolai), Burma; USNM 534454, 04 November 1964, male, Doi Angka, Thailand; 
USNM 534972, 2 November 1965, male, Doi Pho Horn Pok, Thailand; USNM 534973, 
13 November 1965, male, Doi Pho Horn Pok, Thailand; USNM 534974, 22 November 
1964, female, Doi Inthanon, Thailand; USNM 534975, 28 November 1964, male, Doi 
Inthanon, Thailand; TISTR 53-1423, 21 October 1965, male, Doi Pha Horn Pok, Thailand; 
TISTR 53-2582, 1 February 1971, male, Doi Inthanon, Thailand; NRST 53-2585, 2 
February 1971, female, Doi Inthanon, Chom Thong, Thailand; TISTR 53-2583, 1 
February 1971, female, Doi Inthanon, Chom Thong, Thailand; NRST 53-2586, 5 
February 1971, female, Doi Inthanon, Chom Thong, Thailand; NRST 53-2586, 5 
February 1971, female, Doi Inthanon, Chom Thong, Thailand. 

Golden-breasted Fulvetta Alcippe chrysotis 

Two specimens collected from Mt Ngoc Linh compared with 1 8 specimens, including 
three topotypes of A. c. amoena and two of A. c. forresti, the two subspecies with the 
closest geographical ranges (Deignan 1964, Rothschild 1926, Stanford and Mayr 
1 94 1 ), were sufficiently distinct to be named: 



Jonathan C. Eames 124 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Alcippe chrysotis robsoni, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1 998.7 1.15, age and sex undetermined, collected 
at c. 1 ,900 m asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 20 March 1998 by LTT and prepared as a standard 
museum skin by JCE (Fig. 8). 

Paratype. An additional specimen was collected on Mt Ngoc Linh, 5 April 1998 and 
is held at the BirdLife office in Hanoi, registration number 2001 .8. 10. The paratype 
was collected by LTT and prepared as a standard museum skin by JCE. 

Diagnosis. The nominate form, A chrysotis forresti and A. c. amoena all show a grey 
chin and throat, sometimes with whitish or silvery tips, whereas A c. robsoni shows 
an entirely yellow throat and chin (the throat of the paratype was damaged during 
collection). The nominate form has a charcoal-grey crown and sometimes shows an 
indistinct, white central crown stripe though this is more often absent. In A c. forresti 
and A. c. amoena the colour of the crown varies from charcoal-grey to black and 
both forms show a broad but sometimes broken, white median crown stripe. In A. c. 
robsoni the crown is drab olive-grey and the central crown stripe is pronounced and 
has an off-white hue. The ear-coverts in A. c. robsoni are olive-grey but are silver- 
grey in the nominate form, A. c. forresti and A. c amoena. The secondaries of A. c. 
robsoni are edged bright orange but in the nominate form, A. c. forresti and A. c. 
amoena they are usually yellow or sometimes yellow-orange. The nominate form 
lacks an eye-ring and in A. c. forresti it is narrow, broken or absent. In A. c. amoena 
and A c. robsoni an eye-ring is present (Fig. 8). 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 9; tarsus 21; 
wing 49; tail too damaged/loose to measure accurately; iris dark brown; bill grey- 
horn/gun-metal; legs pale-flesh. Paratype. Maxilla 9.5; tarsus 22; wing 52; tail 49; iris 
colour not noted; bill brown horn; legs flesh. 

Ecology and behaviour. Forages in small flocks. Tame and confiding. 

Habitat. Found in bamboo and undergrowth in montane evergreen forest above c. 
1,900 m asl. 

Distribution. Currently known only from Mt Ngoc Linh, Kon Turn Province, Vietnam. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of Craig R. Robson, author of & Field guide 
to the birds of Thailand and South-east Asia (q.v. Robson 2000). 

Specimens examined. A. c. chrysotis: BMNH 1937.17.281, 1 March 1936, male, East 
Bhutan; BMNH 1 . 1 7.280, 29 February 1 936, male, East Bhutan; BMNH 1 93. 1 . 1 7.283, 
22 November 1936, female?, Yonpuha, East Bhutan. A c.forresti: BMNH 1921.7.15.280 
(Topotype), December 1919, male, Shweli-Salwin divide, Yunnan, China; BMNH 
1922.12.7.231; 15 December 1921, male, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, China; 
BMNH 1 94 1 .5 .30.4 1 76, 26 April 1 934, male, Kambaiti, Myitkyina District, Burma; BMNH 
1941.12.1.509, 22 Mat 1935, male, Kambaiti, Myitkyina District, Burma; BMNH 
1921.7.15.281 (Topotype), December 1919, female, Shweli-Salwin divide, Yunnan, China; 
BMNH 1933. 11. 13. 300, April 193 l,unsexed,Ta Li Shu, Yunnan, China. A. c. amoena: 



Jonathan C. Eames 



125 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



W1 XI 13H 




Mall I I L L:! 1 ! lit I It 1 1 I lill I I I llllllllllllllll 



I 4 lil 





mmm 



Figure 8. Ventral view of the holotype of Alcippe chrysotis robsoni (centre) together with (from 
left to right) A. c. amoena BMNH 1930.4. 16.335" (Topotype) and BMNH 1930.7.16.336 
(Topotype), and A. c. forresti BMNH 1921.7.15.281 (Topotype) and BMNH 1921.7.15.280 
(Topotype) (photograph by J. C. Eames). 



K XH3H 

nmlilililiiiijIiJiJiiijjj 




Figure 9. Profile view of the holotype of Alcippe castaneceps stepanyani (centre) together with (from 
left to right) A. c. exul BMNH 1932.5.14.161 (Topotype) and BMNH 1930.9.16.328, and A. c. klossi 
BMNH 1919.12.20.301 (Paratype) and 1939.12.1 1.32 (Topotype) (photograph by J. C. Eames). 



Jonathan C. Eames 126 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

BMNH 1930.7.16.336 (Topotype), 26 November 1929, female, Sa Pa, Vietnam; 
BMNH 1930.7.16.332, 19 November 1929, male, O Quy Ho, Vietnam; BMNH 
1 9307. 1 6.334; 28 November 1 929, male, O Quy Ho, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.4.16.335 
(Topotype), 18 November 1929, unsexed, Sa Pa, Vietnam; BMNH 1924.12.21.184, 
20 June 1924, male, NgoiTio, Vietnam; BMNH 1924.12.21.188,6 June 1924,female, 
Ngoi Tio, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.333, 16 November 1929, male, O Quy Ho, 
Vietnam; BMNH 1924.12.21.189, 19 June 1924, female, Ngoi Tio, Vietnam; BMNH 
1930.7.16.334 (Topotype), 1 1 December 1929, unsexed, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam. 

Rufous- winged Fulvetta Alcippe castaneceps 

Three specimens collected from Mt Ngoc Linh, when compared with 15 specimens 
including two paratypes and five topotypes of Alcippe castaneceps klossi and one 
topotype of A. c. exul (Robinson & Kloss 1919, Delacour 1932, Deignan 1964,) the 
two subspecies with the closest geographical ranges in Indochina, were sufficiently 
distinct to be named: 

Alcippe castaneceps stepanyani, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1997.7. 12, adult male (enlarged testis) collected 
at c. 2,200 m asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 9 May 1996. Collected and prepared as a standard 
museum skin by JCE (Fig. 9). 

Paratypes. BMNH registration numbers 1997.7.13, adult male and 1997.7.14, adult 
female, both also collected at c. 2,200 m asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 9 May 1996. Collected and 
prepared as standard museum skins by JCE. 

Diagnosis. This form is intermediate between A. c. exul and A. c. klossi in the 
colouration of the crown but has a distinctive pattern on the remiges. The mantle and 
back of A. c. stepanyani are olive brown, very similar to A. c. exul from Laos and 
barely distinguishable in series from A c. klossi and ,4 c. exul. A c. exul from north- 
west Vietnam shows, however, a slightly more chestnut-olive mantle and back, whilst 
A. c. klossi tends more towards chestnut. The crown and nape of A. c. stepanyani is 
a darker maroon-brown than the chestnut-brown of A. c. exul and the central shaft- 
streaks appear whiter, less cream. The crown and nape of A. c. stepanyani are rich 
chestnut-brown with yellow-buff central shaft streaks. In A. c. klossi the crown and 
nape are darker, more black-brown (almost burgundy as a consequence of foxing) 
and the central shaft streaks are dirty white, lacking any yellow or cream tones. In A. 
c. exul the crown and nape are more ginger and less chestnut. The chin, throat, breast 
and belly in A. c. stepanyani are creamy-white or pale buff with chestnut-buff sides 
to the breast and flanks. The underparts of A. c. stepanyani are therefore 
distinguishable from the underparts of A c. klossi and A. c. exul from Laos, which are 
whiter and lack extensive chestnut-buff flanks. The underparts of A. c. stepanyani 
show closest similarity in both ground colour and the extent of chestnut-buff flanks 
to A. c. exul from north-west Vietnam. However, A. c. exul shows a greater extent of 
chestnut-buff on the flanks. The wing pattern (but not colouration) in A c. stepanyani 



Jonathan C. Eames 127 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

is closer to A c. exul but the colour differs as follows: in A. c. stepanyani the greater 
and primary coverts are black as in A. c. exul but the outer webs of primaries 4-8 are 
chestnut rather than orange. In A. c. klossi only the primary coverts are entirely black 
and there is no orange wing panel. The outer webs of primaries 4-8 are pale chestnut- 
brown (Fig. 9). Dickinson (in litt 1999). has pointed out that this species suffers 
from colour change after collection. 

Measurements (mm). Holotype. Maxilla 11.5; tail 47; tarsus 2 1 ; wing 60. Paratypes. 
BMNH Registration number 1997.7.13: Maxilla 12; tarsus 22; tail 41; wing 60. BMNH 
Registration number 1997.7.14: Maxilla 10; tarsus 20; tail 43; wing 56. 

Ecology and behaviour. Forages in small flocks sometimes associating with mixed 
feeding parties of small passerines. Frequently climbs and descends tree trunks in a 
manner similar to treecreepers Certhia spp. 

Habitat. Undergrowth in montane evergreen forest above c. 2,000 m asl. 

Distribution. Known only from Mt Ngoc Linh, Kon Turn Province, Vietnam. However, 
this species was recently observed on Mt Ngoc Boc in southern Kon Turn Province 
and Mt Kon Ka Kinh in Gia Lai Province (Le Trong Trai et al. 2000, Eames et al. 200 1 ). 
Birds at these locations are likely to belong to the form A. c. stepanyani. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of Leo Surenovich Stepanyan who led 1 1 
ornithological expeditions to Vietnam over 13 years (1978-1990) on behalf of the 
Russian Acadamy of Sciences, and who is the author of Birds of Vietnam (q.v. 
Stepanyan 1995). 

Specimens examined. A. c. exul: BMNH 1932.5.14.162 (Topotype), 26 January 1932, 
male, Phou Kong Ntoul, Laos; BMNH 1932.5.14.161,21 December 1931, female, 
Paksong, Laos; BMNH 1 930.7. 1 6.324, 1 1 November 1 929, male, Sa Pa, Vietnam; BMNH 
1930.7.16.323, 14November 1 929, unsexed, Sa Pa, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.328, 7 
December 1929, female, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.331, 20 November 
1929, unsexed, O Quy Ho, Vietnam; USNM 350172, 10 April 1936, male, Doi Pu Kha, 
Thailand; USNM 350173; 10 April 1936, female, Doi PuKha, Thailand. A c. klossi: 
BMNH 1 939. 12.11.32 (Topotype), 7 March 1 939, unsexed, Lang Bian, Vietnam, BMNH 
1919. 1 2.20.30 1 , (Topotype), 20 April 1918, male, Lang Bian, Vietnam; USNM 278466 
(Paratype), 1 6 April 1918, male, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 278467 (Paratype), 
24 April 1918, male, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 3609 1 6 (Topotype), December 
1939, unsexed, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 360917 (Topotype), December 1939, 
male, Langbian Peaks, Vietnam; USNM 359130 (Topotype), June 1939, unsexed, 
Langbian Peaks, Vietnam. 

Rusty-capped Fulvetta Alcippe (brunnea) dubia 

Two specimens collected from Mt Ngoc Linh, when compared with 19 specimens 
comprising five specimens of A. d. intermedia and 14 specimens of A. d. genestier, 
the subspecies with the closest geographical ranges (Deignan 1964), were sufficiently 
distinct to be named: 



Jonathan C. Eames 



128 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



Alcippe dubia cui, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1997.7.8, adult male (one enlarged testis) 
collected at c. 2,200 m asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 16 May 1996 by NC and prepared as a 
standard museum skin by JCE (Fig. 1 0). 

Paratype. BMNH registration number 1 997.7.9, adult female collected with the male 
on the same date by NC and prepared as a standard museum skin by JCE. 

Diagnosis. The upperparts, including crown, nape and ear-coverts are a slightly 
darker shade of olive-brown than A. d. genestieri. A. d. genestieri from Yunnan andA 
d. intermedia are slightly lighter brown on the mantle with less olive than birds from 
north-west Vietnam. The crown colour of A. d. intermedia is slightly more ginger than 
A. d. genestieri from Yunnan and contrasts with the darker crown of A. d. cui. The 
underparts of A. d. cui are entirely rich buff with warm chestnut flanks and are a little 
paler in the centre of the throat and belly. In A. d. genestieri and A d. intermedia the 
underparts are generally white or off-white and the breast and belly are pale buff 
admixed with white, whilst the flanks are rich buff. The sides of the neck in A d. cui 
are not stippled and in this respect it approaches A d. genestieri (Fig. 10). Reference 
was recently made to the diagnostic features of this subspecies in Robson (2000). 




Figure 10. Ventral view of the holotype of Alcippe (brunnea) dubia cui (centre) together with 
(from left to right) A. d. genestieri BMNH 1930.7.16.208 and BMNH 1930.7.16.206, and A. d. 
intermedia BMNH 86.10.1.6282 and BMNH 1948.80.1686 (photograph by J. C. Eames). 



Club News 129 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla broken; tarsus 
24; tail 60; wing 60; iris dark brown; bill black horn; legs yellow horn. Paratype. 
Maxilla broken; tarsus 23; tail 62; wing 60; iris dark brown; bill black horn; legs yellow 
horn. 

Ecology and behaviour. A semi-terrestrial Alcippe. From the behaviour of the 
holotype and paratype they clearly represented a pair on territory. As judged by the 
condition of his gonads, the male was in breeding condition. 

Habitat. Undergrowth in montane evergreen forest above c. 2,200 m asl. 

Distribution. Known only from Mt Ngoc Linh, Kon Turn Province, Kon Turn Province. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of my colleague Nguyen Cu, who collected 
both the holotype and paratype. Nguyen Cu is co-author of Chim Viet Nam (Nguyen 
Cue* a/. 2000). 

Specimens examined. A. d. genestieri: BMNH 1930.7. 16.206, 4 December 1929, male, 
Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 1 930.7. 1 6.208, 23 November 1 929, male, Sa Pa, Vietnam; 
BMNH 1924.12.21.140, 3 May 1924, male, NgoiTio, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.207,24 
November 1929, female, Sa Pa, Vietnam; BMNH 1924.12.21.169, 3 May 1924, female, 
Ngoi Tio, Vietnam; BMNH 1 922. 1 2.7. 1 90, 1 3 December 1 92 1 , unsexed, Lichiang Range, 
Yunnan, China; BMNH 1 923 . 1 1 . 1 1 .207, September 1 922, male, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, 
China; BMNH 1921.7.15.256, undated, unsexed, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, China; 
BMNH 1921.7.15.259, June 1918, male, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, China; BMNH 
1933.1 1.13.374, June-July 1931, male, near Likiang, Yunnan, China; USNM296578, 18 
August 1923, male, Li Kiang Plain, Yunnan, China; USNM 276581, November 1923, 
male, mountains near Yangtza, Mekong Valley, Yunnan, China; USNM 276582, 
November 1923, male, mountains of Hofuping, Mekong Valley, Yunnan, China; USNM 
276583, November 1923, male, mountains ofTseh Chung, Mekong Valley, China. A. b. 
intermedia: BMNH 86.10.1.6282, 19 February 1877, male, Mooleyit, Burma; BMNH 
1948.80.1686, 18 April 1934, male, Mogali, Kama District, Burma; BMNH 1948.80.1685, 
12April 1940, female, Nattaung, Karenni District, Burma; BMNH 1948.80.1689, 18 
April 1934, female, Mogali, Katha District, Burma; BMNH 1908.8.2.32, 18 April 1908, 
female, Bhamo, Burma (?). 

Note: Contra Deignan (1964), I follow Inskipp etal. (1996) in elevating Alcippe dubia 
to specific rank, comprising the subspecies A. d. mandelli, A. d. intermedia, A. d. 
genestier, now with the addition of A. d. cui. 

Rufous-backed Sibia Heterophasia annectans 

Two specimens collected from CongTroi, when compared with 32 specimens including 
two topotypes of H. a. annectans, four topotypes of H. a. mixta, one topotype and 
two paratypes of H. a. saturata, and the holotype of//, a. eximia, belonging to the 
four recognized subspecies (Riley 1940, Deignan 1948, 1964), were sufficiently distinct 
to be named: 



Jonathan C. Eames 130 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Heterophasia annectans roundi, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1 998.7 1 . 1 7, adult female collected at c. 1 ,500 m 
asl, Cong Troi (15° 14'N, 107°41'E), 15 April 1998. Collected and prepared as a 
standard museum skin by LTT (Figs. 1 1 and 12). 

Paratype. An additional female specimen was collected at Cong Troi on 14 April 1 998 
and is held at the BirdLife office in Hanoi, registration number 200 1.8.11. The paratype 
was collected by LTT and prepared as a standard museum specimen by JCE. 

Diagnosis. Colouration of the mantle and back of//, a. roundi is chestnut-orange, 
similar to nominate H. a. annectans (and a specimen assigned to H. a. mixta from 
north-west Vietnam) but paler than the chestnut-brown mantle and back of H. a. 
saturata and the four specimens of topotypic H. a. mixta examined (but see below 
under specimens examined). The back and upper tail coverts in H. a. eximia are black, 
as are the back and uppertail coverts of birds from Mooleyit in Burma assigned to H. 
a. (davisoni) saturata. The greater coverts of H. a. roundi, H. a. mixta and H. a. 
saturata are tipped chestnut-brown rather than orange-brown of H. a. annectans. 
The single specimen examined from north-west Vietnam was intermediate in this 
respect. The nape and upper mantle are black in H. a. annectans, H. a. saturata and 
H. a. mixta, as it is in H. a. roundi but the black does not extend so far down the 
mantle in H. a. roundi. Any differences in the extent of white streaking on the hind- 
crown are difficult to discern between these four subspecies. In H. a. eximia the 
white streaks on the hind neck are reduced but not "obsolete and hardly noticeable" 
as noted by Riley (1940). The underparts of//, a. roundi are white with the flanks 
tinged buff. In H. a. mixta the flanks, lower belly and vent are rich buff. In H. a. 
saturata the white underparts are washed grey and the vent and lower flanks show 
less buff than topotypical H. a mixta but more than H. a. roundi. The nominate form 
shows the most buff on the lower belly and vent (Figs. 1 1 and 12). H. a. eximia shows 
a few white barbs to the feathers of the supra-loral region and a few white feathers on 
the upper eye-lid (Riley 1940). The entire head is black in//, a. annectans, H. a. mixta, 
H. a. saturata and H. a. roundi. 

Note: BMNH 1930.7.16.390 from Sa Pa, north-west Vietnam shows an upperpart 
colouration intermediate between topotypical H. a. mixta and the nominate form. 
Delacour (195 1 ) noted that, although the population of//, annectans from the north 
of Indochina is assigned to the typical race from the Himalayas, specimens from Laos 
tend towards H. a. mixta (Ripley 1953). Furthermore, all USNM specimens assigned 
to H. a. annectans below would be better considered, I believe, as H. a. mixta. H. a. 
davisoni, which shows a greater extent of black on the mantle and reduced white on 
the nape, is probably a valid taxon worthy of re-instatement. 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 19; tarsus 29; 
tail 88; wing 78; iris dark brown; bill black horn, yellow basal half to lower mandible; 
legs yellow. 



Jonathan C. Eames 131 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Paratype. Maxilla 19.5; tarsus 24; tail 88; wing 77; iris dark brown; bill upper 
mandible and distal half of lower mandible black, grading to yellow basal half; legs 
yellow. 

Ecology and behaviour. Usually solitary or in pairs associating with mixed feeding 
parties. Confined to the canopy and middle storey. 

Habitat Lower montane evergreen forest. 

Distribution. Known only from Cong Troi, Dak Glei District, Kon Turn Province, 
Vietnam. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of Philip D. Round, co-author of Birds of 
Thailand (q.y. Lekagul and Round 1 99 1 ) and for his dedication in trying to conserve 
Gurney's Pitta Pitta gurneyi. 

Specimens examined. H. a. annectans: BMNH 86.10.1.743, undated, unsexed, Sikkim, 
India; BMNH 1 948.80. 1 897, 26 February 1 934, male, Mogak, Myintada, Taung, Burma; 
BMNH 1939.12.8.182, 4 February 1939, male, Htingnan, Upper Burma; BMNH 
86.10.1.745 (Topotype), undated, unsexed, Darjeeling, India; BMNH 86.10.1.748, 
undated, unsexed, Darjeeeling, India; BMNH 86. 1 0. 1 .749 (Topotype), undated, unsexed, 
Darjeeling, India; USNM 330539, 22 April 1 93 1 , female, Doi Nang Ka, Thailand; USNM 
335686, 15 July 1935, male, Doi Suthep, Thailand; USNM 335687, 15 July 1935, male, 
Doi Suthep, Thailand; USNM 3 1 1503, 15 December 1928, male, Doi Suthep, Thailand; 
USNM 335688, 13 July 1935, male, Doi Suthep, Thailand; USNM 336017, 18 February 
1936, male, Doi Suthep, Thailand; USNM 334568, 12 August 1934, male, Doi HuaMot, 
Thailand; USNM 330539, 26 April 193 1, male, Doi Nang Ka, Thailand; USNM 330538, 
10 November 1 930, male, Doi Nang Ka, Thailand; USNM 3 3 0540, 10 November 1930, 
male, Doi Nang Ka, Thailand; USNM 330541, 12 November 1930, male, Doi Nang Ka, 
Thailand;//, a. mixta: BMNH 1930.7.16.390, 16 November 1929, female, Sa Pa, Vietnam; 
USNM 535015 (Topotype), 10 November 1965, female, Doi Pho Horn Pok, Thailand; 
USNM 535016 (Topotype), 15 November 1965, male, Doi Pha Horn Pok, Thailand; 
TISTR 53-1450 (Topotype), 24 Novembeer 1965, female, Doi Pha Horn Pok, Chang 
Mai, Thailand; TISTR 53-2622 (Topotype), 26 November 1965, female, Doi Pa Horn 
Pok, Chang Mai, Thailand; TISTR 53-2623, 6 February 1971, female, Dong Tak Ten, 
ChomTong, Chang Mai, Thailand; TISTR 53-167, 18 January 1967, female, Doi Pui, 
Chang Mai, Thailand; TISTR 53-168, 23 January 1967, female, Doi Pui, Chang Mai, 
Thailand; NSMT K348 1 , 1 January 1 959, female, Phu Kha, Pua District, Nan Province, 
Thailand. H. a. saturata: BMNH 1948.80.1899 (Topotype), 30 August 1940, male, 
Nattaung, Karenni District, Burma; BMNH 1948.80.1900, 05 November 1938, male, 
Yamthin District, Burma; BMNH 1900.12.20.382, 16 Aprill900, unsexed, Southern 
Shan States, Burma; BMNH 1903.12.24.386, undated, unsexed, Southern Shan States, 
Burma; H. a. saturata (davisoni): BMNH 86.10.1.761, 31 January 1877 (Paratype), 
male, Mooleyit, Burma; BMNH 86. 1 0. 1 .760 (Paratype), 3 1 January 1 877, male, Mooleyit, 
Burma. H. a. eximia: (holotype) USNM 359014, July 1939, female, Forests of Cam Ly, 
Vietnam. 



Jonathan C. Eames 



132 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 




Figure 11. Ventral view of the holotype of Heterophasia annectans roundi (centre) together with 
(from left to right) H. a. annectans BMNH 86.10.1.748 (Topotype), BMNH 86.10.1.743, H. a. 
mixta BMNH 1930.7.16.390, H. a. saturata BMNH 1948.80.1899 (Topotype) (photograph by 
J. C. Eames). 



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i!!|nniinif!!!ifnnj!ijr|inij!]jffn!ipnifii!i|i?)i]nmnH[nnj!iii!i[iipiiijm'»|m!|ifn! 



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Figure 12. Dorsal view of the holotype of Heterophasia annectans roundi (centre) together with 
(from left to right) H. a. annectans BMNH 86.10.1.748 (Topotype), BMNH 86.10.1.743, H. a. 
mixta BMNH 1930.7.16.390, //. a. saturata BMNH 1948.80.1899 (Topotype) (photograph by 
J. C. Eames). 



Jonathan C. Eames 



133 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



Black-headed Sibia Heterophasia melanoleuca 

Two specimens collected from Mt Ngoc Linh when compared with 16 specimens, 
comprising two topotypes of H. m. robinsoni, and four topotypes each of H. m. 
engelbachi and H. m. tonkinensis, the three subspecies with the closest geographical 
ranges (Deignan 1964, Delacour 1930, Rothschild 1921), were sufficiently distinct to 
be named: 

Heterophasia melanoleuca kingi, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1997.7.11, adult male (one enlarged testis) 
collected at c. 2,200 m asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 18 May 1996 by NC and prepared as a 
standard museum skin by NC (Fig. 1 3). 

Paratype. An additional male specimen was collected on Mt Ngoc Linh, 28 March 
1 998, and is held at the BirdLife office in Hanoi, registration number 200 1.8.12. The 
paratype was collected and prepared as a standard museum skin by LTT. 

Diagnosis. H. m. kingii is generally intermediate between//, m. tonkinensis and//, m. 
engelbachi but shares some features with H. m. robinsoni. The grey wash on the 
breast in H. m. kingi is very similar to H. m. engelbachi and is almost undetectable in 
series, and less extensive than is shown by H. m. tonkinensis, in which it extends 
onto the sides of the breast and flanks, and H. m. robinsoni where it is confined to the 




Figure 13. Profile view of the holotype of Heterophasia melanoleuca kingi (third from left) 
together with H. m. robinsoni BMNH1939. 12. 1 1 .45 (Topotype), H. in. engelbachi BMNH 
1932.5.14.155 (Topotype) and H.m. tonkinensis BMNH 1930.7.16.395 (Topotype) (photograph 
by J. C. Eames). 



Jonathan C. Eames 134 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

breast. The breast and belly H. m. kingi are white, washed slightly vinous as in H. m. 
engelbachi. The breast and belly appear whiter in H. m. robinsoni. In H. m. kingi the 
mantle is grey but with a faint purplish-brown (or drab mid-brown) wash on back 
and scapulars similar to but far less extensive than in H. m. engelbachi. Mantle and 
back colouration are therefore intermediate between the purplish-brown backed H. 
m. engelbachi on the one hand and the grey backed forms of//, m. tonkinensis and 
H. m. robinsoni, which are indistinguishable in series. The mantle in H. m. kingi is 
browner than in H. m. tonkinensis but greyer and less brown than H. m. engelbachi. 
The ear-coverts are uniformly black as in H. m. engelbachi and H. m. tonkinensis. H. 
m. robinsoni has grey-brown ear-coverts strongly streaked white. H. m. kingi 
additionally has a broken white eye-ring as in H. m. engelbachi and H. m. robinsoni, 
a feature absent in H. m. tonkinensis (Fig. 13). Reference was recently made to the 
diagnostic features of this subspecies in Robson (2000). 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 22; tarsus 30; tail 
109; wing 95; iris dark brown; bill black; legs dark horn. Paratype. Maxilla 23; tarsus 
30; tail 1 1 1 mm; wing 96; iris dark brown; bill black; legs dark horn but recorded as 
pale black. 

Ecology and behaviour. Usually in pairs, rarely in mixed feeding parties. Once seen 
associating with Black-crowned Barwing (Eames et al. 1999b). Usually found in the 
canopy and middle storey, especially feeding on boles on the trunk and larger branches. 
Quite vocal, its melancholy call is a characteristic forest sound. 

Habitat. Found in montane evergreen forest above c. 2,000 m asl. 

Distribution. Known only from Mt Ngoc Linh, Kon Turn Province, Vietnam. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of Ben F. King, senior author of Birds of 
South-east Asia, which was the first comprehensive bird field guide to the region (q.v. 
YAngetal. 1975). 

Specimens examined. H. m. robinsoni: BMNH 1927.6.5.1069, 12 March 1927, female, 
Di Linh, Vietnam; BMNH 1939.12.1 1.45 (Topotype), 10 March 1939, female, Lang 
Bian, Vietnam; BMNH 1927.6.5.1065, 1 March 1927, female, Di Linh, Vietnam; BMNH 
1928.6.26.1453, 8 August 1927, male, Entrenaus (?), Annam, Vietnam; BMNH 
1927.6.5.1040, 1 1 March 1927, male, Di Linh, Vietnam; BMNH 1928.6.26. 1454 (Topotype), 
4 August 1927, male, Da Lat, Vietnam. H. m. engelbachi: BMNH 1932.5.14.153 
(Topotype), 8 December 1 93 1 , male, Phou Kong Ntoul, Laos; BMNH 1 932.5 . 1 4. 1 58, 1 7 
December 1 93 1 , male, Thaheng, Laos; BMNH 1 932.5. 14. 155 (Topotype), 28 November 
1 9/3 1 ,male, Phu Tonghoul (Phou Kong Ntoul), Laos; BMNH 1 932.5. 1 4. 1 56 (Topotype), 
1 2 December 1 93 1 , female, Phou Kong Ntoul, Laos; BMNH 1 932.5. 14. 157, 3 December 
1931, female, Pho Set, Laos; BMNH 1932.5. 14. 154 (Topotype); 10 December 1931, 
female, Phuo Kong Ntoul, Laos. H. m. tonkinensis: BMNH 1930.7.16.394 (Topotype), 
24 November 1929, unsexed, O Quy Ho, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.395 (Topotype), 
1 6 November 1 929, unsexed, O Quy Ho, Vietnam; BMNH 1 930.7. 1 6.392 (Topotype), 7 
November 1 929, female, O Quy Ho, Vietnam; BMNH 1 930.7. 1 6.393 (Topotype), 27 
November 1929, male, O Quy Ho, Vietnam. 



Jonathan C. Eames 135 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Stripe-throated Yuhina Yuhina gularis 

Two specimens collected from Mt Ngoc Linh, when compared with 2 1 specimens, 
including four topotypes of Y. g. gularis, and five specimens of Y g. omeiensis, the 
two subspecies with the closest geographical ranges in Indochina (Deignan 1964, 
Kinnear 1925), were sufficiently distinct to be named: 

Yuhina gularis uthaii, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1 998.7 1 . 1 8 adult male collected at c. 2,200 m 
asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 7 April 1 998 by LTT and prepared as a standard museum skin by 
JCE(Fig. 14). 

Paratype. An additional male specimen was collected on Mt Ngoc Linh on 6 April 
1998 and is held at BirdLife, Hanoi, registration number 200 1.8. 13. The paratype was 
collected by LTT and prepared as a standard museum skin by JCE. 

Diagnosis. This form was examined with a series of 21 specimens assigned to Y. g. 
gularis and Y. g. omeiensis. These included birds representing the four forms 
synonymysed by Deignan ( 1 964) under Y g. gularis. Specimens were examined from 
the topotype locality (Nepal) as well as birds from western Yunnan previously 
described as Y yangiensis, birds from western Yunnan and Burma, previously 
described as Y g. griseotincta, and birds described as Y g. sordidor in north-west 
Vietnam, including from Ngoi Tio, the type locality. No significant differences could 
be seen between these forms and I support Deignan 's diagnosis. Y g. uthaii is easily 
distinguishable from all these forms in having very broad dark brown throat streaking 
instead of having narrow throat streaking which the other taxa all show; additionally, 
the ground colour of the throat feathers being whiter and less pink or buff than in Y 
g. gularis. The breast of Y g. uthaii is pinkish buff, as in Y gularis from Nepal, and 
both these forms lack the orange-pink breast of the birds from north-west Vietnam. 
There are no differences between these forms in the lower belly and vent colouration. 
There appearto be no significant differences in upperpart colouration but Y g. uthaii 
and birds from Nepal show a slightly more olive tinge to the upperparts than birds 
from north-west Vietnam (Fig. 14). The distinctive throat pattern of this new subspecies 
was recently illustrated in comparison with Y. g. gularis (Robson 2000). 

Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 15; tarsus 22; 
tail 55; wing 72; iris dark brown; bill dark horn upper mandible, flesh horn lower 
mandible; legs orange flesh. Paratype. Maxilla broken; tarsus 21 ; tail 58; wing 73; iris 
dark brown; bill dark horn upper mandible, flesh horn lower mandible; legs orange. 

Ecology and behaviour. Usually found in small, noisy single species flocks moving 
rapidly through the canopy. The call is quite nasal and far carrying. 

Habitat. Montane evergreen forest above c. 2,000 m asl. 

Distribution. Known only from Mt Ngoc Linh, KonTum Province, Vietnam. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of Uthai Treesucon a leading conservationist 
and field ornithologist in Thailand. 



Jonathan C. Eames 136 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Specimens examined. Y g. gularis: BMNH 86. 10. 1 .6574, undated, unsexed, Sikkim, 
India; BMNH 82.3. 1 . 1 5, 1 877, unsexed, Sikkim, India; BMNH 86. 1 0. 1 .6575, undated, 
unsexed, Sikkim, India; BMNH 1950.10.43 (Topotype), 18 August 1950, female, 
Thangja, Nepal; BMNH 97.12.10.1331, May 1873, unsexed, Sikkim, India. Y g. 
(sordidor) gularis: BMNH 1924.12.21.160 (Topotype), 19 June 1924, female, Ngoi 
Tio, Vietnam; BMNH 192412.21.164 (Topotype), 19 June 1924, male, Ngoi Toi, Vietnam; 
BMNH 1 924. 12.2 1 . 1 62 (Topotype), 20 June 1924, male, Ngoi Tio, Vietnam; BMNH 
1930.7.16.345, 3 December 1929, male, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.347, 14 
December 1929, female, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 1933.1 1.13.771, October 1931, 
female, near Tengyueh, west Yunnan, China; BMNH 1921.7.15.340, undated, male, 
Tengueh, west Yunnan, China; BMNH 1905.9.10.367, 1904, unsexed, Mt Victoria, 
Chin Hills, Burma; BMNH 1905.5.9.10.354, 20 March 1904, unsexed, Mt Victoria, Chin 
Hills, Burma; AMNH 1905.9. 10.355, 1904, unsexed, Mt Victoria, Chin Hills, Burma; 
BMNH 1932.12.10.85, 14March 1 93 1 , female, Adung Valley, north-east Burma. Y g. 
omeiensis: BMNH 1923.1 1.1 1.258, September 1922, male, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, 
China; BMNH 1922. 12.7.258, 20 November 1921, unsexed, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, 
China; BMNH 1 923. 1 1 . 1 1 .257, August 1 922, female, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, China; 
BMNH 1922.12.7.259,20 November 1921, male, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, China; BMNH 
1922.12.7.264, 21 December 1921, male, Lichiang Range, Yunnan, China. 

Black-throated Parrotbill Paradoxornis nipalensis 

Three specimens collected from Mt Ngoc Linh, when compared with nine specimens, 
including one topotype of P. n. beauleiui, from amongst the three subspecies with 
the closest geographical ranges in Indochina (Bingham 1903, Deignan 1964, Ripley 
1 953), were sufficiently distinct to be named: 

Paradoxornis nipalensis kamoli, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. BMNH registration number 1 998.7 1 . 1 9, adult female collected at c. 2,200 m 
asl, Mt Ngoc Linh, 3 April 1998. Collected and prepared as a standard museum skin 
byJCE(Fig. 15). 

Paratypes. Two additional specimens were also collected at c. 2,200 m asl on Mt 
Ngoc Linh, 3 April 1998. These comprise a male, which is deposited at the BirdLife 
office in Hanoi, registration number 2001.8.14, and a female BMNH, registration 
number 1 998.7 1 .20. Both specimens were collected and prepared as standard museum 
skins by JCE. 

Diagnosis. P. n. kamoli is closest to P. n. beaulieui but shows some similarities to P. 
n.feae and P. n. (verreauxi) craddocki. P. n. kamoli has narrower black lateral crown 
stripes than P. n. beaulieu,i where the black lateral crown stripes are broad, becoming 
very broad behind the eye. In P. n. kamoli the lores are white, extending in front of 
and over the eye as a very narrow white supercillium. In P. n. beaulieui the lores are 
dark and the broader white supercillium extends noticeably to behind the eye. The 
crown and upper mantle in P. n. kamoli and P. n.feae are ginger-orange but in P n. 



Jonathan C. Eames 



137 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



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Figure 14. Ventral view of the holotype of Yuhina gularis uthaii (centre) together with (from left 
to right) Y (sordidor) gularis BMNH 1924.12.21.160 and BMNH 1924.12.21.164, and Y. g. 
omeiensis BMNH 1922.12.7.258 and BMNH 1922.12.7.259 (photogtaph by J. C. Eames). 



VI H Cl it II 01 6 8 I 9 S t t I I wo 
Ml»il''»'»» l '"' l,l,,l " ,,l,,,,l, Mikllim^ 



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Figure 15. Profile view of the holotype of Par adoxornis nipalensis kamoli (centre) together with 
(from left to right) P. n. feae BMNH 1948.80.1978 and P. n. (verreauxi) craddocki BMNH 
1930.7.16.299 (photograph by J. C. Eames). 



Jonathan C. Eames 138 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

beaulieiii the crown and upper mantle are less bright and contrast less with the lower 
mantle. P. n. kamoli differs from P. n. (verreauxi) craddocki in having a much more 
extensive black throat and a circular black ear-covert patch, whereas the ear-coverts 
in P. n. craddocki are orange. P. n. feae differs from P. n. kamoli in having broad 
black lateral crown stripes, ear-coverts black suffused grey and the absence of white 
on the face, except for a broad white malar stripe and on the breast where it is replaced 
by grey (Fig. 15). The distinctive head pattern of this new subspecies was recently 
illustrated in comparison with P. n. beaulieui and P. n.feae (Robson 2000). 
Measurements (mm) and bare-part colouration. Holotype. Maxilla 9; tarsus 17; tail 
53; wing 49; iris dark brown; bill upper mandible horn, lower mandible flesh horn; legs 
purple flesh. Paratypes. Specimen number 2001 .8. 14: Maxilla 9.5; tarsus 21 ; tail 47.5 
wing 47; iris dark brown; bill upper mandible grey horn, lower mandible flesh horn 
legs flesh horn. Specimen number BMNH 1998.71.20: Maxilla 7.5; tarsus 18; tail 52 
wing 48; iris dark brown; bill upper mandible grey horn, lower mandible pink horn 
legs flesh horn. 

Ecology and behaviour. Usually forages in noisy, small single species flocks that 
move rapidly through the forest undergrowth. 

Habitat. Found in the bamboo understory and shrub layer of montane evergreen 
forest above c. 2,000 m asl. 

Distribution. Known only from Mt Ngoc Linh, Kon Turn Province, Vietnam. 

Etymology. I name this taxon in honour of Kamol Komolphalin, a leading 
conservationist and Thailand's foremost bird artist and co-illustrater of & Field guide 
to the birds of Thailand (q.v. Lekagul & Round 1991). 

Specimens examined. P. n. {verreauxi) craddocki: BMNH 1924.12.21.202, 6 May 
1 924, female, Ngai Tio, Vietnam; BMNH 1.12.21.203,20 June 1 924, male, Ngoi Tio, 
Vietnam; BMNH 1930.7.16.299, 24 November 1929, male, Fan Si Pan, Vietnam; BMNH 
1 930.7. 1 6.298, 1 9 November 1 929, female, O Quy Ho, Vietnam. P n. beaulieui: Paris 
Museum 360 (Topotype) 26 December 1938, male, Phu Kobo, Xieng Khonang, Laos. 
P. n.feae: BMNH 1948.80.1978, 15 April 1940, male, Nattaung, Kerreni District, 
Burma; BMNH 1905.8.16.194, May 1901, unsexed, Kauri Kachin District, Burma; 
BMNH 1948.801977, 12 April 1939, female, Nattaung, Burma; BMNH 1948.801976, 
17 April 1940, male, Nattaung, Burma. 

Acknowledgements 

I would firstly like to thank my co-workers and colleagues Nguyen Cu and Le Trong Trai, with 
whom I worked on Mt Ngoc Ling and Mt Kon Ka Kinh and who collected and prepared many of 
the specimens described in this paper. 

In Hanoi, I thank Nguyen Huy Phon, Vice Director of FIPI, Dr Nguyen Huu Dong, Director 
of the Forest Resources and Environment Centre of FIPI for permitting the secondment of Le 
Trong Trai to the BirdLife Vietnam Programme. Thanks to Professor Dr Vu Quang Con, Director 
of the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, for permitting the secondment of Nguyen Cu to 
the BirdLife Vietnam Programme. In Kon Turn I thank Tran Quang Vinh, Vice-Chairman 



Jonathan C. Eames 139 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

of the Kon Turn People's Committee; Truong Khac Toi, Vice-Director, Cao Chi Cong, Nguyen Quang 
Sinh, and Nguyen Xuan Thu of Kon Turn Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. 

At The Natural History Museum, Tring, I would like to thank Dr Robert Pris-Jones who granted 
access to the collection and who personally encouraged my work over several summer visits. I would 
also like to thank Mr M. P. Adams for re-measuring the type material, for providing detailed written 
comments and for assisting in obtaining a specimen loan from the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle 
in Paris. I would also like to thank Frank D Steinheimer for his support and interest. 

At the American Museum of Natural History I would like to thank Paul R. Sweet, Collection Manager 
at the Department of Ornithology, who facilitated visits to the museum in 1 999 and 200 1 and for granting 
access to the bird collections, especially material collected in Vietnam. At the National Museum of 
Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, I would like to thank James Dean, Collections Manager at the 
Department of Ornithology, for facilitating access to the collection during July 2001, and Pamela C 
Rasmussen for encouraging me in my work. 

At the Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research I would like to thank 
Nivesh Nadee, Mrs Lakkana Pakkarnseree and Mrs Pornthip Angkapreechases for assisting me 
during my visit to the bird collection. I would also like to thank Jarujin Nabhitabhata, Director of 
the Natural Science Research Division of the National Science Museum, Patumthani, Thailand 
for permitting access to the collection made by Dr Boonsong Lekagul. Thanks also to Wichian 
Kongtong of the National Research Council. 

In the United Kingdom I would particularly like to thank Edward C. Dickinson, of the Trust 
for Oriental Ornithology, who peer-reviewed this paper providing many comments that led to 
considerable improvement of the manuscript. Thanks also to Craig R. Robson who provided 
written comments and who assisted with the diagnosis of Paradoxornis nipalensis beauleui. I 
thank Dr Pasquet at the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris for kindly loaning a 
specimen of P. n. beauleui to The Natural History Museum. Dr Alexander Monastyrskii of the 
Russian- Vietnam Tropical Centre translated passages of Russian text from Stepanyan (1995) 
into English. 

At BirdLife International I would like to thank Richard Grimmett for encouraging and 
supporting my work. I would also like to thank Nguyen Due Tu from the BirdLife Vietnam 
Programme and Ha Quy Quynh from IEBR for producing the map. A final word of thanks goes 
our local camp staff, and many of the villagers whose hospitality and company made our 
fieldwork so enjoyable. 

Fieldwork in 1996 and 1998 comprised components of the joint BirdLife International and 
FIPI (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) Projects entitled "Conservation of 
Biodiversity in the Annamese Lowlands and Da Lat Plateau, Vietnam." Contract B7-5041/93/1 1 
in 1996, and "Expanding the Protected Areas Network in Vietnam for the 21st Century." 
Contract VNM/B7-6201/IB/96/005 during 1998. Both projects were funded by the Commission 
of European Communities (DGI), and BirdLife International additionally funded the latter project. 

References: 

Bingham, C. T. 1903. Suthora craddocki, n. sp. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 13: 54-55. 

Deignan, H. G. 1947. Two new babblers (Timaliidae) from southeastern Asia. Journal of the 

Washington Academy of Sciences. (37) 3: 104-105. 
Deignan, H. G. 1948. A miscellany of new birds from eastern Asia. Proceedings of the Biological 

Society of Washington. 61:13-16. 
Deignan, H. G. 1964. Subfamily Timaliinae. In Mayr, E. & Paynter, R. A. (eds.), Check list of the 

birds of the world. 10: 240-427. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
Delacour, J. 1930. Description d'Oiseaux nouveaux de l'lndochine. L'Oiseaux et R. F. O. 11: 

653-654. 
Delacour, J. 1932. Oiseaux noveaux du intredessants dTndochine. L'Oiseaux et R. F. O. 2: 419-438. 
Delacour, J. 1 95 1 . Commentaires, modifications et additions a la liste des oiseaux dTndochine Francaise. 

L'Oiseaux et R. F. O. 21: 81-1 19. 



Jonathan C. Eames 140 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Duckworth, J. W., Salter, R. E. & Khounboline, K. (Compilers) 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status 

Report. IUCN-The World Conservation Union/Wildlife Conservation Society/ Centre for Protected 

Areas and Watershed Management, Vientiane, Laos. 
Eames, J. C. 1995. Endemic birds and protected area development on the Da Lat Plateau 

(Vietnam). Bird Cons. Int. 5: 593-425. 
Eames, J. C. & Eames, C. 2001. A new species of Laughingthrush Garrulax Passeriformes: Sylviinae: 

(Garulacinae) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 121:10-23. 
Eames, J. C, Kuznetsov, A. N., Monastyrskii, A. L., Nguyen Tien Hiep, Nguyen Quang Truong 

& Ha Quy Quynh. 2001. A Preliminary Biological Assessment of Kon Plong Forest Complex, 

Kon Turn Province, Vietnam. Hanoi: WWF Indochina Programme. 
Eames, J. C, Le Trong Trai & Nguyen Cu. 1999a. A new species of laughingthrush Garrulax 

Passeriformes: Sylviinae: (Garulacinae) from the Western Highlands of Vietnam. Bull. Brit. 

Orn. CI 119: 4-15. 
Eames, J. C, Le Trong Trai, Nguyen Cu & Eve, R. 1999b. New species of barwing Actinodura 

Passeriformes: Sylviinae: (Timaliini) from the Western Highlands of Vietnam. Ibis 141:1-10. 
Hill, M., Eames, J. C, Le Trong Trai & Nguyen Cu. 2001. Population sizes, status and habitat 

associations of forest birds in Chu Yang Sin Nature reserve, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. Bird 

Conservation International 11: 49-70. 
Hume, A. 1877. Siva castanicauda. Stray Feathers 5: 100-101. 
Inskipp, T., Lindsey, N. & Duckworth, W. 1996. An annotated checklist of the birds of the 

oriental region. Oritenal Bird Club Sandy, UK. 
King, B. E, Dickinson, E. C. & Woodcock, M. W. 1975. Birds of South-east Asia. Collins, 

London. 
Kinnear, N. B. 1925. New races of birds discovered by Mr H. Stevens while collecting in Tonkin. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 45: 73-75. 
Lekagul, B. & Round, P. D. 1991. A guide to the birds of Thailand. Saha Karn Bhaet Co., Ltd., 

Bangkok. 
Le Trong Trai, Le Van Cham, Tran Quang Ngoc, Tran Hieu Minh, Nguyen Van Sang, Monastyrskii, 

A. L., Hayes, B. D. and Eames, J. C. 2000. An investment plan for Kon Ka Kinh Nature 

Reserve, Gia Lai province, Vietnam. BirdLife Internaitonal Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, 

Vietnam 
Le Trong Trai, Richardson, W J., Bui Dae Tuyen, Le Van Cham, Ha Van Hoac, Nguyen Van Sang, 

Monastyrskii, A. L. & Eames, J. C. 1999. An investment plan for Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve, 

Kon Turn province, Vietnam. BirdLife Internaitonal Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam 
Nguyen Cu, Le Trong Trai & Phillipps. K. 2000. Chim Viet Nam. BirdLife International Vietnam 

Programme. Hanoi, Vietnam. 
Riley, J. H. 1940. Five new forms of birds from southern Annam. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington. 

53: 47-50. 
Ripley, S. D. 1953. Notes sur les Oiseaux du Laos. L'Oiseau et R. F O. 23: 89-92. 
Ripley, S. D. 1980. A new species and a new subspecies of bird from Tirap District Arunachal 

Pradesh, and comments on the subspecies of Stachyris nigriceps Blyth. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soc. (77) 1: 2-3. 
Robinson, H. C. and Kloss, C. B. 1919. On the birds from South Annam and Cochin China. Ibis. 

(11) 1: 392-453 and 565-625. 
Robson. C. 2000. A field guide to the birds of Thailand and South-east Asia. Asia Books, 

Bangkok. 
Rothschild, Lord. 1921. On a collection of birds from west-central and north-western Yunnan. 

Novitates Zoologicae 28: 14-67. 
Rothschild, Lord. 1926. Fulvetta chrysotis foressti, subsp. nov. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 46: 64-65. 
Stanford, J. K. and Mayr, E. 1941. The Verney-Cutting Expedition to Northern Burma. Ibis. (14) 

5:56-105. 
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the world: 

Priorities for biodiversity conservation. BirdLife International, BirdLife Conservation Series number 



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7, Cambridge, U.K.. 
Stepanyan, L. S. 1995. Birds of Vietnam. "Nauka", Moscow. 
Thewlis, R. M., Duckworth, J. W., Anderson, G. Q. A., Dvorak, M., Evans, T. D., Nemeth, E., 

Timmins, R. J. & Wilkinson, R. J. 1996. Ornithological records from Laos 1992-1993. 

Forktail. 11: 47-100. 
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of Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam. BirdLife International Vietnam 

Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam. 

Address: Jonathan C. Eames, Programme Manager, BirdLife International Vietnam Programme, 
11, Lane 167 Tay Son, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam. Email: Eames. birdlife@netnam. org. vn 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Notes on the extinct Kosrae Starling Aplonis 
corvina Kittlitz, 1833 

by Julian R Hume 

Received 4 January 2001 

The Starlings of the genus Aplonis, comprising 24 known species, are virtually 
confined to the islands of the south-western Pacific, occurring on the mainland only 
on the Malay peninsular in the west, southern Vietnam in the north, and the tip of 
northern Australia in the south (Feare & Craig 1998). Six species of the genus are 
widespread, 8 species inhabit groups of islands, and the rest are endemic to single 
islands or island pairs; apart from 3 species, all are almost entirely lowland birds. 
Three of the endemic species are now extinct: Norfolk and Lord Howe Starlings A. 
fusca (2 ssp, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island), Mysterious Starling A marvornata 
(Mauke, Cook Islands) and Kosrae Starling^, corvina (*Kosrae, Caroline Islands), 
with other endemic species being rare and restricted (Greenway 1957, King 1981, 
Fuller 1987, Feare & Craig 1998). One of the most spectacular species was the Kosrae, 
Kosrae Island or Kosrae Mountain Starling A. corvina, which has not been seen 
since the 1830s and is known only from 5 specimens. The little that is known about 
the ecology of this species is based entirely on the work of Kittlitz (1 832, 1 835, 1 858), 
the only biologist to have seen the bird in life and the collector of all the known 
specimens. 

The Kosrae Starling has been described as a large, red-eyed, glossy black bird 
with a long curved bill and long tail, and illustrated accordingly (Kittlitz 1 832, 1 835, 
Greenway 1957, Day 1981, Fuller 1987). However, during a visit I made to the Russian 

* Kosrae Island was formerly known as Kusaie Island, and originally termed Uulan in 
error (Finsch 1881) 



Julian P. Hume 142 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg in November 1998, it was readily apparent that 
the skins there do not fully accord with the published descriptions or any published 
illustrations. The skins represent juvenile, sub-adult and adult plumage, and are 
strikingly different from each other. Furthermore, the library of the Russian Academy 
of Sciences contains a copy of one of Kittlitz's overlooked early publications (Kittlitz 
1 832) which is not readily available elsewhere and which contains information about 
the birds' ecology. These Kittlitz notes about the Kosrae Starling are here translated 
verbatim and presented with a full description of plumage patterns of A corvina. In 
addition, morphological/biogeographical comparisons are made between^, corvina 
and other Aplonis species. 

Three specimens, which are housed in the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. 
Petersburg, were the first individuals known. Mees (1964), who discovered, described 
and photographed two further A corvina specimens, housed in the collection of the 
Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, increased the total number of known 
museum specimens to five. The morphology of the St. Petersburg and Leiden 
specimens is also compared in this paper. 

Discovery: Kittlitz's description and the bird's ecology 

Friedrich Heinrich von Kittlitz ( 1 799- 1 874), sailing on the corvette Senjawin, surveyed 
areas of the Bering Sea and the Caroline Archipelago (Kittlitz 1858, Steinbacher 1954, 
Mearns & Mearns 1992). Kittlitz reached the Caroline Archipelago on 1 November 
1827, returning north via the Bonin Islands (Kittlitz 1858, Mearns & Mearns 1992). 
During these visits to both the Caroline and Bonin Islands, Kittlitz collected a series 
of birds, some never seen again. Included in his collection were specimens of A. 
corvina, taken from Kosrae Island, the most easterly of the Caroline group (Fig. 1 ). He 
collected the first example on 15 December 1827 in the area of Lyal, another on 21 



PHILIPPINE SEA 




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Figure 1. The Caroline Archipelago with Kosrae Island (shaded) situated furthest right. Scale 1 cm 
= c. 370 km. 



Julian P. Hume 143 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

December in the mountains, and a juvenile on 29 December in mountain woods also 
near Lyal; the last day of collecting on Kosrae was 30 December 1 827 (Kittlitz 1 858, 
Mees 1964). Kittlitz only recorded taking three specimens, but five skins are known 
to exist. As he was working for the Russians, he originally deposited three A. corvina 
specimens, as well as 300 other birds plus 200 field drawings, in the Russian Academy 
of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Mearns & Mearns 1992), from where some were 
subsequently dispersed to Frankfurt and Berlin (Hartert 1891). Kittlitz material was 
dispersed via Johann Georg Wilhelm Brandt ( 1 794- 1856), who was the brother of Prof. 
Dr. Johann Friedrich von Brandt (1802-1879), curator of the Imperial Museum, St. 
Petersburg (Steinheimer pers. comm). Based on his field notes and drawings, Kittlitz 
had three accounts and two illustrations of A. corvina published, although it was not 
until 1832 that he published detailed collecting notes; the field drawings were later 
engraved and coloured by himself. The text accompanying the plate in Kittlitz ( 1 835) 
translates as follows: 

"9) Lampothornis corvina n. 

From Uulan. This bird is found much less often on this island than Lampr. 

opaca (Lichtenstein) or Turdus columbinus. Gm. L. which are very common, 

It looks similar to the bird discussed above [Aplonis (Lampr.) opaca] except 
for its size, beak length and style of living etc. It [Aplonis (Lampr.) opaca] is 
a sociable bird, although it does not like large flocks. It likes inhabited areas 
and eats mostly fruit (particularly bananas). This species [Aplonis 
(Lampothornis) corvina] lives deep in the wooded region in the centre of the 
island and is just about the only bird occasionally to be seen here. It eats small 
animals, larger insects and lizards etc., which it swallows whole. It also seems 
occasionally to eat fruit, the stones of which have been found in its stomach. 
It [the stomach] is relatively smaller and more muscular than the other species. 
The mating call of this solitary bird is loud and consists of a single, often 
repeated tone. The young (probably in their first year) have very different 
feathers, so that one is led to believe that they are a completely different sort 
of bird. They are all over yellowy white with black/brown speckles, especially 
on their upper half. The iris is light brown. I would doubt if they belonged to 
this species, if I hadn't once shot a black bird that had white feathers still 
visible from the transition period. Both sexes have the same plumage, but the 
female seems smaller, and its black feathers are less shiny, although the males 
also differ here, probably due to their age. 

Description. The feathers over the cere are similar to Turdus columbinus 
although more velvety. The beak and feet are black. The brow is purple-red. 
The feathers are shiny with a faint steel-green and purple shimmer. The tail is 
wedge-like - although the outside feathers are considerably shorter (Kittlitz 
1835 pp. 7-8)." 

It was in Kittlitz ( 1 832) that the first illustration of A. corvina was published, but 
it received little attention and almost no circulation due to a shortage of funds; only 



Julian P. Hume 



144 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 




Figure 2. The five surviving specimens of Kosrae starling Aplonis corvina (top right) Leiden juvenile 
RMNH 90381; (top left) Leiden adult RMNH 90380; (lower right) St. Petersburg juvenile 138169; 
(lower left) St. Petersburg adult 138168; (centre left) St. Petersburg sub-adult 138167. 



Julian P. Hume 145 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

a few copies were ever printed (Mearns & Mearns 1 992). It refers briefly to the text of 
1 835 (as the 1 835 publication preceded the 1 832 publication) with some variation as 
follows: 

"Fig 3. - This is a new species, found on the island of Uulan, and was called 
Lamprothornis corvina. Written details and life-size picture must have 
appeared in the newest memoirs of the Academy of St. Petersburg [referring 
toKittlitzl835]. 

It has similarities to fig 2 [Aplonis opaca], but there are slight differences 
due to its animal-like food; big insects such as crickets and similar, and little 
lizards make up its main diet. It sometimes complements its diet with fruits 
thus its stomach is smaller and more muscular than that of other species. This 
is a solitary bird living in the deepest mountainous forest regions avoiding 
man. The young are yellowy white, with black/brown spots. Adult males and 
females are both black (Kittlitz 1832 pp. 12-13)." 

It is evident from Kittlitz 's notes that he was a fairly keen observer and recorded 
details with some care. The illustration in Kittlitz (1835) reproduced A corvina life 
size and included a line drawing of the bifurcated tongue. 

Description of specimens 

(All specimens measured by and illustrated (Fig. 2) by the author) 

St Petersburg specimens 

Juvenile (138169) 

Basal colour whitish-cream, whiter on the back and bases of primaries/secondaries. 
The under belly and under tail coverts more buff. Chocolate-brown speckling on 
head, neck and shoulders, each feather edged with buff. Tail and primaries chocolate- 
brown, lighter brown on back. Breast speckles with dark centres, fading to buff- 
brown with white edges. Under tail mid brown distally, more rufous proximally. Upper 
tail white at the base merging into buff then chocolate brown at the tips. Very fine 
buff speckles on throat, chin and face. Feathers without gloss. Bill pale yellow at 
base merging into dark brown/black towards tip. Edges of bill soft. Tarsus dark 
brown/black. Iris recorded as light brown. Measurements (mm): wing (from bend of 
wing to tip of primary) 140, tail (base of undertail coverts to tip) 100, total length (bill 
tip to tail tip) 270, bill length (tip to base of cranium) 3 1 , bill depth (at point of distal 
end of operculum) 10, tarsus 38.7. 

Sub-adult (138167) 

Overall colour black, browner on underside. Buff or white flecks and edgings on 
underside, lower back, secondaries and wing coverts; very distinctive on undertail 
coverts. Iridescent green/purple (depending on light) on upperparts, less on 
underside, with no gloss on primaries or tail. Bill and tarsus entirely black. Iris recorded 



Julian P. Hume 146 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

as bright red. Measurements (mm): wing 142, tail 100, total length 280, bill length 32.9, 
bill depth 10, tarsus 38. 

Adult (138168) 

Completely glossy black with predominantly green iridescence but also purple, 
particularly on the head and neck depending on the light. Wings and tail iridescent 
green and purple but much less extensive and distinct; primaries without gloss. Bill 
and tarsus entirely black. Iris recorded as bright red. Measurements (mm): wing 145, 
tail 105, total length 290, bill length 33.5, bill depth 10, tarsus 38.2. 

A note accompanying the St. Peterburg specimens describing the label history 
translates as follows: 

"In the Zoology Institute are the following specimens: No. 1 38 1 67 - first year, 
which has on some black feathers of undertail, belly and shoulders (small 
upper wing coverts) rather worn light brown edgings; 

No. 1 38 1 68 - adult; No. 1 38 1 69 - young bird in nestling plumage. The labels 
of the author are the same: "No. 102, Lamprothornis n. sp. Ualan, v. Kittlitz." 
Later, n.sp. was crossed out by a member of staff of the Zoological Museum, 
Academy of Sciences and written " corvina " (Neufeldt 1978 p. 107)." 

Leiden specimens 

Juvenile (female?) RMNH 90381 

Basically similar to the St. Petersburg specimen of a juvenile. Mees (1964) recorded 
the bill as less curved than for the adult and the edges of the rostum/maxilla softer, 
not fully keratinised. Base of the bill light-coloured as in the St. Pertersburg specimen. 
Iris colour not recorded. Measurements (mm): wing 137, tail 97, total length 292, bill 
length 3 1, bill depth 7.5 (damaged), tarsus 35. 

Adult (male?) RMNH 90380 

Similar to St. Petersburg specimen but black with a light-blue and rose gloss; the 
wings iridescent green. Bill all black. Iris colour not recorded. Measurements (mm): 
wing 1 36, tail 104, total length 250, bill length 30, bill depth 9, tarsus 33.5. 

Provenance of the Lieden specimens 

The two Leiden specimens and their history remain a mystery. A specimen was 
recorded as being seen in Frankfurt (Steinbacher 1954) but subsequently disappeared. 
As far as it is known, only Kittlitz saw and collected this species. He never sexed the 
St. Petersberg specimens, yet the Leiden specimens are labelled as male and female 
(Mees 1964). However, my examination of these specimens reveals that Coenraad 
Jacob Temminck (his name is hand written on the labels), founder and first director of 
the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, had, based on colouration, sexed the 
specimens after they had been skinned. This sexual determination certainly cannot 
be relied on. Furthermore, Temminck not only knew the foremost zoologists of his 



Julian P. Hume 147 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

day personally, he exchanged (apart from a pair) every other duplicate bird and 
bought many specimens for the Rijksmuseum in the middle of the Nineteenth Century, 
particularly from Germany (Holthius 2001 ). It is quite possible thatTemminck obtained 
two A. corvina specimens directly from Kittlitz and Kittlitz had actually collected 
more specimens than he mentions in his notes. His voyage was poorly funded and it 
would have been financially beneficial to collect extra specimens for later dispersal. 
However, the possibility also exists that the specimens were exchanged from the 
Frankfurt collection. Until the 1 840s, Edward Ruppell ( 1 794- 1 884), curator of Frankfurt 
museum, exchanged duplicate material of high importance, which included Kittlitz 
material and types. As Frankfurt possessed at least one specimen of this species 
before WWII - E. Hartert (1891) listed one in the catalogue of the collection as 
donated by Baron v. Kittlitz - excess material may have been exchanged with Temminck 
at Leiden; Ruppell did so at least with other specimens (Steinheimer pers. comm.). 
Unfortunately, this sixth specimen of A. corvina, supposedly residing in Frankfurt 
(Fuller 2001) has disappeared (Mayrpers. comm.). The complete skin collection was 
evacuated and dispersed to several different 'safe deposits' around Frankfurt during 
World War II and Steinbacher ( 1 954) presumed the specimen was lost as one of these 
deposits was destroyed by bombing. 

Relationships 

Aplonis starlings are primitive, generally unspecialised and form an island complex 
of fruit eating arboreal species that occur only on oceanic islands and adjoining 
continental masses (Amadon 1943, 1956, Beecher 1978). Some members of the genus 
share a number of characteristics which indicate relict or long-isolated populations, 
e.g. the lack of gloss in some species (a retention of the juvenile characteristic), bill 
morphology, large size, sexual dimorphism and limited distribution (Feare & Craig 
1998). Table 1 and Fig.3 give a comparative summary of morphological, biogeographical 
and behavioural characteristics of members of the genus, aspects of which are 
discussed below. 

Size 

A. corvina is equivalent in size to the larger members of the genus, namely Long- 
tailed Starling^, magna, Samoan Starling^, atrifusca, and Large Glossy Starling^. 
grandis. Interestingly, all these large species have limited distribution, confined to 
island groups or single islands and have probably been isolated for a long time. 
Other members of the genus are all small to medium-sized birds. 

Gloss 

Gloss reduction has generally occurred in the Aplonis spp. with restricted distribution, 
but also in the widespread but isolated Polynesian Starling A. tabuensis, suggesting 
a long isolation from their fully glossed congeners (Feare & Craig 1998). However, 
full gloss also occurs in isolated endemic populations, notably the Kosrae A corvina, 
and Long-tailed Starling^, magna. If these species have indeed been isolated for a 



Julian P. Hume 



148 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



TABLE 1 

Comparison of morphological, biogeographical and behavioural characteristics of the genus 
Aplonis (after Feare & Craig 1998, Hume pers. obs). F = fruit, I = insects, V = vertebrates 



Species 

Numbers refer to 
species in Fig. 1. 


Total 
length 
(cm) 


Gloss 


Sexual 
dimorphism 


Juvenile 


Food 


Migrant 

Distribution 


A. atrijusca 22 


30 


yes 


(reduced) 


no 


dull brown 


F 


no 


island group 


A. brunneicapilla 12 


21-32 
(inc. tail) 


yes 




size, 
less gloss 


duller, inconspicuous 
white streaks on underside 


F 


no 


island group 


A. cantoroides 10 


17-19 


yes 




no 


dull, dark brown above, white 
with dark streaks below 


F 


yes 


widespread 


A. cinerascens 23 


21 


yes 


(reduced) 


no 


? 


F + I 


no 


endemic 


A. corvina 9 


27-29 


yes 




size?, 
less gloss? 


cream and white, speckled/ 
streaked black and brown 


V+I+F 


no 


endemic 


A. crassa 3 


20 


yes 




no 


dull, dark brown above, white 
with dark streaks below 


F 


no 


endemic 


A. dichroa 15 


18-21 


yesl 


reduced) 


no 


browner, less gloss 


F 


no 


endemic 



A. feadensis 11 


20 


yes 




no 




duller, scaly on underparts 


I 


no 


island group 


A.fusca 20 


17-18 


yes i 


[reduced) 


no 




? 


F 


no 


endemic 


A. grandis 14 


25-29 


yes 




no 




duller 


F 


no 


island group 


A. insularis 16 


19 


yes 




no 




dull, no gloss 


? 


? 


endemic 


A. magna 5 


28-41 
(inc. tail) 


yes 




no 




? 


F 


no 


endemic 


A. mavornata 24 


18 


yes 


(reduced) 


7 




? 


9 


? 


endemic 


A. metallica 13 


21-26 


yes 




no 




dull, dark brown above, white 
with dark streaks below 


F 


yes 


widespread 


A. minor 2 


18 


yes 




no 




dull, underparts white 
streaked with black 


F 


yes 


widespread 


A. mysolensisi 


20 


yes 




no 




brown above, streaked below 


F 


no 


island group 


A. mystacea6 


18-19 


yes 




no 




dull, dark brown above, 
white with streaks below 


F 


no 


island group 


A. opaca 7 


24 


yes 




size, 


, plumage dull, streaked underparts 


F 


no 


widespread 


A. panayensis\ 


17-20 


yes 




dull. 


it 


paler, buffi sh and streaked 
below 


F 


yes 


widespread 


A.pelzelni% 


16 


yes 


(reduced) 


no 




paler 


F? 


no 


endemic 


A. santovestrisYI 


17-18 


yes 


(reduced) 


no 




7 


F 


no 


endemic 


A. striatal 


18 


yes 




size. 


, plumage 


9 


? 


no 


island group 


A. tabuensis 21 


17-21 


yes 


(reduced) 


no 




9 


F 


no 


widespread 


A. zealandica 19 


19 


no 




no 




paler 


F 


no 


island group 



Julian P. Hume 



149 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



long period, it appears that gloss retention may occur just as readily as gloss reduction 
and therefore cannot be diagnostic of isolated or relict populations. 

Sexual dimorphism 

The sexes of most species of Aplonis are similar, but sexual dimorphism does occur in 
four species. Size differentiation (smaller females) and/or female plumage patterns are 
distinct in Norfolk and Lord Howe Island Starlings A.fusca, Micronesian Starling A 
opaca, and Striated Starling A striata. Less distinct dimorphism occurs in the White- 
eyed Starling A. brunneicapilla, with females being less glossy and smaller. Kittlitz 
(1835) mentioned female A. corvina as being smaller and less glossy in his field 
notes. Unfortunately, as the original labels for the sexed Leiden specimens are missing, 
and Kittlitz never sexed the St. Petersburg specimens, any sexually dimorphic 
characteristics must be approached with caution, especially as the Leiden juvenile 
female is larger than the adult male in wing, bill and tarsus length. 

Bill morphology 

Bill morphology varies in the genus from small and pointed (Pohnpei Mountain 
Starling A pelzelni, Mysterious Starling A mavornata) through broad (Yellow-eyed 
Starling A. mystacea), to large and heavy (Samoan Starling A. atrifusca, Kosrae 
Starling A. corvina). However, distributional groupings of Aplonis have little in 
common (Fig. 3). As the largest bills belong to Samoan Starling and Kosrae Starling, 




Figure 3. The distribution of the genus Aplonis and the bill morphology of the 24 species. 
Original distribution map from Feare & Craig (2000); drawings of heads by the author. Refer to 
Table 1 for key to numbered species. 



Julian P. Hume 150 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(2) 

of widely separate Somoa and Carolines respectively, a possible relationship between 
these two species based on this character and large size (Mees 1964, Day 1981), 
seems unlikely. Furthermore, in the Samoan Starling, the plumage is brown and almost 
without gloss and the juveniles are dull versions of adults. Probably due to prolonged 
lack of recognition, the Leiden specimens were actually deposited with Samoan Starling 
A atrifusca (Mees 1964), hence the long period for which they went unrecognized. 
In Kittlitz's illustration (1835, tab. 9,) the bill as depicted is far too slender (Fig. 
4), a basis on which Sharp (1890) doubted the generic placement of A corvina (see 
alsoHartert 1891). 

Juveniles 

Distinct juvenile plumage patterns occur in all species to some degree and juvenile 
Aplonis are generally dull versions of the adults and/or have marked plumage 
differences with increased black/brown streaking on white or beige underparts (Table 
1). However the degree of differentiation shown in juvenile A. corvina is unique in 
Aplonis, and in all other starling genera. It has also been suggested that the juvenile 
plumage described above represents a leucistic condition (Feare pers. comm.). The 
second juvenile individual from Leiden verifies that this plumage was not atypical, 
and the intermediate plumage recorded by Kittlitz lends support to the juvenile/adult 
moult being a transition between the "pied" juvenile and adult plumages. However, 
there is still a possibility that the Leiden juvenile was a sibling of the St. Petersburg 
juvenile, and thus both may be aberrant offspring. 

The White-eyed Starling A. brunneicapilla, Singing Starling A. cantor vides, 
Tanimbar Starling A crassa, Shining Starling A metallica, Short-tailed Starling A 
minor, Island Starling A mysolensis, Yellow-eyed Starling A mystacea, Micronesian 
Starling A opaca, and Asian Glossy Starling A . panayensis share, with A. corvina, 
distinctive streaked underparts, but this feature bears no apparent relationship to 
distribution (Table 1). 

Conclusions 

Morphologically, the Kosrae Starling was not only one of the largest members of the 
genus Aplonis but also had a specialised, almost crow-like heavy bill. Its diet, 
consisting mainly of animal matter, may have differed from the predominantly 
frugivorous diet of other Aplonis. Its stomach was noted as being smaller and more 
muscular than A. opaca, a possible adaptation for a diet in which animal matter 
predominates. However, this evidence is based on only 5 specimens; Common 
Starlings Sturnus vulgaris have larger stomach and intestines in the winter, when 
more vegetable matter is consumed (Feare 1984). It was the most frequent bird 
encountered in the mountains when first discovered but already comparatively rare. 
Kittlitz (1835) described mating calls during December, but as fledged young were 
taken, it was more likely that he heard loud contact calls. A. opaca fledge after 2 1 -25 
days, becoming independent shortly afterwards (Feare & Craig 1998), and if the 



Julian P. Hume 



151 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



fledging period of the Kosrae Starling was similar, this suggests that the juvenile A. 
corvina collected were fledged by late November. That the juveniles were recently 
fledged is further supported by the soft rhamphotheca of both juvenile specimens, a 
characteristic of a very young bird (Mees 1964). The sub-adult specimen indicates 
that the adult gloss was not achieved at least until the following year, a phenomenon 
not uncommon in other Sturnidae (Feare & Craig 1998). 

Relationships 

Relationships within Aplonis are complex and confusing, with morphological variation 
and former distribution difficult to determine. Aplonis starling distribution appears to 
represent complex pulses of range expansion, colonization and probable extinction, 
sometimes resulting in isolated or sympatric populations. In the Kosrae Starling, 
differences from other members of its family in diet, bill shape, and distinctiveness of 
juvenile/adult plumage suggest suggest specialisations indicative of prolonged 
isolation. 




Figure 4. The first published illustration of the Kosrae Starling Aplonis corvina, including (middle 
right) the bifurcated tongue. 



Julian P. Hume 152 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(2) 

Aplonis and other problematic island genera, e.g. Dicrurus, would certainly benefit 
from DNA analysis to provide independent evidence of their phylogenies. 

Competition with Aplonis opaca? 

A. corvina was sympatric with the smaller, widespread Micronesian Starling. Amadon 
( 1 956), King (1981), Fuller ( 1 987) and Feare & Craig ( 1 998) have suggested that A. 
corvina was restricted to the mountains and was possibly displaced/out-competed 
in the lowlands by the more recent arrival of A. opaca, which is a lowland bird. Areas 
of habitation favouring A. opaca have certainly increased since the Second World 
War due to anthropogenic activity (Baker 1951). Range expansion of A. opaca may 
have also occurred on Kosrae towards the end of the 19 th Century, as it was during 
this time that the Carolines suffered an upsurge in deforestation (King 1981). The 
endemic Pohnpei (formerley Ponape) Mountain Starling, a species now restricted to 
the mountains, originally occurred all over the neighbouring island of Pohnpei (Fig. 1 ) 
and a nearby atoll (Baker 1951, King 1981, Buden 1996, Feare & Craig 1998). This 
species is also sympatric with A. opaca and it is therefore unlikely that the montane 
restriction of A corvina was due to competition with A. opaca. It is most likely that A 
corvina required undisturbed forest, and that the extent of this was the main factor in 
determining its distribution. 

Extinction 

The factors that caused the extinction of A. corvina remain a mystery. Otto Finsch, 
who visited Kosrae in February 1 880, was familiar with the bird, having seen the St. 
Petersburg specimens (erroneously stating two instead of three) and noted the 
distinctiveness of the species (Sharpe 1 890). Kosrae Island, lying furthest east within 
the Caroline Archipelago, had not been overly exploited as it lay off the main shipping 
routes (Mees 1964), although the other Caroline Islands were generally known to 
shipping (Fuller 1987). It was still densely wooded at the time of Finsch 's visit and the 
human population numbered only 300 individuals (Finsch 1881), so the mountainous 
central region would surely still have provided refuge. Finsch thought that it still 
existed and noted that the human population, already decimated by the influence of 
western contact, did not venture into the mountains anymore (Sharpe 1890); Finsch 
himself never searched the interior (Mees 1 964). 

Rats have been cited as a probable cause of extinction (Greenway 1957, Fuller 
1987). Ships were often careened on shore and rats could easily escape. It appears 
that they were present in some numbers on Kosrae, as Kittlitz (1858) noted them as 
'being common and found in banana plantations' even as early as 1827. The wide- 
ranging A. opaca appears to be able survive, despite rat predation, on Kosrae and 
other islands; it is still commonly found in the lowlands (Feare & Craig 1998). A. 
opaca nest in hollow trees and this, coupled with its aggressive nature, may help 
reduce rat predation (King 1 98 1 , Feare & Craig 1 998) but it still is heavily preyed upon 
by rats (Baker 1951, Greenway 1957). This species is more susceptible to the tree 
climbing Black Rat Rattus rattus and the Pacific Rat R. exulans, than the more terrestrial 



Julian P. Hume 153 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Brown Rat R. norvegicus. No assessment can be made with respect to rat predation 
on breeding Kosrae Starlings as no nests were ever recorded. Generally, Aplonis spp. 
nest in tree cavities, with only two species building pendulous nests. A. pelzelni 
nests in tree cavities, as does the other Mountain Starling, A. santovestris (Feare & 
Craig 1 998) and similar nesting requirements may have applied to A. corvina. 

The Kosrae Starling, being specialised, shy and retiring, must have been very 
susceptible to human disturbance and hunting, and tree-climbing rats may have been 
nest predators and/or competitors for food. Also, introduced avian disease, a factor 
that proved so devastating to the avifauna in the Hawaiian Islands, may have been 
partly responsible. It is more than likely that a combination of events was to blame for 
the extinction of A. corvina. 

Whatever the circumstances surrounding its extinction, the Kosrae Starling is 
only known from the five individuals in Leiden and St. Petersburg, all of which are 
syntypes (Mees 1964). It was only ever seen and recorded in the wild between the 15 
and 30 December 1 827 by F. H. von Kittlitz. It was still possibly alive and overlooked 
in the 1 880s, as Finsch never penetrated the interior. It was certainly extinct by 1 93 1 , 
as the interior was thoroughly searched by F.J.Coultas of the Whitney Expedition of 
the American Museum of Natural History (Greenway 1957) and other Japanese 
expeditions (Mees 1964). It is the good fortune of science that the Kosrae Starling 
was collected and recorded in life, albeit for just 15 days. 

Acknowledgements 

I am deeply indebted to Vladimir Loskot and Vera Richter for providing access to the Russian 
Academy of Sciences skin collection and making my stay so enjoyable in St. Petersburg. I would 
like to thank Dave Martill, Mike Barker, Chris Feare and particularly Robert Prys-Jones, for critically 
reading the manuscript. I would also like to thank Rene Dekker and Gerald Mayr for information about 
specimens in their collections; further assistance was kindly given by Frank Steinheimer about specimen 
provenance. I would also like to thank Caroline Lambert and Michael Hume for assistance in translating 
the German/Dutch text. 

References: 

Amadon, D. 1943. The genera of starlings and their relationships. American Museum Novitates. 

1247: 1-16. 
Amadon, D. 1956. Remarks on the starlings, family Sturnidae. American Museum Novitates 

1803: 1-41. 
Baker, R.H. 1951. The avifauna of Micronesia, origin, evolution, and distribution. Publications 

of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. 3:1-359. 
Beecher, W. J. 1978. Feeding adaptations and evolution in the starlings. Bull. Chicago Acad. 

Sciences. 11: 269-298. 
Buden, D. W. 1996. Rediscovery of the Pohnpei mountain starling {Aplonis pelzelni). Auk 113: 

229-230. 
Day, D. 1981. The doomsday book of animals. Ebury Press: London. 
Feare, C. 1984. The starling. Oxford Univ. Press 

Feare, C. & Craig, A. 1998. Starlings and mynas. A & C Black, London. 
Finsch, O. 1881. Ornithological letters from" the Pacific. No.V Kushai. Ibis (4) 5: 102-109. 
Fuller, E. 1987. Extinct birds. Rainbow Penguin: London and New York. 
Fuller, E. 2001. Extinct birds. Comstock Publishing Associates: Oxford. 



Julian P. Hume 154 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Greenway, J. C. 1957. Extinct and vanishing birds of the world. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. 
Hartert, E. 1891. Katalog der vogelsammlung im museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden 

Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt a. Main. 
Holtius, L.B. 2001. The history of natural history in Leiden (ed) J. van der Land. National 

Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis: Leiden. 
King, W. B. 1981. Endangered birds of the world. The ICBP bird red data book. Smithsonian 

Institution Press. 
Kittlitz, F.H.von. 1832. Kupfertafeln zur naturgeschichte der vogel. Frankfurt a. Main. 
Kittlitz, F.H.von. 1835. Uber einige noch unbeschreibene vogel von der Insel Luzon, den Carolinen 

und den Marianen. Memoirs. Acad. Imperial Sciences, St. Petersburg. 2:1-9. 
Kittlitz, F.H.von. 1858. Denkwurdigkeiten einer reise nach dem russischen Amerika, nach 

Mikronesien und durch Kamchatka. II. Gotha. 
Mearns, B. & Mearns, R. 1992. Audubon to Xanthos. Academic Press, London. 
Mees, G.F. 1964. Twee exemplaren van de uitgestorven glansspreeuw Aplonis corvina in het 

Rijksmuseum van Naturlijke Historie te Leiden. Ardea. 52:190-193. 
Neufeldt, LA. 1978. Extinct birds in the collection of the Zoological Institute. Proc. Acad. 

Sciences. U.S.S.R. 76:106-107. 
Sharpe, R.B. 1890. Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum. Vol. XIII. Trustees of the 

British Museum, London. 
Steinbacher, J. 1954. Die typen der vogelsammlung von F. H. von Kittlitz. Senckenbergiana 

Biologica 4/6: 301-305. 

Address: Bird Group, The Natural History Museum, Akeman St, Tring, Herts HP23 6AP and 
Paleobiology Research Group, Department of Earth, Environmental & Physical Sciences, 
Portsmouth University, Portsmouth POl 3QL. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



First record of the Rufous Potoo Nyctibius 
bracteatus and in-flight drinking by the Semi- 
collared Nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus in 

French Guiana 

by Nigel Cleere &Johan Ingels 

Received 21 March 2001 

Between 6 September and 6 October 2000, we conducted nocturnal surveys at several 
localities around the village of Saul (53°12'W, 03°35'N) in central French Guiana. 
Records of two Caprimulgiform species are of particular importance and are documented 
here. 

RUFOUS POTOO Nyctibius bracteatus 

One heard on 20 September from primary rainforest along the Creek Limonade, c. 5 km 

south of Saul. It called almost continuously between 05 1 5 and 0600 h, with pauses of 



Nigel Cleere & Johan Ingels 155 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

up to 30 seconds or more between each set of notes. The call, an 'owl-like' series of 
bubbling boobooboo notes that trailed off and descended in pitch at the end of each 
series, matched the description given for this species by Cleere (1998) and was 
immediately identified by playback of a recording taken from Ranft & Cleere (1998). A 
second bird was heard calling briefly at dusk on 22 September by NC, from primary 
rainforest on the outskirts of Saul. Although it has been speculated that this secretive 
species might occur in French Guiana (Tostain et al 1 992) these appear to be the first 
records for the country. 

SEMI-COLLARED NIGHTHAWK Lurocalis semitorquatus 

One seen by NC at 1 840 h on 22 September, in good light c. 1 min before dusk, at a 
small, algae-infested pond just inside primary rainforest alongside Saul airstrip. It 
flew around the pond before descending to the surface, where it drank by dipping its 
bill into the water. Whilst drinking, it held its wings up in a V above its body and its 
tail up and slightly fanned. It then flew around the pond again, gained height and 
disappeared over the forest. Approximately 5 minutes after the bird disappeared from 
view, a second (or the same?) bird appeared and also drank from the pond. Both birds 
appeared long-winged, short-tailed and frequently glided for short distances, their 
silhouette and flight not appearing bat-like as suggested by Cleere (1998). At close 
range and in such good light, both birds also appeared very dark, but the narrow 
white tips to the second and third tail feathers (R2 and R3) were conspicuous as the 
tail was often fanned in flight. Although drinking in flight has been recorded for 
several Chordeiles nighthawks and Caprimulgus nightjars (Cleere 1998), these records 
appear to be the first for this particular species. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Yvan Allinckx for guiding us to sites along the Creek Limonade and would like 
to thank Vincent Pelletier for his assistance and hospitality during our stay in Saul. 

References 

Cleere, N. 1998. Nightjars. A guide to nightjars and related nightbirds. Pica Press, Sussex. 

Ranft, R. & Cleere, N. 1998. A sound guide to nightjars and related nightbirds. Pica Press, 

Sussex / The British Library National Sound Archive, London. 
Tostain, O., Dujardin, J-L.,Erard, Ch. & Thiollay, J-M. 1992. Oiseaux de Guyane. Societe 

d'Etudes Ornithologiques, Brunoy. 

Addresses: Nigel Cleere, 2 Hawthorn House, Roundfield, Upper Bucklebury, Berks. RG7 6RQ, 
U.K. E-mail cleere@churr.freeserve.co.uk; Johan Ingels Galgenberglaan 9, B-9070 
Destelbergen, Belgium. E-mail johan.ingels@skynet.be 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



William S. Clark & Dennis R. Paulson 



156 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



Specimen record of 

Short-toed Snake Eagle 

for Kenya is invalid 



William S. Clark & Dennis R. Paulson 

Received 3 April 2001 

The only published record of Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus for Kenya 
is a specimen collected near Lake Turkana (formerly called Lake Rudolf) in 1968 
(Owre & Paulson 1968). The specimen was deposited in the Field Museum of Natural 
History (Chicago) as FMNH 369299 (Fig. 1). 

WSC recently examined the specimen and determined that it was not an adult 
Short-toed Snake Eagle but a similar-appearing second plumage Black-breasted Snake 




Figure 1. Specimen of first plumage Black-breasted Snake Eagle collected at Lake Turkana (upper) 
compared to an adult Short-toed Snake Eagle (lower). Note the new black breast feathers and the 
more prominent black banding on the new secondary and undertail of the Black-breasted Snake Eagle. 



William S. Clark & Dennis R. Paulson 157 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Eagle C. pectoralis. This plumage had not been described at the time this eagle was 
collected. It was not known until Newman (1983) described and illustrated it; 
however, he called it an alternate juvenile plumage. Maclean ( 1 993) calls this plumage 
a second year plumage. Both Newman ( 1 983) and Maclean ( 1 993) have illustrations 
of perched eagles in this plumage that show how similar they are in appearance to 
adult Short-toed Snake Eagles. 

The specimen also strongly resembled adult Short-toed Snake Eagles but differed 
in having some new black breast feathers and a mix of new adult secondaries with 
wide black subterminal bands and brownish juvenile secondaries. The secondaries 
of adult Short-toed Snake Eagles have a wide dusky terminal band and a narrower 
black subterminal band. The uppersides of the specimen appear identical to those of 
adult Short-toed Snake Eagles. 

Clark (2000) discussed in more detail the separation of these two similar plumages 
and the field identification of the large Circaetus snake eagles. Clark (1999) discussed 
taxonomic problems in the genus caused by failure to recognize the second plumage 
of Black-breasted Snake Eagles at nests and confusing them with other species. 



Acknowledgements 

We thank the curators of the Field Museum of Natural History for permission to examine this specimen. 

References: 

Clark, W. S. 1999. Plumage differences and taxonomic status of three similar Circaetus snake- 
eagles. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 1 19:56-59. 

Clark, W. S. 2000. Field identification of Beaudouin's Snake Eagle Circaetus beaudouini. Bull. 
Af. Bird Club 7:13-17. 

Maclean, G. L. 1993. Roberts' birds of southern Africa. Trustees of John Voelcker Bird Book 
Fund, Cape Town. 

Newman, K. 1983. Birds of southern Africa. Southern Book Pub., Halfway House, S.A. 

Owre O. T. & Paulson, D. R. 1968. Records of Falconiformes from the Lake Rudolf area, 
Kenya. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 88:151-152. 

Addresses: W. S. Clark, Raptours, PObox 53 1467, Harlingen,TX 78533, USA, email raptours@erols.com; 
D. R. Paulson, Slater Museum, Univ. of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA 984 1 6 USA, email dpaulson@ups.edu 



British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Nigel Cleere & Michael Walters 158 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Correction of the type locality of the Pennant- 
winged Nightjar Macrodipteryx vexillarius 
(Caprimulgidae) 

by Nigel Cleere & Michael Walters 

Received 7 April 2001 

The genus Macrodipteryx contains two Afrotropical nightjar species, both of which 
are migratory and have been recorded outside their normal ranges as vagrants (Fry et 
al, 1988, Cleere 1998, 1999). The Standard-winged Nightjar Macrodipteryx 
longipennis breeds in West and Central Africa, and generally moves north in the 
non-breeding season. The Pennant- winged Nightjar Macrodipteryx vexillarius has 
a more southerly breeding range and moves north to 'winter' in Central Africa. 
Surprisingly, the type locality for both species is stated to be Sierra Leone, which is 
within the normal range for the Standard- winged Nightjar, but almost at the extreme 
limit of vagrancy for the Pennant-winged Nightjar. The type locality for the latter 
requires discussion and correction (Cleere 1998). 

The Pennant- winged Nightjar was illustrated and described by Gould ( 1 838), who 
also stated 'Little is known respecting this singular species further than it inhabits 
the islands lying between those of Bourbon and Madagascar; that it is numerous on 
the shores of the Red Sea and in the Island of Scutra'. Warren (1966) listed specimen 
1 855. 12. 19.63 in the British Museum (Natural History) as the holotype, adding that it 
was an adult male (relaxed mount) from Sierra Leone, collected by J. Barlow and 
purchased of the Zoological Society of London. This specimen has been the subject 
of confusion ever since the British Museum received it, and here we aim to clarify the 
issue. 

The oldest label attached to the specimen, which seems to have escaped the 
attention of earlier authors, is a small piece of cardboard with the registration number 
and the name of the species on one side, and on the other, the words 'Africa, dupl.' 
The latter word is clearly an abbreviation of 'duplicate', a term long in use in the 
Museum to denote a specimen without data and therefore of little or no importance. 
The entry in the museum register states '63. Caprimulgus vexillarius Gld. Type. Red 
Sea?' and appears to have been written in the same hand, therefore suggesting that 
it was a single entry which was probably undertaken in 1 855. Some early bird register 
entries were copied from the General Zoology registers, but the collection containing 
this particular specimen was not. Although the specimen label confirms that it was 
regarded as a duplicate, it was entered in the register as the type of the species. The 
locality of 'Red Sea?' is probably taken from the list of locations given by Gould, 
although why this was chosen over the other localities is unknown. The specimen is 
a relaxed mount, which had been on display in the galleries prior to its transfer to the 
type collection. As it was not included in a list of specimens in the collection by 



Nigel Cleere & Michael Walters 159 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

Hartert ( 1 892), it was presumably removed from the gallery some time after then, but 
the precise time of its removal is unknown. 

The second label on the skin is the one that has been quoted and discussed, and 
was evidently added after the specimen was removed from the gallery. The data on 
this label, which were supposedly copied from beneath the stand of the mounted 
specimen, state ' Jas. Barlow Esq., Sierra Leone. Orig. descr. J. Gould Esq., under the 
name of Caprimulgus vexilla '. Following vexilla is an almost illegible word 'Lirg' or 
'Ling' which looks as if it was intended to be the name of an author, although Sherborn 
(1922) indicates that no taxon of any bird has ever been described with the specific 
name vexilla. 

This specimen and its collection locality were eventually discussed by Sclater & 
Mackworth-Praed ( 1 9 1 9, p. 659 footnote). They drew attention to the information on 
the second Museum label, which they interpreted as meaning that the specimen had 
been collected in Sierra Leone, and saw no reason why it should not be accepted as 
the type of the species and the locality accepted as the type locality. However, even 
accepting the transcribed information on the label as correct, there is no evidence to 
link the specimen to Gould. 'Orig. descr. J. Gould Esq.' is more plausibly interpreted 
as meaning that Gould first described the species, but not that he did so on the basis 
of this specimen; we have no evidence that it was ever in his possession. The 
identity of 'Jas. Barlow' has eluded our investigations, as nobody of this name 
appears in any biographical source available to us. It is not possible, therefore, to say 
with any certainty that the ascription on the label linking his name with that of Sierra 
Leone means that the specimen originated there. Many early specimens are known to 
have been mislabelled, or to have been obtained from a location different from their 
country of origin. 

The type locality of Sierra Leone for the Pennant-winged Nightjar has certainly 
created problems for subsequent authors. Bannerman (1933) stated 'It is also recorded 
from Sierra Leone but doubt has been cast on this record', whilst Peters (1940) and 
Fry et al ( 1 988) simply followed Sclater & Mackworth-Praed (1919) in quoting Sierra 
Leone as the type locality. That Barlow's specimen originated in Sierra Leone seems 
increasingly unlikely. Had Gould had a specimen from this country in front of him, it 
is inconceivable that he would not have mentioned this in his description. Even more 
significantly, he stated 'the general structure of this species is precisely the same as 
that of the Macrodipteryx africanus, Swains, and it doubtless represents that bird 
on the opposite side of the African continent'. The range for M. africanus (= M. 
longipennis) was described by Swainson (1837) as West Africa, and we do not 
believe that Gould would have said his new species occurred on the opposite side of 
the continent if his only specimen also came from West Africa. 

We conclude from the foregoing that there is no evidence to support the view 
that Barlow's specimen is the type of Macrodipteryx vexillarius, or that Barlow 
actually collected his specimen in Sierra Leone. Barlow may not even have been the 
collector; he may merely have owned the specimen. We believe that the whereabouts 
of the specimen illustrated and described by Gould remains unknown and possibly 



Nigel Cleere & Michael Walters 160 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

no longer exists. It is unclear why Gould gave the range for this nightjar as islands 
between Bourbon (=Reunion) and Madagascar, the shores of the Red Sea and the 
Island of Scutra (=Socotra ?), as it does not appear to have been recorded anywhere 
in those areas. The bird depicted and described by Gould was an adult male with full 
pennants and was probably a breeding bird. The post-breeding moult of this species 
suggests that birds in this plumage are unlikely to be found at the extreme limits of 
vagrancy (Cleere 1998). In the absence of a valid type specimen, we suggest 'southern 
Africa' as an acceptable type locality for Macrodipteryx vexillarius. 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank Michael Stuart Irwin, who originally brought to our attention the 
anomaly of the type locality for the Pennant-winged Nightjar. We are also indebted to Robert Prys-Jones 
and Bob Dowsett, whose comments greatly improved the manuscript. 

References: 

Bannerman, D.A. 1933. The birds of tropical West Africa. Vol. 3. Crown Agents for the Colonies, 

London. 
Cleere, N. 1998. Nightjars. A guide to nightjars and related nightbirds. Pica Press, Sussex. 
Cleere, N. 1999. Family Caprimulgidae (Nightjars). In : del Hoyo J., Elliott A. & Sargatal J. (eds) 

Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 5. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Fry, C.H., Keith, S. & Urban, E.K. 1988. The birds of Africa. Vol. 3. Academic Press, London. 
Gould, J. 1838. Icones Avium. Pt. 2. J. Gould, London. 
Hartert, E. 1892. Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum. Vol. 16. British Museum, 

London. 
Peters, J.L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world. Vol. 4. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Sclater, W.L. & Mackworth-Praed, C.W. 1919. A list of the birds of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 

based on the collections of Mr A.L.Butler, Mr A. Chapman and Capt. H.Lynes R.N., and 

Major Cuthbert Christy R.A.M.C. (TF) pt. 3 Picidae - Sagittariidae. Ibis (11) 1: 628 - 707. 
Sherborn, CD. 1922, Index Animalium. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 

London. 
Swainson, W. 1837. On the natural history and classification of birds. Vol. 2. Longman, Brown, 

Green & Longmans, London. 
Warren, R.L.M. 1966. Type specimens of birds in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 1. 

Non-Passerines. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 

Addresses: Nigel Cleere, 2 Hawthorn House, Roundfield, Upper Bucklebury, Berks, RG7 6RQ, 
UK. E-mail cleere@churr.freeserve.co.uk; Michael Walters, Bird Group, The Natural History 
Museum, Tring, Herts, HP23 6AP, U.K. E-mail mpw@nhm.ac.uk 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



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COMMITTEE 

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Hon. Publications Officer: J. A. Jobling 

Registered Charity No. 279583 



Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 

ISSN 0007-1595 
Edited by Professor Chris Feare 

Volume 122, Number 2, pages 81 - 160 

CONTENTS 

CLUB NEWS 81 

LIVERSIDGE, S. & VOELKER, G. The Kimberley Pipit: a new African species 93 

EAMES, J.C. Eleven new sub-species of babbler (Passeriformes: Timaliinae) from Kon Turn 

Province, Vietnam 109 

HUME, J.P Notes on the extinct Kosrae Starling Aplonis corvina Kittlitz, 1833 141 

CLEERE, N. & INGELS, J. First record of the Rufous Potoo Nyctibius bracteatus and in-flight 

drinking by the Semi-collared Nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus in French Guiana 154 

CLARK, W.S. & PAULSON, D.R. Specimen record of Short-toed Snake Eagle for Kenya is 

invalid 156 

CLEERE, N. & WALTERS, M. Correction of the type locality of the Pennant-winged Nightjar 

Macrodipteryx vexillarius (Caprimulgidae) 158 



Authors are invited to submit papers on topics relating to the broad themes of taxonomy and distribution of 
birds. Descriptions of new species of birds are especially welcome and will be given priority to ensure rapid 
publication, subject to successful passage through the normal peer review procedure; they may be accom- 
panied by colour photographs or paintings. On submission, two copies of manuscripts, typed on one side of 
the paper, double spaced and with wide margins, should be sent to the Editor, Prof. Chris Feare, 2 North 
View Cottages, Grayswood Common, Haslemere, Surrey GU27 2DN, UK. Note that electronic versions 
are not required on first submission. Where appropriate half-tone photographs may be included and, 
where essential to illustrate important points, the Editor will consider the inclusion of colour figures (if 
possible, authors should obtain funding to support the inclusion of such colour illustrations). 

When papers are accepted, revisions should be returned to the Editor as both a hard copy, as outlined 
above, and also on a 3.5" disk, as Word or Wordperfect files for PC. At this stage authors should send 
their email addresses, as completion of the editing process and proofreading will be undertaken electroni- 
cally. 

For instructions on style, see the inside rear cover of Bulletin 122 (1) or the BOC website: 

www.boc-online.org 



© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

Apart from single copies made for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as 
permitted under UK law, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or 
by any means, except with prior permission of the publishers. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside 
these terms should be sent to the Editor; for address see inside rear cover. 

The Bulletin is despatched from the printer on publication and is sent by Surface Saver Postal Services to all 
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Those whose subscriptions have not been received by the beginning of a month of publication will have 
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Printed on acid-free paper. 

Published by the BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 

Typeset by Alcedo Publishing of Colorado Springs, USA, 

and printed by Crowes of Norwich, UK 



S iCTZ- 




British 



Ornithologists' 




Volume 122 No. 3 

September 2002 



L 



THE NATU 
HISTORY MUSEUM 

2 3 SEP 2002 

PRESENTED 
TRING LIBRARY 




mm - «— 



MEETINGS are held at Imperial College, South Kensington, London, SW7, usually in the Sherfield 

Building. The nearest Tube station is at South Kensington; a map of the area will be sent to members, on 
request. See also website: http://www.boc-online.org. (Limited car parking facilities can be reserved, on 
prior application to the Hon. Secretary). 

The cash bar is open from 6.15 pm, and a buffet supper, of two courses followed by coffee, is served at 
7.00 pm. (A vegetarian menu can be arranged if ordered at the time of booking). Dinner charges are 
currently £18.00. Informal talks are given on completion, commencing at about 8.00 pm. 



FORTHCOMING MEETINGS 

5 November - Professor Ian Newton - 'Population limitation in birds: a review of the experimental evidence '. 
Ian began his ornithological career by studying the ecology and feeding behaviour of finches, supervised by 
David Lack at the University of Oxford. He then moved to work with the Natural Environment Research 
Council in Edinburgh, studying first waterfowl and then birds of prey. For more than 25 years, he conducted 
a population study of the Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus in south Scotland. He has authored about 250 papers 
in the scientific literature, and several books, including Finches (1972), Population ecology of raptors 
( 1 979), The Sparrowhawk ( 1 986), and more recently, Population limitation in birds ( 1 998). He was elected 
Fellow of the Royal Society in 1 993, and awarded an OBE for 'services to ornithology' in 1 999. He is a past 
President of the British Ecological Society and is current President of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 23 October please. 



3 December - Jon Hornbuckle - 'The birds ofBeni Biological Station, Bolivia '. Jon took early retirement 
in 1993, after a career in scientific and technical management with the steel industry, to pursue his wildlife 
interests full-time. He has extensive experience as an ornithological fieldworker and ringer, in many parts 
of the world, but especially South America where he spent six summers ringing birds in the Beni Biological 
Station and conducted surveys of threatened cloud forests in NW Ecuador and NE Peru. He has lectured 
extensively on these experiences, including to the Club on Peru, in January 2000. He is also author of a 
considerable number of papers and reports. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 19 November please. 



Future meetings, in 2003. The following Tuesdays have been booked for eight meetings: 

2 1 January, 25 February, 25 March, 29 April ( AGM), 24 June, 23 September, 4 November and 2 December. 



Overseas Members visiting Britain are especially welcome at these meetings, and the Hon. Secretary 
would be very pleased to hear from anyone who can offer to talk to the Club, in 2003, giving as much 
advance notice as possible - please contact: Michael Casement, Dene Cottage, West Harting, Petersfield, 
Hants, GU31 5PA, UK. Tel/FAX: 01730-825280 (or Email: mbcasement@aol.com). 



Club News 1 6 1 Bull. B. O. C 2002 122(3) 

Bulletin of the 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 

Vol. 1 22 No. 3 Published 1 7 September 2002 

CLUB NEWS 

Membership News. We regret to announce the recent death in Australia of V.J. Wood, Member (1985- 
2002). 

BOU Meetings. The following meetings have been arranged: 

28 November 2002. Birds and Public Health, at the British Academy, Carlton House Terrace, London 

1 1-16 April 2003. Long-term studies of birds, in collaboration with the EGI annual student conference, 
Oxford University. 

For further details see the BOU website: www.bou.org.uk and for bookings contact 
steve.dudley@bou.org.uk 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

1 . The Annual General Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Club was held in the Sherfield Building, 
Imperial College, London SW7 on Tuesday 30 April 2002 at 6 p.m. with Dr C.F. Mann in the Chair. 
Apologies had been received from Sir David Bannerman, Phil Belman, Professor Bob Cheke, Francis 
Stone (Hon. Archivist), Amberley Moore, Mary Muller, and Paul Salaman. 1 5 Members were present. 
The Minutes of the Annual General Meeting held on 1 May 2001, which had been published [Bull. 
Brit. Orn. CI. 121: 148-149), were approved and signed by the Chairman. 

2. Chairman's report. The chairman summarised the main points shown in the Trustees' Annual 
Report for 2001, drawing attention to the further development of the partnership with the British 
Ornithologists' Union with the formation of a joint publications committee, the continuing 
enhancement of the Bulletin and the BOC website, and the good progress made with electronic 
archiving of back-numbers of the Bulletin. 

He thanked members of the Committee for their support, the Trustees of the Herbert Stevens Trust 
for their management of the Club's investment portfolio, and paid tribute to Francis Stone who had 
indicated that he was seeking a successor as Hon. Archivist. 

3. Trustees' Annual Report for 2001. The Hon. Secretary pointed out that the Annual Report was 
now an integral part of the Annual Accounts, copies of which were before all Members present, and 
would be published in the June issue of Bulletin 122 (2). He drew attention to some of the highlights 
of this report, and called for any questions. There were none. 

The Annual Accounts for 2001. The Hon. Treasurer presented the accounts for the year ended 3 1 
December 2001, and drew attention to the salient features, which were detailed in the paragraphs on 
finance in the Trustees' Report of Activities and Review of the Year. 

The adoption of the Accounts was proposed by Michael Casement, seconded by David Griffin, and 
approved by all present. 

4. The Bulletin. The Hon. Editor said that the Committee had approved a total of 320 pages for Vol. 
122. This would enable him to clear a back-log of interesting papers. Crowes had done an excellent 



Club News 162 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

job for printing Vol 121, though there had been a problem sending authors their additional copies 
and separates. This was now being done from Tring, with the kind co-operation of Effie Warr. 

5. Club Publications. Tom Gladwin said that good progress was now being made with the Bird Atlas 
of Uganda, and publication was now hoped for before the year-end. The BOC/BOU Joint Publications 
Committee (JPC) was due to meet shortly to review the progress of this and other publications. 

6. Election of Officers and Committee. 

The Chairman said there were no proposed changes to the Committee; Bob Scott had served his 
four years, but had agreed to extend for a further year to allow time for a successor to be found. 

Subsequent to last year's AGM, Revd. Tom Gladwin had kindly agreed to serve as Vice- 
Chairman, for one year. But Rule (5) made provision for a term of four years only, so it had been 
agreed that he continued to serve in this capacity until such time as the future succession and direction 
of the Club was determined. 

There being no other nominations to the offices of Secretary and Treasurer, Commander M.B. 
Casement was re-elected Hon. Secretary, and D.J. Montier re-elected as Hon. Treasurer. 

7. No other items for discussion had been notified in accordance with Rule (12) and the meeting 
closed at 6.31 p.m. 



The 908th meeting of the Club was held on Tuesday 26 March, at 6.15 pm, in the Sherfield Building 
Annexe, Imperial College, and was attended by 28 Members and 9 guests. 

Members present were: Dr C.F. MANN {Chairman), Miss H. BAKER, Sir David BANNERMAN Bt, 
Captain Sir Thomas BARLOW Bt. DSC. RN, P.J. BELMAN, K.F. BETTON, Cdr M.B. CASEMENT 
RN, D.R. CALDER, Dr M.J. CARSWELL, Dr R.J. CHANDLER, Professor R.A. CHEKE, Dr R.A.F. 
COX, Revd. T.W. GLADWIN, A. GIBBS, D. GRIFFIN, C.A.R. HELM, J.P HUME, R.H. KETTLE, 
S.W. LOWE, G.P. JACKSON, J. A. JOBLING, D.J. MONTIER, Mrs A.M. MOORE, Mrs M.N. MULLER, 
R.J. PRYTHERCH, N.J. REDMAN (Speaker), R.E. SCOTT and P.J. SELLAR. 

Guests attending were: R. BAKER, Mrs C.R. CASEMENT, J.A. EYRE, Mrs J.M. GLADWIN, PJ. 
MOORE, Mrs M. MONTIER, R. RIDDINGTON, I. PACKER, and R. WHISTLER. 

On completion, Nigel Redman gave an illustrated talk entitled Two decades ofbirding in the former 
Soviet Union. 

Siberia, source of many of our vagrants, has long held a strong fascination amongst European birdwatchers 
but inaccessibility and the Cold War ensured that until c. 20 years ago its ornithological delights remained 
shrouded in mystery. 

Nigel co-led his first Birdquest bird tour to the USSR in 1983. The earlier visits were subject to many 
restrictions and travel and subsistence facilities were poor. Birdwatchers were treated with suspicion and 
were accompanied everywhere by English-speaking Intourist guides. However, much has now improved. 

The former USSR covered almost one sixth of the world's landmass, extending 12,000 km from east 
to west. Habitats range from tundra and ice in the far north, through massive areas of taiga forest, to deserts 
and mountains in the south. All tours start in Moscow, situated in the mixed forest zone of European 
Russia. The birding within the environs of the city is good, with a distinct eastern European feel. 

The starting point for a visit to the central Caucasus, bordering Europe and Asia, is Tbilisi, in 
Georgia. In the picturesque foothills, deciduous forests give way to dwarf rhododendron scrub on the 
Krestovvy Pass. Specialities of the higher areas include Caucasian Snowcock, Caucasian Black Grouse, 
Wallcreeper, Guldenstadt's Redstart, Mountain Chiffchaff, Green Warbler and Great Rosefmch. 

In the Kopet Dag mountains, Turkmenistan, close to the border of Iran, See-see Partridges, Pale 
Rock Sparrows and Grey-necked Buntings are found amongst commoner central Asian species such as 
Red-headed Bunting. The famous Repetek reserve, in the searingly hot Kara Kum desert, supports 
Desert Warbler, Desert and Saxaul Sparrows and the endemic Pander's Ground Jay. Moving east through 
Uzbekistan to Tashkent, and into the higher altitudes of the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, Himalayan Snowcock, 



Club News 163 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Eversmann's Redstart, Stoliczka's Tit- Warbler, Himalayan Rubythroat, and four species of accentor are 
found, amongst many other species. In northern Kazakhstan, the fast disappearing steppes are home to 
Black and White-winged Larks, Sociable Plovers, Black-winged Pratincoles, Booted Warblers, and a 
host of wetland species. 

The southern end of Lake Baikal, around Irkutsk, was for many years the main base for seeing 
Siberian specialities. Pallas 's Warblers, Siberian Blue Robins, and Yellow-breasted Buntings are common 
and most other Siberian vagrants to Europe breed here, e.g. Siberian and Eye-browed Thrushes, 
Lanceolated and Pallas's Grasshopper Warblers, Siberian Rubythroat, and Radde's and Dusky Warblers. 
Asian Dowitchers breed in the Selenga Delta, and south from Ulan Ude to the Mongolian border 
Mongolian Lark and Blyth's Pipit occur. In recent years, the north end of Baikal has been opened up, 
allowing access to higher altitude habitats. 

In the Far East, the forests and wetlands of the Amur basin around Khabarovsk provide additional 
species such as Forest Wagtail and White-throated Rock Thrush, while the forests of Ussuriland are 
home to specialities like Scaly-sided Merganser and Blakiston's Fish Owl. Straddling the Chinese border, 
Lake Khanka holds Red-crowned and White-naped Cranes, Oriental Stork and the striking Reed Parrotbill. 

Sakhalin Island, in the Sea of Okhotsk, immediately to the north of Japan, has to two endemics, 
Sakhalin Warbler and Nordmann's Greenshank. In early June, good wader passage sometimes includes 
breeding-plumaged Spoon-billed Sandpipers, and pelagic excursions can produce a number of Pacific 
seabirds. 

Despite the huge political and social changes in the former Soviet Union, the region remains of 
great interest to ornithologists, and is more accessible than before. 



The 909th meeting of the Club was held Tuesday 30 April 2002, in the Sherfield Building Annexe, 
Imperial College following the Annual General Meeting at 6.30pm. 

Members present were: Dr C.F. MANN (Chairman), Miss H. BAKER, Captain Sir Thomas BARLOW 
Bt. DSC. RN, I.R. BISHOP, Cdr M.B. CASEMENT RN, Dr. R.J. CHANDLER, Professor C.J. FEARE, 
F.M. GAUNTLETT, The Rev. T.W. GLADWIN, D. GRIFFIN, J.P. HUME, J.A. JOBLING, D.J. 
MONTIER, N.J. REDMAN, R.E. SCOTT, P.J. SELLAR, S.A.H. STATHAM and F.D. STEINHEIMER 
Guests attending were: Ms G. BONHAM, Mrs C.R. CASEMENT, Dr J.H. COOPER, Mrs M.H. 
GAUNTLETT, Mrs J.M. GLADWIN, Mrs M. MONTIER, and A. MULLER. 

After dinner, a series of short talks was given by Members on subjects of topical interest; the following 
is a brief synopsis of the main points presented: 

The Revd. Tom Gladwin summarised observations made in Singapore with his wife Janet, son Julian, 
and others from 6 to 27 December 2002. Mainly thanks to local consultant and guide Subaraj Rajathural, 
they observed 174 of the 391 species in his latest Field checklist to the birds of Singapore, published 
privately (2001). On an important migration route through Indonesia and the Malay Peninsular, Singapore 
contains a number of fine nature reserves including Bukit Timah, the area of primary rainforest where 
Alfred Russell Wallace began his Malaysian studies in 1854, and the 530 ha MacRitchie Catchment 
Forest, which holds many obligate forest species. The following give an indication of bird diversity in 
Singapore: Sungei Buloh Reserve mangroves - over 2,000 Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva, an 
Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis and two Asian Dowitchers Limnodromus semipalmatus; 
pools at Lorong Halus - Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, Lesser Whistling Duck Dendrocygnajavanica 
and Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga; Pulau Ubin - Oriental Pied Hornbills Anthracoceros albirostris 
(recent re-colonist) and Straw-headed Bulbuls Pycnonotus zeylanicus; Breakwaters and Reclamation 
Land at the SW of the island - 23 species of waders, including Malaysian Plover Charadrius peronii. 
Many of these species are listed under various categories of threat, Greater Spotted Eagle and Straw- 
headed Bulbul globally. In addition, introduced Tanimbar Cockatoos Cacatus goffini (near threatened) 
were observed at nest holes in urban trees; self-maintaining populations of species like this may provide 
a valuable buffer against catastrophes in restricted native areas. Even the most urbanised areas hold 
much of interest: Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica roost in large numbers on buildings and trees in 



Club News 



164 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 




Javan Myna, Singapore's commonest bird. 



residential areas, while Pacific Swallows 
H. tahitica roost on the rigging of boats in 
Serangoon Harbour. The adaptable Javan 
Myna Acridotheres javanicus is successful 
in urban, other artificial, and modified 
habitats, and only absent from forest 
interiors. It is said to have been introduced 
but colonisation from Java, through 
Sumatra, following man-induced habitat 
change, may also have occurred. Much has 
been written about habitats and species lost 
from Singapore but, in addition to the 
establishment of nature reserves, there are 
many opportunities and developments to 
encourage nature conservation activity. 

Frank D. Steinheimer, former bird curator 
of The Natural History Museum, Tring, and 
now PhD student of the University of 
Rostock, introduced his new studies on 

"The avian collection of the Natural History Museum Bamberg - a historical and taxonomical 
treasure". In its exhibition hall from 1794, the Naturkunde-Museum of Bamberg, North-Bavaria, 
Germany, houses a very fine collection of exotic and European birds. This previously un-studied 
ornithological display collection lacks much of its data but most of the information can be restored by 
using archival material. Frank has already discovered many historically important specimens among the 
1,550 birds, e.g. birds assembled/collected by Amalie Dietrich (1821-1891), Johann Cesar Godeffroy 
(1813-1885), Johann Natterer (1787-1843), Johann Lukas Schonlein (1793-1864), Carl Theodor Ernst 
von Siebold ( 1 804- 1885), Johann Baptist von Spix (1781-1 826), Johann Heinrich Christian Sturm ( 1 805- 
1862) and Emil Weiske (1867-1950). The European birds include several rare vagrants to the Bamberg 
region, including Golden Eagle and Rose-coloured Starling. 

Furthermore, the museum holds also several rare bird specimens, some in higher numbers than in 
any other museum world-wide, among them the Tooth-billed Pigeon from Samoa and two Shoebills, 
which arrived at Bamberg just 7 years after the species was described by John Gould. As most of 
Bamberg's specimens are very old and some from rarely visited localities, Frank hopes to locate rare or 
even undescribed taxa within the collection, which he then intends to work up taxonomically as well. 

Richard Chandler spoke briefly on the phenomenon of "Rhynchokinesis in waders", illustrated with 
spectacular slides, to demonstrate the flexibility of the upper mandible. The upper mandible is flexible 
both upwards, which is likely to be a comfort action, as it seems to occur when yawning or perhaps 
when bringing up a pellet, and downwards, when it aids manipulation of food items. The upward flexibility 
is much greater than downward. This topic is the subject of a paper due to appear shortly in British 
Birds. 

Julian Hume spoke on '•'•The Penguin of Mauritius - dodos, journals and misinterpretation on a 
grand scale": The discovery of Mauritius by the Dutch fleet, under van Neck in 1598, dawned the 
prosperous Dutch "Golden Century". Fleets to the Far East were instructed to procure objects of scientific 
interest, including exotic animals. On the return of these fleets to Europe, publishers were eager to reek 
the benefits of the traveller's tales and experiences. Journals were kept describing and sometimes 
illustrating the voyage, and illustrations were either directly lifted from this source or seamen were 
interviewed and their details gleaned for artists to reproduce a picture. 

Among specimens, the first Dodo Raphus cucullatus from Mauritius, and King Penguin Aptenodytes 
patagonicus from South America probably arrived sometime between 1599 and 1605. Despite popular 
belief, only three Dodos arrived alive to Europe, and most contemporary Dodo illustrations are derived 
from these individuals. Publishers lifted written detail or illustration from whatever source was available, 



Club News 165 Bull. B. O.C. 2002 122(3) 

hence the extreme confusion that has occurred when trying to decipher which observer had actually 
seen the bird in life. Interpretation of accounts and illustrations is difficult since these could have been 
fanciful, artistic, or sensational. Unfortunately, modern scholars have taken much of this source material 
at face value, reaching bizarre, and sometimes ludicrous, conclusions. 

Misinterpretation began even within the dodo's short sojourn with man. In 1605, the historian Clusius 
depicted a Dodo and King Penguin on separate pages in his natural history book Exoticorum Libri 
decern. The dodo was reputedly based on an illustration from van Neck's journal, whilst the King Penguin 
is an exact copy based on a woodcut depicting the Dutch in the Straits of Magellan catching and killing 
penguins for food. 

These illustrations were repeated in various works, until in 1648 H. Soeteboom published the journal 
of Willem West van Zanen (who had visited Mauritius with van Neck in 1598 and again, in 1602). A 
number of woodcuts were produced to accompany the text, and an artist attempted to reconstruct the 
Dutch landings described by van Zanen. Probably having to hand the Jonstonus' Historiae Naturalis, it 
appears he lifted the wrong bird from the page and an exact reproduction of the Clusius' King Penguin 
appears on a Mauritian shore - leaving science to ponder the "Penguin of Mauritius". 

James Jobling presented some statistics of new species described in the Bulletin BOO. The Bulletin 
was first published inl893, since when it has achieved extraordinary importance as a medium for 
publishing new bird taxa. Rimy Bruckert in Paris has calculated that a total number of 3,806 specific 
and subspecific names and 169 new genera have been described in its pages since inception. 

In volume 1, no fewer than 73 new names were proposed. Volume 3 contained 54 new names, 
volume 4 contained 50, volume 5 contained 29, and volume 6 contained 37. Such was the influence of 
the original members of the Club, embracing the most active and energetic members of the BOU, that 
within a few short years the Bulletin had wrested the mantle of premier descriptive journal from the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (PZS) and Ibis. Members roamed the Empire and 
the world, exploring and collecting, or financed others in the field. Select specimens from their collections 
were exhibited at monthly meetings of the Club, rapidly followed by scientific descriptions (always in 
Latin in the early days). 

In a period of frenetic activity when prompt publication gave priority to a name, the speed and 
regularity of publication of a monthly Bulletin undoubtedly influenced many ornithologists into using 
that medium as a platform for their work. Since those heady days descriptive ornithology has taken 
second place to new developments in systematics and phylogenetic studies; for example, only four new 
names were proposed in volume 121 (2001). 

The Bulletin's nearest "rivals" are the PZS, with some 2,757 new names since 1830, and Ibis with 
1,781 new names since 1859. The German Journal fur Ornithologie comes a close fourth, with some 
1,700 new names since 1853. 

The figures so far given represent total number of taxa, including those names subsequently subsumed 
or synonymised. Dr Alan Peterson, in the USA, has kindly provided statistics based on "currently valid" 
genera and species only. Under genera the Bulletin, with 43 genera, is in 1 1th place, after such as PZS 
(90), Isis von Oken (77), Linnaeus's Systema Naturae, ed. X (74), Vieillot's Analyse (73), and Cabanis 
& Heine's Museum Heineanum (70). For species, the Bulletin, with 386 species, is in third place after 
PZS (1,1 81) and Ibis (420). 

Bob Scott spoke briefly about "Darwin's Finches ". With the aid of a selection of slides from a variety 
of different islands within the Galapagos, he illustrated the point that identification of the 13 different 
species (and their races) of Darwin Finches is far from easy. Ignoring the seven subspecies of Warbler 
Finch Certhidia olivacea, the remaining 12 species all provided potential identification problems. He 
concluded that Hermann Heinzel was quite correct when he wrote "There are no other Galapagos birds 

that provide such identification headaches as these finches To make it more complicated there can be 

freaks and hybrids. Even with long experience, some individuals are just impossible, and only a fool 
would say that he could identify them all." 

Dr J. H. (Jo) Cooper, of the Bird Group, The Natural History Museum, Tring, gave a presentation 
entitled "The Moa in the vineyard: recent discoveries on New Zealand's South Island''': In June 200 1 , 



Club News 166 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

news broke in the New Zealand media of the first great moa find of the new millennium. The pre- 
Polynesian swamp site was discovered on the small Bell Hill vineyard in North Canterbury, owned by 
Sherwyn Veldhuizen and Marcel Giesen. Situated only a few kilometres away from the famous Pyramid 
Valley moa swamp discovered in 1937, the new site was excavated by a team directed by Richard 
Holdaway and Trevor Worthy. 

Jo was fortunate enough to be invited along to assist (an opportunity not to be missed, and with 
thanks to the directors). The remains of 1 20 individual moa were recovered - birds that had been trapped 
in the mud of a spring-hole some 5m across. Amongst the moa recovered were Dinomis giganteus, D. 
struthoides, Emeus crassus, Ejuryapteryx geranoides and Pachyomis elephantopus (Trevor Worthy, pers. 
comm.). 

In addition to the moa, a wide variety of other birds were recovered, along with well-preserved 
plant material such as seeds and tree-stumps. The vertebrate remains were presented to the Museum of 
New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, and analysis of the site's assemblage is continuing. 



The 910th meeting of the Club was held Tuesday 25 June 2002, in the Sherfield Building Annexe, 
Imperial College. 26 Members and 8 guests attended. 

Members present were: Dr C.F. MANN {Chairman), Miss H. BAKER, K.F. BETTON, I.R. BISHOP, 
Mrs D.M. BRADLEY, D.R. CALDER, Cdr M.B. CASEMENT RN, Professor R.A. CHEKE, Dr. C.T. 
FISHER, D.J. FISHER, J.B. FISHER, Dr C.B FRITH {Speaker), F.M. GAUNTLETT, D. GRIFFIN, 
C.A.R. HELM, R.H. KETTLE, J.A. JOBLING, R.G. MORGAN, D.J. MONTIER, Mrs M.N. MULLER, 
N.J. REDMAN, R.P. TIPPER, R.E. SCOTT, S.A.H. STATHAM, C.A. WALKER, and Ms K. WAY. 

Guests attending were: Ms G. BONHAM, Mrs J.B. CALDER, Mrs C.R. CASEMENT, Mrs B.H. FISHER, 
Dr. D.W. FRITH, Mrs M.H. GAUNTLETT, Cdr. J.N. HAMMERSLEY R.N. and Mrs M. MONTIER. 

After dinner, Dr Clifford B. Frith gave a fascinating talk under the title "Artful sex - the bowerbirds and 
their amazing bowers", illustrated by his slides of living birds at their bowers and incorporating results 
arising of field work in Australia and New Guinea, by the speaker and his wife Dr Dawn Frith, over the 
past 20 years. Slides included six splendid colour plates by Eustace Barnes for a forthcoming book on 
the bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchidae) for the Oxford University Press Bird Families of the World series. 

While long closely associated with the birds of paradise, the two groups were clearly demonstrated 
in the 1930s and 1960s to be anatomically quite distinct from one another. Subsequent life history 
studies and recent molecular investigations confirm that the two families differ in many respects and 
show that many families separate them within the passerines. Since a book by E. Thomas Gilliard 
(1969), the bowerbird family was considered to comprise 18 or 19 species, but the speaker considers 
there to be 20 valid species. 

The three species of sexually monomorphic catbirds {Ailuroedus) are socially pair-bonding, territorial, 
monogamous birds that do not clear courts or build bowers and were not discussed further. 

Sixteen of the 1 7 polygynous species of bowerbird are unique in constructing bowers that they 
decorate with objects. The speaker dealt specifically with one court-clearing bowerbird and the various 
forms of bowers, their construction, decoration, and painting of the remaining species. These species 
were discussed according to basic bower type and the relative complexity of structures within these 
types. 

The 'court' of the sexually monomorphic Tooth-billed Bowerbird and the 'avenues' of the silky 
(four Sericulus spp.), Satin (one Ptilonorhynchus sp.), and the grey bowerbirds (five Chlamydera spp.) 
were reviewed. The drab males of simple court-clearing Tooth-bills 'compensate' for their lack of elaborate 
plumage with loud court-advertisement vocalizations and high quality vocal avian and other mimicry in 
courtship subsong. 

A clear relationship exists between the extent of colourful adult male plumage and the relative 
complexity of bower structure within both the avenue (as above) and the 'maypole' (monotypic 
Archboldia, the four Amblyornis spp., and monotypic Prionodura) bower building species. Bowers of 



Club News 167 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

species with colourfully plumaged males are simple and little decorated, while those of drab males are 
complex and better decorated. Gilliard referred to this conspicuous correlation as the "Transferral Effect". 
Bowers, their decoration and painting, and male courtship displays at them largely result from sexual 
selection by choosy females seeking traits indicative of male experience (= age/survival). Thus the 
'externalised' traits observable in bowers and their elaboration provide indicators, or symbols, of male 
fitness (cf. the 'good genes' hypothesis). Other topics were discussed, including the fact that male 
bowerbirds obtain adult plumage at the advanced age of 6-7 years, that they have a high life expectancy 
for passerine birds, that bower sites (and some bower structures) are highly traditional (persisting for 
years), that they constantly compete by bower marauding and decoration theft, that few (the older) 
males mate with several to many females in a season, and that successful males have better bowers, 
decorations, vocalizations, and displays than do less successful rivals. 

Ideas about the origins of bower building and the functions of bower structures were reviewed and 
discussed. A recent study showed bowerbirds to have larger brains than similarly-sized and ecologically 
similar Australasian passerines. Furthermore, those species building more complex bowers have larger 
brains than those building more simplistic ones. The talk stimulated a lively question and discussion 
period. 



BOOK RECEIVED 

Borrow, N. & Demey, R. 2001. Birds of Western Africa. Pp. 832, 147 colour plates, approx. 1100 
distribution maps. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-3959-8. £55. 

The publication of this book is a landmark in West African ornithology. It covers 1285 species known to 
occur within the book's geographical remit and provides coloured illustrations of nearly all of them. 
This is now obligatory for an identification guide and, pleasingly, many of the plates include the first 
published depictions that actually look like the birds involved. That said, some of the plates (e.g. of the 
coucals) lack a certain something, being too dark, too reddish at the expense of blues and greens, and 
failing to spring out of the page to bring the birds to life. Nevertheless, the extent of the difficulties of 
identifying members of some difficult groups is not shirked and owners of this book will be able to 
increase significantly their confidence that they have got the name for a particular bulbul, for instance, 
right. 

The introductory sections are well organised and well written, but the species are not numbered, nor 
are details of original descriptions provided. For nearly all species there is a colour-coded distribution 
map, with ranges of the birds' lengths, followed by a brief diagnostic description and differences between 
breeding, non-breeding and juvenile plumages and sometimes of distinct subspecies. Next come 
descriptions of voice, habits, similar species, status and distribution and the occasional note. There is 
very little information on breeding and so for data on breeding locations, dates, clutch sizes and 
descriptions of nests it will still be necessary to refer to the book's predecessors (e.g. Bannerman's Birds 
of Tropical West Africa and The Birds of West and Equatorial Africa, Mackworth-Praed & Grant's African 
Handbook of Birds, Serle et aVs A Field Guide to the Birds of West Africa) or to the as yet incomplete 
Birds of Africa. Borrow & Demey's book does, however, include a wealth of new data, especially on 
conservation status and on vocalizations for which references are given Chappuis's in Sounds of North, 
West and Central African Birds. 

This book has enormous advantages in being up-to-date, mostly very well illustrated, and in a 
single volume, with references to the literature for each country, clear maps and comprehensive coverage. 
But how do its slight disadvantages (insufficient breeding data, lack of detail on subspecies, lack of 
citations within the species accounts) weigh up against its main competitors, literally? It weighs in at 
2025g, c. 10 % of a normal airline baggage allowance. Despite this, and other drawbacks outlined 
above, Birds of Western Africa is a must for all interested in African birds. The authors and publishers 
must be congratulated on a major success by providing a much-needed book that will become a standard 
work, one that is unlikely to be surpassed for many years. 

Robert Cheke 



Nigel Cleere 1 68 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 122(3) 

A review of the taxonomy and systematics of the 

Sickle-winged and White-winged nightjars 

(Caprimulgidae) 

by Nigel Cleere 

Received 27 January 2001 

Although South America hosts 30 species of nightjar, many are poorly represented 
in museum collections and are rarely studied in the field. As a result, the classification 
of neotropical caprimulgids at a generic level has been largely ignored by modern 
ornithologists. Twelve South American species are currently placed in Caprimulgus, 
which is the largest genus, whilst the monotypic Eleothreptus is one of the most 
distinctive. 

The Sickle- winged Nightjar Eleothreptus anomalus and White-winged Nightjar 
Caprimulgus candicans are two of the least known species, but morphological 
similarities between the two were first noted well over a century ago (Pelzeln 1 868). 
Recent studies now reveal that they also share similar habitat preferences, 
vocalizations and breeding behaviour, suggesting that they might actually be 
congeneric (Cleere 1998, 1999). The taxonomy, morphology and ecology of the two 
species are now reviewed in an attempt to establish their true affinities. 

Methods and material 

I examined 28 specimens of Eleothreptus anomalus (10 males, 15 females and 3 
immatures) in the following museums: The Natural History Museum, Tring, U.K. 
(5); Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Netherlands (3); Museum national 
d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France (1); Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany 
(3); Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria (6); American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, U.S.A. (2); Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, U.S.A. 
(2) and Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay (6 - 
some now deposited in Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden and Museum 
of Natural History, University of Kansas, USA). I also examined 3 specimens of 
Caprimulgus candicans (2 males and 1 immature) at the Naturhistorisches Museum, 
Vienna, Austria (2) and Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Paraguay, Asuncion, 
Paraguay (1). I studied a small, breeding population of Caprimulgus candicans at 
Aguara Nu within the Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayu, Canindeyu, Paraguay, 
in October 1999, and compared male vocalizations with recent Paraguayan recordings 
of male Eleothreptus anomalus. 

The genus Eleothreptus G.R.Gray, 1840 

In 1 837, John Gould exhibited a male nightjar at a meeting of the Zoological Society 
of London, and later described it as a new genus and species in the Society's 



Nigel Cleere 



169 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 



proceedings for that year, which were published in May 1838 (Gould 1838a). He 
also described the genus and species in part 2 of his Icones Avium, which was 
published in August 1838 (Gould 1838b). The bill, nostrils, rictal bristles, wings, 
tail, tarsi and feet were described and, as a reference to the bird's unique wing shape, 
he named the genus Amblypterus (from the Greek words amblus, meaning dull or 
blunt and pterux a wing). 

In 1840, G.R.Gray considered the generic name to be similar to a word used in 
entomology and introduced a new name Eleothreptus (from the Greek heleothreptus, 
which means marsh-dwelling), the species at that time being only known from 
marshlands (Gray 1840). 

In 1 866, P.L.Sclater published the generic name as Heleothreptus, and this spelling 
was chosen over Eleothreptus by Hartert (1892), thereby making it an unjustified 
emendation under ICZN (1999), Article 33 2.3. 

Morphological characteristics that separate this genus from Caprimulgus are a 
broader bill, proportionally longer rictal bristles, a short, square tail and partially 
feathered tarsi. Males also have strongly curved primaries, but the short secondaries 




Figure 1. Wing shapes of male nightjars (from top to bottom), a European Nightjar; b White-winged 
Nightjar; c Sickle-winged Nightjar 



Nigel Cleere 1 70 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3 ) 

of male Sickle-winged Nightjars may have evolved through territorial and courtship 
display activity and possibly do not constitute a generic character. 

Sickle- winged Nightjar Eleothreptus anomalus (Gould, 1838) 

Taxonomy 

Gould's original specimen was also described as a new species (see above) and he 
gave it the specific name anomalus, a latin word meaning strange. Gould did not 
give a type locality, but as a footnote to the original description, J.E.Gray considered 
it to be Demerara or the Brazils (Gould 1 838a). It was later designated as Sao Paulo 
by Pinto (1938). Only one other name exists within the taxonomy of this species. 
Caprimulgus mercurius was simply extracted from a J.J. Natterer manuscript 
(Burmeister 1856) and published as a synonym of Eleothreptus anomalus, thereby 
making it unavailable under ICZN (1999), Article 1 1 6. 

Museum data 

The type specimen described by Gould is deposited in The Natural History Museum, 
Tring. An accurate inventory of museum study skins has not been undertaken to- 
date, but a figure of 25 specimens (Pearman & Abadie 1995) appears to be an 
underestimate, as literature searches and museum studies have so far revealed 57 
birds (see Appendix), although this figure does include some recent additions. 
Numbers in individual institutions are generally small, although the Museu de 
Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo in Brazil has 10 specimens (Straube 1990) 
and the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna and The Natural History Museum, Tring 
have 6 and 5 specimens respectively. Recent additions to collections appear to be 
few and far between. Two specimens were taken in Santa Catarina, Brazil in 1991 
(Teixeira pers comm, Kirwan et al 1 999) and an injured bird was collected in Parana, 
Brazil in 1996 (Bornschein et al. 1996). At least 5 birds were collected in Paraguay 
in 1998 and 1999, by the Museum of Natural History, Kansas, and the Swedish 
Museum of Natural History, Stockholm. 

Recent records 

Four were seen in Cordoba, Argentina (Miatello et al. 1991); a pair was studied in 
Entre Rios, Argentina, December 1991 -January 1992 (Pearman & Abadie 1995); a 
small population was studied in Cordoba, Argentina, September - November 1994 
(Straneck & Vinas 1994); ten individuals were seen in Sao Paulo, Brazil between 15 
July 1995 and 23 April 1998 (Kirwan et al. 1999) and five or six were observed in 
Minas Gerais, Brazil between 22 June 1996 and 8 November 1998 (Kirwan et al. 
1999). 

Description 

A small, sexually dimorphic nightjar, approximately 18-20 cm long and relatively 
short tailed. Males are generally greyish-brown, often tinged cinnamon, and 
occasionally show an indistinct buffish collar on the hindneck. They have a pale 



Nigel Cleere 1 7 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3 ) 

buffish-white stripe above the eye and an indistinct, greyish-white submoustachial 
stripe, but lack a white patch on the throat. The primary coverts are cinnamon, which 
show as a diagnostic pale patch on the closed wing, and the scapulars have distinctive 
blackish markings, shaped like inverted Christmas trees. The primaries are strongly 
curved, largely blackish, and the outer six are boldly tipped whitish. The secondaries 
are extremely short and together with the curved primaries, they form the unique 
wing shape. The tail is broadly barred cinnamon-buff and the outer three feathers 
are narrowly tipped whitish or buffish-white. Females are browner, often with longer 
wings and tails, and lack the distinctive wing shape. The primaries and secondaries 
are brown, barred tawny and very narrowly tipped buffish-white. Immatures are 
similar to the adults, although males lack the characteristic wing shape of adult 
males; juveniles are similar to the adult females (Cleere 1998, 1999). 

Range 

Central and eastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina. Probably 
resident throughout most of its range, although may be a migrant only (September - 
March?) in the south. Occurs in open country from Distrito Federal and Minas Gerais 
in Brazil, south and south-west through southern Brazil and eastern Paraguay to 
Cordoba and Buenos Aires in north-eastern Argentina. Further Argentine records 
from Catamarca and Salta appear to be unsubstantiated (Collar et al. 1992). 

Habitat 

Inhabits seasonally flooded grasslands (Miatello et al. 1991, Straneck & Vinas 1 994), 
savanna and grassland with marshes, streams and areas of surface water (Cleere 
1998), grassland close to dry degraded woodland and water (Kirwan et al. 1999) 
and gallery forest, chaco-type woodland and transitional woodland, often near water 
or marshland (Collar et al. 1992, Pearman & Abadie 1995). 

Vocalizations and behaviour 

Crepuscular and nocturnal. Calls include rapid chip, tchup or tchut notes, which 
may be rather weak. Females also utter harsh gzee, gzee sounds (Straneck & Vinas 

1994, Cleere 1998). 

In the breeding season, males perform short display flights during which they 
make muffled wing flapping sounds (Straneck & Vinas 1994). 

Roosts and nests on small patches of bare earth amongst clumps of vegetation. 
Often sits on roads, tracks and low perches at night. When foraging, the fluttery 
flight is interspersed with glides and sudden changes of direction. Also hunts from 
the ground by making short sallies (Straneck & Vinas 1994, Pearman & Abadie 

1995, Cleere 1998). 

Eggs 

Very few eggs of this species appear to have been found, collected, or described in 
the literature. Two were taken on 17 November in Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ihering 1902); 



Nigel Cleere 1 72 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

two on 28 November 1925 in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Lowen 1999) and one in 
mid November in Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Pereyra 1950). There is also an 
egg deposited in the Western Foundation for Vertebrate Zoology (catalogue no. 
1 54.874), collected on 7 October 1 936 in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The eggs are elliptical, 
23.2 - 3 1 . 4 x 1 8.2 - 22.8 mm, have a buffish or pinkish-buff ground colour, and are 
finely spotted and scrawled brown and grey. 

White- winged Nightjar Caprimulgus candicans (Pelzeln, 1866) 

Taxonomy 

First mentioned by Azara (1805), a Spanish army officer serving in Paraguay, who 
called it 'Ibiyau alas y cola blancas'. Subsequently, this name was mistakenly treated 
by many authors as a synonym of Caprimulgus leucurus Vieillot, 1817 (= C 
cayennens is Gmelin, 1789). 

A male was eventually collected by J.J. Natterer in 1 823, and given species number 
530 in his unpublished catalogue. Pelzeln later described it as Stenopsis candicans 
(candicans being the Latin word for whitish) and sent a copy to P.L.Sclater, who 
published it in the second of his papers on American Caprimulgidae, in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1866. The type locality was 
given as Irisanga, Brazil by Pelzeln (In Sclater 1 866), and Orissanga, Sao Paulo by 
Collar et al. ( 1 992). Natterer also obtained a nightjar (catalogue number 1 1 50) from 
Baron von Langsdorf, a German naturalist and collector who was the Russian consul 
to Brazil at the time (Jobling 1991). Pelzeln named it Stenopsis langsdorfi after the 
collector and his description was also published by Sclater, but with Sclater's 
cautionary note that owing to the variations of age and sex within the Caprimulgidae, 
it could turn out to be only the young female of S. candicans. The type locality for 
this specimen was listed as Cuyaba, Brazil by Pelzeln (In Sclater 1866), and Cuiaba, 
Mato Grosso, by Collar et al. ( 1 992). S. lansdorfi was eventually treated as a synonym 
of S. candicans by Hartert (1892), an action which has subsequently proved to be 
correct. The genus Stenopsis Cassin, 1850 was subsequently found to be preoccupied 
by Stenopsis Rafinesque 1815, a genus of Coleoptera, and was renamed 
Thermochalcis by Richmond (1915). Peters (1940) later subsumed Thermochalcis 
into Caprimulgus. 

Museum data 

The type specimens of both Stenopsis candicans and Stenopsis langsdorfi are 
deposited in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. A male taken on 1 1 September 
1987 in Bolivia and housed in the Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kemff Mercado, 
Santa Cruz represents the first record for that country (Davis & Flores, 1994). There 
is also a recent specimen, a male, in the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de 
Paraguay, Asuncion (Capper et al. 2000). 



Nigel Cleere 1 73 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3 ) 

Recent records 

Small numbers seen during August - October in Emas National Park, Brazil in the 
1980s, with a maximum count of 12 in September 1985, although it was speculated 
that the area might support hundreds of birds (Collar et al. 1992). After the last 
sighting in October 1990, there were no further published records from this site 
until a male was seen and photographed in November 1997 (Rodrigues et al. 1999). 
A small population was discovered in the Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayu, 
Paraguay during July - December 1995 (Lowen et al. 1996, 1997) and the area 
possibly supports a population of up to 60 pairs (Capper et al. 2000). No further 
sightings have yet been reported from Bolivia. 

Description 

A small, sexually dimorphic nightjar, approximately 19-21 cm long. Males are 
generally greyish-brown, often tinged cinnamon, and have no collar on the hindneck. 
They have a whitish stripe above the eye and a whitish submoustachial stripe, but 
lack a white patch on the throat. Some outer lesser coverts, the alula and the primary 
coverts are mostly white, although this is not generally visible on the closed wing. 
The scapulars have strong blackish markings, which are occasionally shaped like 
inverted Christmas trees. The primaries are curved and are largely white proximally, 
blackish distally, the amount of white increasing on each feather towards the body. 
The secondaries are also mostly white, as is the tail, with only the central pair of tail 
feathers being pale greyish-brown. Females are browner, completely lack white in 
the plumage, and the primaries and secondaries are brown, regularly barred pale 
tawny. Immatures and juveniles are similar to adult females (Cleere 1998, 1999). 

Range 

Central and south-western Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northern Bolivia. Probably 
resident throughout it's range. Occurs in open, lowland country in Goias, Brazil and 
Canindeyu, Paraguay. There are historical records from Mato Grosso and Sao Paulo, 
Brazil (see Museum data). The modern record from Beni, Bolivia (Davis & Flores 
1994) remains an isolated one to-date. 

Habitat 

Inhabits open grasslands and cerrado with scattered trees, bushes, dwarf palms, 
termite mounds and anthills (Pelzeln 1868, Collar et al. 1992, Clay et al. 1997, 
Lowen et al. 1 997). Possibly favours areas that are regenerating after fires (Collar et 
al. 1992, Rodrigues etal. 1999), although further research is recommended (Capper 
etal. 2000). 

Vocalization and behaviour 

Crepuscular and nocturnal. Males give undulating whistles during territorial disputes 
or when alarmed. Females utter sharp, single notes (Cleere 1998). 



Nigel Cleere 174 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(3) 

In the breeding season, males perform short display flights from low termite 
mounds, during which they make rapid, wing fluttering sounds (Clay et al. 2000), 
the white wing and tail feathers being extremely noticeable. 

Roosts and nests on small patches of bare soil in cerrado or grassland, usually 
beneath overhanging grasses and plants. Appears to rely on crypsis less than other 
nightjar species, using nearby vegetation for protection during the day. Does not 
appear to sit on roads and tracks at night, but frequently uses low perches. When 
foraging, flight is often slow and interspersed with frequent glides. At other times, 
flight is strong and direct with a series of double wing beats and short glides. 

Eggs 

The first eggs of this species were discovered in Canindeyu, Paraguay on 22 
November 1997 (Capper et al. 2000). As a result of intensive field studies, several 
nests have been found in the same region during the years 1998, 1999 and 2000 
(Pople pers. comm.). The eggs are elliptical, 28.7 - 28.9 x 21.3 - 21.4 mm, have a 
buffi sh or creamy-brown ground colour and are finely spotted and scrawled grey, 
black and brown. 

Conclusion 

The Sickle- winged and White- winged Nightjars are two poorly known, neotropical 
species that share similar morphological features, vocalizations, behavioural traits 
and habitat preferences. Both have restricted ranges, occurring in open grasslands 
in southern South America, generally where there are reddish soils. They are both 
sexually dimorphic. Males have cinnamon-tinged, cryptic plumages and lack the 
white mid-wing and outer tail markings typically found in the genus Caprimulgus. 
Females have a brownish, variegated plumage, although they do not appear to nest 
or roost on leaf litter. Males have curved primaries (Fig. lb & c) which, during 
territorial and courtship display flights, produce a flapping sound quite unlike the 
deliberate clapping given by many Caprimulgus nightjars, which have straighter 
primaries (Fig. la). The wings of the males have also evolved to different extremes. 
The Sickle- winged Nightjar has the strangest shaped wing of all nightjar species, 
and appears to have a sound-orientated display flight. The White- winged Nightjar 
has more white in the wing than any other species, and appears to have a more 
visual display. In between display flights, the males of both species give similar, 
soft, call notes, although descriptions of these vocalizations have yet to be published. 
The eggs of both species are rather similar, having a buffish ground colour with fine 
markings, and differ from those of most Caprimulgus eggs, which generally have a 
whitish ground colour and are boldly spotted and blotched. Both species also share 
the broader bill, proportionally longer rictal bristles and partially feathered tarsi, 
which further differentiate them from Caprimulgus nightjars. 

The White-winged Nightjar is clearly not a Caprimulgus species, but because of 
its extreme scarcity, it has languished within this genus since 1940. My studies 



Nigel Cleere 1 75 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

suggest that it is probably a close relative of the Sickle-winged Nightjar and therefore 
also belongs in the genus Eleothreptus . The systematics for the genus Eleothreptus 
should now be:- 

Eleothreptus Gray G.R. 1840 

Amblypterus Gould 1838, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1837, p. 105. 

• for publication date, see Sclater P.L. 1893, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893, p. 437. 

• junior homonym of Amblypterus Agassiz 1 833, Poiss. Foss. 11 (1), p. 28. (fossil 
fish). 

• incorrect subsequent spelling Amplypterus Wiegmannl838, Arch. f. Nat. 4 (2), 
p. 380. 

Type, by original designation and monotypy, Amblypterus anomalus Gould 1838. 

Eleothreptus Gray GR. 1840, List Gen Bds, p. 7. 

• published as a nomen novum fox Amblypterus Gould 1 838, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1837, p. 105. 

incorrect subsequent spelling Eleotreptus Lesson 1 843, L Echo Monde Savant 
10th year, Pt. 2 no. 5, col. 109. 

• incorrect subsequent spelling Heleothreptus Sclater P.L. 1866, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond. 1866, p. 143. 

Heleothreptus Hartert 1892, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. Vol. 16, p. 593. 

• unjustified emendation of Eleothreptus (Gray G.R. 1840), see ICZN (1999), 
Art. 33 2.3. 

Eleothreptus anomalus (Gould 1838) 

Amblypterus anomalus Gould 1838, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1837, p. 105. 

• for publication date, see Sclater P.L. 1893, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893, p. 437. 

Caprimulgus mercurius Burmeister 1856, Syst. Ueber Thiere Bras. Pt. 3, (Aves), p. 
383. 

• based on a Natterer manuscript. 

• published as a synonym of Eleothreptus anomalus, and unavailable under ICZN 
(1999), Art. 11 6. 

Eleothreptus candicans (Pelzeln 1 866) 

Stenopsis candicans Pelzeln 1866, In Sclater P.L., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1866, p. 

588. 

• based on a Natterer manuscript, species no. 530. 

• also based on the "Ibiyau alas y cola blancas" in Azara 1 805, Apunt. Hist. Nat. 
Paraguay, Vol. 2, p. 554. 



Nigel Cleere 1 76 Bull B. O. C 2002 1 22(3) 

Stenopsis langsdorffi Pelzeln 1866, In Sclater P.L., Proc. Zool Soc. Lond. 1866, p. 
589. 

• based on a Natterer manuscript, species no. 1 150. 

• incorrect subsequent spelling langsdorfi Pelzeln 1868, Orn. Bras. Pt. 1, p. 12. 

Acknowledgements 

For their kindness and assistance I thank Robert Prys-Jones, Michael Walters and Mark Adams at The 
Natural History Museum, Tring ; Rene Dekker (Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden) ; Eric 
Pasquet (Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris) ; Sylke Frahnert and Jurgen Fiebig (Museum fur 
Naturkunde, Berlin) ; Ernst Bauernfeind (Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna) ; Per Ericson 
(Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm) ; Jon Fjelda (Zoologisk Museum, Copenhagen) ; George 
Barrowclough and Paul Sweet (American Museum of Natural History, New York) ; James Dean (National 
Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.) ; Luis A. Amarilla (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 
de Paraguay, Ascuncion) ; David Willard (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago) ; Mark Robbins 
(University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Kansas) ; Ned Johnson (Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
California) ; Jon Fisher (Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, California) ; Dante Teixeira (Museu 
Nacional, Rio de Janeiro) and Michele Blair (Museo National de Historia Natural, La Paz, Bolivia). 

For helping with my literature searches, I thank Effie Warr at The Natural History Museum, Tring 
and Linda Birch at the Alexander Library, Edward Grey Institute, Oxford. I greatly appreciate the three 
wing drawings kindly provided by Alan Harris. Special thanks go to Rob Pople for allowing me to assist 
with his field studies of White-winged Nightjars in Paraguay in October 1999, and for commenting on 
an earlier draft of this paper. Thanks are also due to the Fundacion Moises Bertoni, Paraguay for granting 
me permission to visit the Aguara Nu reserve. Johan Ingels reviewed an earlier draft of this paper and 
made many useful improvements. 

References: 

de Azara, F. 1805. Apuntamientos para la Historia Natural de los Pdjaros del Paraguay y Ruio de la 

Plata Vol 2. Imprenta de la Viuda de Ibarra, Madrid. 
Bornschein, M.R., Reinert, B.L. & Bocon, R. 1996. A new record of the Sickle-winged Nightjar 

Eleothreptus anomalus for southern Brazil. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 1 16: 125 - 126. 
Burmeister, C.H.C. 1856. System. Ueber. Thiere Brasil Pt. 3 (Aves). Georg Reimer, Berlin. 
Capper, DR., Esquivel, E.Z., Pople, R.G., Burfield, I.J., Clay, R.P, Kennedy, C.P & Mazar Barnett, J. 

2000. Surveys and recommendations for the management of Aguara Nu in the Reserva Natural del 

Bosque Mbaracayu, eastern Paraguay. Unpublished report. 
Cassin, J. 1851. Notes of an examination of the birds composing the family Caprimulgidae, in the 

collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phil. 5: 175 - 

190. 
Clay, R.P, Capper, D.R., Mazar Barnett, J., Burfield, I.J., Esquivel, E.Z., Farina, R., Kennedy, C.P, 

Perrens, M. & Pople, R.G. 1997. White-winged Nightjars Caprimulgus candicans and cerrado 

conservation: the key findings of Project Aguara Nu 1997. Cotinga 9: 52 - 55. 
Clay, R.P, Lopez Lanus, B., Tobias, J.A., Lowen, J.C. & Mazar Barnett, J. 2000. The display of the 

White-winged Nightjar. J. Field Orn. 71:619- 626. 
Cleere, N. 1998. Nightjars. A guide to nightjars and related nightbirds. Pica Press, Sussex. 
Cleere, N. 1999. Family Caprimulgidae (Nightjars). In: del Hoyo J., Elliott A. & Sargatal J. (eds) 

Handbook of the birds of the world Vol. 5.: 302 - 386. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Collar, N.J., Gonzaga, L.P, Krabbe, N., Madrono Nieto, A., Naranjo, L.G., Parker, TA. & Wege, D.C. 

1992. Threatened birds of the Americas. The I.C.PB./I.U.C.N Red Data Book, Cambridge, U.K. 
Davis, S.E. & Flores, E. 1994. First record of White-winged Nightjar Caprimulgus candicans for Bolivia. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 114: 127- 128. 
Gmelin, J.F 1789. Systema NaturaeVol. 1, Pt 2. G.E.Beer, Lipsiae. 



Nigel Cleere 1 77 Bull B. O. C 2002 1 22(3 ) 

Gould, J. 1838a. A very singular form among the Caprimulgidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond 1837: 105. 

Gould, J. 1838b. Icones Avium Pt. 2. J. Gould, London. 

Gray, G.R. 1 840. A List of the genera of birds with an indication of the typical species of each genus. R. 

& J.E.Taylor, London. 
Hartert, E. 1892. Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum Vol. 16. British Museum, London. 
Ihering, H. 1902. Contribuicoes para o conhecimento da ornitologia de Sao Paulo. Rev. Mus. Paulista 5: 

261 -329. 
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. 4th Edition. International Trust for Zoological 

Nomenclature, c/o The Natural History Museum, London. 
Jobling, J.A. 1991. A dictionary of scientific bird names. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. 
Kirwan, G.M., Martuscelli, P., Silveira, L.F. & Williams, R.S.R. 1999. Recent records of the Sickle- 
winged Nightjar Eleotreptus anomalus in south-east Brazil. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 119: 202 - 206. 
Lowen, J.C. 1999. Um novo registro da reproducao de Eleothreptus anomalus (Caprimulgiformes: 

Caprimulgidae) para o Brasil. Ararajuba 7: 139. 
Lowen, J.C., Bartrina, L., Brooks, T.M., Clay, R.P. & Tobias, J.A. 1996. Project Yacutinga '95: bird 

surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay. Cotinga 5: 14 - 17. 
Lowen, J.C, Clay, R.P, Barnett, J. M., Madrono, N. A., Pearman, M., Lanus, B. L., Tobias, J. A., Liley, 

D. C, Brooks, T. M., Esquivel, E. Z. & Reid, J. M. 1997. New and noteworthy observations on the 

Paraguayan avifauna. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 117: 275 - 293. 
Miatello, R, Cobos, V. & Rosacher, C. 1991. Algunas especies de aves nuevas o poco conocidas para la 

provincia de Cordoba, Republica Argentina. Hist. Nat. 8: 1 - 5. 
Pearman, M. & Abadie, E. 1995. Field identification, ecology and status of the Sickle-winged Nightar 

Eleothreptus anomalus. Cotinga 3: 12 - 14. 
Pelzeln, A. 1868. Zur Ornithologie Brasiliens Pt. 1. A. Pichler's Witwe und Sohn, Wien. 
Pereyra, J.A. 1950. Avifauna Argentina. Hornero 9: 178 - 241. 

Peters, J.L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world Vol. 4. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Pinto, O. 1938. Catalogo das Aves do Brasil. Rev. Mus. Paulista 22: 1 - 566. 
Rafinesque, C.S. 1815. Analyse de la Nature. Palerme. 
Richmond, C.W. 1915. Notes on several preoccupied generic names (Aves). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 28: 

180-181. 
Rodrigues, F.H.G., Hass, A., Marini-Filho, O.J., Guimaraes, M.M. & Bagno, M.A. 1999. Anew record 

of White-winged Nightjar Caprimulgus candicans in Emas National Park, Goias, Brazil. Cotinga 

11:83-85. 
Sclater, PL. 1866. Additional notes on the Caprimulgidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1866: 581 - 590. 
Straneck, R.J. & Vinas, M.J. 1994. Comentarios sobre costumbres y manifestaciones acusticas del 

atajacaminos de los pantanos, Eleothreptus anomalus (Gould 1 838) (Aves, Caprimulgidae). Notulas 

Faunisticas 67: 1 - 4. 
Straube, F.C. 1990. Notas sobre a distribuicao de Eleothreptus anomalus (Gould 1837) e Caprimulgus 

longirostris longirostris (Bonaparte 1 825) no Brazil (Aves: Caprimulgidae). Acta. Biol. Leopoldensia 

12:301-312. 
Vieillot, L.J. P. 1817. Nouveau Dictionnaire D'Histoire Naturelle. Vol. 10. Deterville, Paris. 

Address: 2 Hawthorn House, Roundfields, Upper Bucklebury, Berks. RG7 6RQ, U.K. E-mail: 

cleere@churr.freeserve.co.uk 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Nigel Cleere 



178 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 



Appendix 1: 
Museum study skins - Sickle-winged Nightjar 



Museum sex 

AMNH477064 ? 

AMNH239449 ? 

BMNH1888.8.1.167 F 

BMNH1890.2.18.184 F 

BMNH1925. 7.3.25 M 
BMNH 1885. 11.20.333 F 

BMNHvell.cat.31.71a M 

FMNH 189705 F 

FMNH189712 Imm 

LSUMZ65133 ? 

MACN? M 

MACN? F 

MACN? F 

MACN? M 

MACN? M 

MCZ199980 F 

MCZ76434 ? 

MHNCI4240 M 

MHNCI2578 F 

MHNCI2853 F 

MIZS? F? 

MN35383 ? 

MN? ? 

MN? ? 

MN36551 F 

MNHN1 874.330 F 

MNHNP001245 F 

MNHNP? M 

MZUSP13071 M 

MZUSP6071 F 

MZUSP16218 F 

MZUSP14530 F 

MZUSP1702 F 

MZUSP13832 F 

MZUSP13829 M 

MZUSP31806 F 

NMW41.610 F 

NMW41.608 F 

NMW41.611 M 

NMW4 1.609 M 

NMW41.612 F 

NMW41.608 F 

NRM986749 F 

NRM986737 M 

RMNHcat.no. 1 F 



date locality 

1850 Brazil 

— S. Brazil 

19-01-1 823 Irisanga, Brazil 

April 1924 Caravini, Villarica, Guaira, Paraguay 

3 1 -03- 1 877 N. Buenos Aires, Argentina 

Demerara, Brazil [Holotype] 

1 -0 1 - 1 946 Fazenda Gaviao, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

18-01-1 946 Fazenda Gaviao, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Oct. 1964 Itapetininga, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

12-11-1937 Tostado, Sante Fe, Argentina 

25-04-1938 Tostado, Sante Fe, Argentina 

1 5-02- 1 939 Tostado, Sante Fe, Argentina 

04-02- 1 945 Tostado, Sante FE, Argentina 

08-02- 1 945 Tostado, Sante Fe, Argentina 

18-11-1900 Paranapiacaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Demerara trade skin 

27-08- 1 994 Fazenda Santa Rita, Parana, Brazil 

1946 E. Parana, Brazil 

12-08-1988 Laranjeiras, Piraquara, Parana, Brazil 

? Colonia Risso, Rio Apa, Paraguay [lost?] 

28-09- 1 978 Brasilia NP, Distrito Federal, Brazil 

03-06- 1 99 1 Rio Novo, Santa Catarina, Brazil 

20-09- 1 99 1 Quatro Barras, Santa Catarina, Brazil 

1 1 - 1 1 - 1 986 Canbiii, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil 

Ipanema, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

14-03-1992 E. Meigareyo, Isla Yacyreta, Paraguay 

22- 1 0- 1 999 Yababery, Misiones, Paraguay 

E. Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

04- 11-1 906 Ipiranga, suburb of Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Dec. 1931 Ipiranga, suburb of Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Oct. 1932 Ipiranga, suburb of Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Nov. 1900 Alto da Serra, Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

20- 1 0- 1 932 Moji das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

24-07- 1 933 Moji das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

22-11-1 947 Rio das Pedras, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

20- 1 1 - 1 820 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil 

22-07-1820 Cimeterio do Lambari, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

1 -03- 1 82 1 Itarare, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil 

24- 1 1 - 1 8 1 9 Ipanema, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

03-03- 1 82 1 Itarare, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil 

Sept. 1819 Ipanema, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

05- 11-1 998 Yababery, Misiones, Paraguay 

12-04-1998 Yababery, Misiones, Paraguay 

Brazil 



Nigel Cleere 




] 


RMNHcat.no.2 


F 


01-12-1818 


RMNHcat.no.3 


M 


09-01-1819 


UKNHM90188 


M 


21-10-1999 


UKNHM90189 


F 


22-10-1999 


USNM335188 


F 


23-07-1933 


ZMB9001 


M 


— 


ZMB B295 


M 


— 


ZMB B295 


F 


— 


ZMKU70.553 


F 


03-08-1847 


ZMKU? 


F 


— 



179 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(3) 

Mato Dentro, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Goyao, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Yababery, Misiones, Paraguay 

NW Ayolas, Yababery, Misiones, Paraguay 

Moji das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Brazil 

Porto Alegre, Brazil 

Porto Alegre, Brazil 

Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil 

Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil [lost?] 



Appendix 2: 
Museum study skins - White-winged Nightjar 



Museum 


sex 


date 


locality 


CBF0624 


M 


11-09-1987 


Beni, Yucuma, Bolivia 


MNHNP? 


M 


1997 


Aguara Nu, Canindeyu, Paraguay 


NMW40.665 


M 


06-01-1823 


Irisanga, Sao Paulo, Brazil [Holotype] 


NMW40.664 


Imm 


1823/1825 


Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, Brazil 
[Holotpe - S.langsdorfi] 



Key: 

M male F female 

Imm immature ? data unconfirmed — no data 

AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. 

BMNH The Natural History Museum (British Museum of Natural History), Tring, UK. 

CBF Coleccion Boliviana de Fauna, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural. La Paz, Bolivia. 

FMNH Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA. 

LSUMZ Louisiana State University Museum of Zoology, Baton Rouge, USA. 

MACN Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentine. 

MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, USA 

MHNCI Museu de Historia Natural 'Capao da Imbuia', Curitiba, Brazil. 

MIZS Museo ed Istituto di Zoologia Sistematica, Universita di Torino, Turin, Italy. 

MN Museu Nacional da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

MNHN Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France. 

MNHNP Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Paraguay, Ascuncion, Paraguay. 

MZUSP Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

NMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria. 

NRM Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (Swedish Museum of Natural History), Stockholm, Sweden. 

RMNH Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), 

Leiden, Netherlands. 

UKNHM University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Kansas, USA. 

USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA. 

ZMB Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany. 

ZMKU Zoologisk Museum, Kobenhavns Universitet, Copenhagen, Denmark. 



W R. J. Dean et al. 1 80 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

New records and amendments to the 
birds of Angola 

by W R. J. Dearie R. J. Dowsett, Alison Sakko 
& R. E. Simmons 

Received 1 7 February 2001 

The recent checklist of the birds of Angola (Dean 2000) contains some errors and 
omissions. In two cases these refer to species whose unproven occurrence were 
inadvertently listed as definite records (Gabon Woodpecker Dendropicos gabonensis 
and Blue Cuckoo-shrike Coracina azurea), while others refer to incorrect locality 
details. Subsequent to the publication of Dean (2000), the presence of Lesser Spotted 
Eagles Aquila pomarina has been confirmed by the results of a satellite-tracking 
study (Meyburg et al. 200 1 ) and seven species, Northern Royal Albatross Diomedea 
[epomophora] sanfordi, Spectacled Petrel Procellaria conspicillata, Red-billed 
Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus, White-tailed Tropicbird P. lepturus, Grey Phalarope 
Phalaropus fulicaria, Common Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus and Little Tern 
Sterna albifrons have been added to the Angolan list (Lambert, in press). Some new 
distributional and breeding data have also been provided by colleagues, including 
the results of one count of waterbirds along c. 150 km of coast between Tombua and 
Baia dos Tigres in January 1999 by AS, and four counts of birds at the Cunene river 
mouth by RES. Amendments to species accounts follow: 

WHITE-BREASTED CORMORANT Phalacrocorax carbo 
There are few breeding records for this common species for Angola (Dean 2000). It 
is of interest to note that c.50 pairs were nesting on the remnants of jetties at the 
abandoned settlements of Armacao and Baia dos Tigres on the eastern shore of the 
now uninhabited island of Ilha dos Tigres in January 1999 (AS). Two groups of 
nests, one of 4 active nests (2 with 3y, 2 with 2y) on a cliff, and another of 22 active 
nests were found 8 km upstream from the mouth of the Cunene river on 12 November 
2000 (RES). 

CAPE CORMORANT Phalacrocorax capensis 

Although considered to be mainly a winter visitor to the south-western Angolan 
coast (Dean 2000), Brooke (1981) suggested that small numbers may breed on islands 
off the Angolan coast. A large group of Cape Cormorants seen during an aerial 
reconnaisance of Ilha dos Tigres in August 1996 were thought to be nesting (P.D. 
Morant, in Dean 2000). About 200-300 nests containing eggs and chicks were 
recorded in January 1999 on two old jetties at the same localities on Ilha dos Tigres 
as the White-breasted Cormorants above (AS). In February 2001 an estimated 1000 
pairs were nesting on the ground along the eastern edge of the island (Rico Sakko, 
pers. comm.). This is a substantial northward extension of c. 300 km of the breeding 



WR.J. Dean et al. 181 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

range in this species (see Crawford 2000). The previous northernmost breeding 
records were on the Skeleton Coast of Namibia, at Die Oase (19° 27'S, 12°49'E) and 
Terrace Bay (19° 59'S, 13° 02'E) (Cooper et al. 1982). 

GREAT WHITE PELICAN Pelecanus onocrotalus 

Fishermen from the boats that currently fish in the area of Ilha dos Tigres have 
reported Great White Pelicans breeding on the southern tip of the island during 
2001. P. D. Morant (in Dean 2000) suggested that the species nests on Ilha dos 
Tigres, so the report is not unexpected. About 200 birds were seen there in June and 
September 2001 , including c. 50 dark flightless juveniles (A. Schoeman & J. Paterson, 
pers. comm. to RES). The birds are abundant residents at the Cunene river mouth 
(Brooke 1981, Simmons et al. 1993) and are commonly seen at Baia dos Tigres 
(Morant 1996). 

LESSER FLAMINGO Phoeniconaias minor 

Only April, May, July, August, and October were given as months of occurrence by 
Dean (2000). About 360 Lesser Flamingos were counted in January 1999 at Baia 
dos Tigres (AS). 

OSPREY Pandion haliaetus 

There are few records for this species for Angola. About 10 individual adults are 
present all year round, regularly spaced along the whole stretch of coast between 
Tombua (15°48'S, 11°51'E) and the town of Namibe (AS). 

LESSER SPOTTED EAGLE Aquila pomarina 

Placed in square brackets by Dean (2000), as a species likely to occur, but for which 
there were no records. A recent satellite-tracking study, which traced the routes used 
by a sub-adult and an immature Lesser Spotted Eagle from northern Namibia, shows 
that this species does indeed occur in southern and eastern Angola (Meyburg et al. 
2001). The immature bird was located at 16°1 l'S, 15°14'E (due west of Mupa, Cunene 
Province) on 26 February 1994, and at 15°49'S, 18°44'E (east of Cubia, Cuando 
Cubango Province) on 3 March, from where it flew north-east across eastern Angola 
and Zambia. The sub-adult bird was located at 16°07'S, 1 8°04'E (east of Techimpolo, 
Cunene Province) on 1 April 1994, from where it continued north-easterly through 
eastern Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo. 

TAWNY EAGLE Aquila rapax 

Dean (2000) had no records of eggs for this common species. An overlooked record 
is of an adult incubating eggs on a nest 15 m up in a Cassine tree, 12 km north of 
Ondjiva (17°04'S, 15°43'E), Cunene Province, on 18 May 1973 (WRJD). 

ORANGE RIVER FRANCOLIN Francolinus levaillantoides 

Dean (2000) erroneously noted that this species occurred in Moxico Province, 

whereas it is more or less confined to the more arid southwest from Cahama ( 1 6° 1 7'S, 



WR.J. Dean et al. 182 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

14°18'E) in Cunene west to Namibe Province and north to about Lobito (12°22'S, 
13°32'E) in Benguela Province (Pinto 1983). 

AFRICAN BLACK OYSTERCATCHER Haematopus moquini 
Listed as rare by Dean (2000), with few actual sightings. A total of 35 were recorded 
in January 1999 at Ilha dos Tigres (16°36'S, 1 1°43'E), and one was recorded as far 
north as the town of Namibe (15°12'S, 12°09'E), also in January 1999 (AS). 

KELP GULL Larus dominicanus 

Considered to be an uncommon non-breeding visitor by Dean (2000). A large number 
(estimated >500 pairs) were nesting in an area from Marco do Farol south to Armacao 
on the north-eastern edge of the now uninhabited island of Ilha dos Tigres in January 
1 999, with nests at all stages from eggs to newly-hatched and recently fledged chicks 
(AS). In February 2001, similar numbers were nesting on a patch on the north- 
western edge of the island (Rico Sakko, pers. comm.). This represents a substantial 
northward extension of c. 200 km of the breeding range for this species, with previous 
northernmost breeding records on the Skeleton Coast of Namibia at Torra Bay 
(20°10'S, 13°10'E), Die Oase (19°27'S, 12°49'E) and Cape Fria (18°26'S, 12°00'E) 
(Bridgeford 1982). 

SWIFT TERN Sterna bergii 

It is likely that this species occurs within the borders of Angola, and rather more 
frequently than stated by Dean (2000). Bird counts at the mouth of the Cunene river 
(17°23'S, 1 1°47'E) suggest that its occurrence is seasonal there, and along the coast 
of extreme south-western Namibe Province, apparently present all year round, but 
more common in April-June, and in November (RES). 

WHITE-THROATED BEE-EATER Merops albicollis 

Apart from the Petit specimens from Conde (4°58'S, 12°24'E), Cabinda, mentioned 
by Dean (2000), there is another specimen, from "Angola" (Traylor 1963). Although 
the locality where this specimen was collected is not precisely known, Pinto (1983) 
stated that the specimen was collected "sul do Zaire, e apontado por Hartlaub [1 857], 
para Angola, um record muito antigo devido a Handersson", suggesting that the 
specimen was collected in Angola and not north of the Zaire river in Cabinda. In 
fact, evidence suggests that C.J. Andersson (sic) (1827-1867) collected exclusively 
in Namibia (especially) and South Africa. 

MONTEIRO'S HORNBILL Tockus monteiri 

The most northerly locality in Benguela is more accurately Lobito (12°22'S, 13°32'E), 

rather than Baia Farta (12°37'S, 13°13'E) as given in Dean (2000). 

[GABON WOODPECKER Dendropicos gabonensis 

This species should be placed in square brackets in Dean (2000), as its occurence in 

Angola is unproven. The specimens from Cacongo (formerly Landana) (5°13'S, 



W R. J. Dean et al. 183 B ull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22( 3 ) 

12°08'E), Cabinda, collected in 1 876 by Petit, were listed as Dendropicos lafresnayi 
by Sharpe & Bouvier (1876) (i.e. Cardinal Woodpecker D.fuscescens).] 

BROWN-THROATED MARTIN Riparia paludicola 

An overlooked record of three specimens collected on 17 August at Santa Cruz de 
Mavinga, 16°19'S; 22°02'E ("Santa Cruz, in Angola near Shangombo") by Benson 
(1956) extends the known distribution in Angola to Cuando-Cubango Province. 

[BLUE CUCKOO-SHRIKE Coracina azurea 

The locality Kimongo (4°40'S, 12°57'E), where Petit collected the only "Angolan" 
specimen (Sharpe & Bouvier 1877; Traylor 1963; Dean 2000), is in fact in Congo- 
Brazzaville, though only a few km from the border. The species should be in square 
brackets, though will almost certainly be found to occur in Angola.] 

LESSER SWAMP-WARBLER Acrocephalus gracilirostris 
No breeding records for Angola for this locally common resident were given by 
Dean (2000). Although technically not in Angola, a nest, placed in dense Phragmites 
reeds on the Namibian bank of the Cunene river, was found with one egg and one 
chick on 8 November 2000 (RES). 

COLLARED FLYCATCHER Ficedula albicollis 

Dean (2000), on the basis of Pinto's (1970) comments, and two specimens, one 
collected at Huila town (15°05'S, 13°33'E) and a ringed bird recovered at Dundo 
(7°22'S, 20°50'E), gave the known distribution of this species in Angola as Huila 
and Lunda Norte Provinces. A third specimen, in the Royal Ontario Museum, 
Toronto, Canada, collected by Jean Bodaly at Chitau (11°15'S, 17°08'E, altitude 
c. 1 ,500 m), Bie, and unfortunately without date, extends the distribution to eastern 
Bie Province. 

YELLOW-THROATED NICATOR Nicator vireo 

Dean (2000) erroneously gave the distribution of this species as (inter alia) "east to 
Lunda Sul" citing Traylor (1963). This should read "east to northeastern Lunda 
Norte (Ripley & Heinrich 1966)", based on a specimen collected by G. Heinrich on 
the Cassai river at about 7°38'S, 21°32'E in Lunda Norte. 

HOUSE SPARROW Passer domesticus 

There are few distribution records for this species. Dean (2000) noted only that 
there were records for Namibe town and Lubango and that it was likely to occur in 
other towns and cities. Common on the Ilha and Morro Bento at Luanda (8°49'S, 
13°13'E) in June 2001 (P.D. Morant, pers. comm.). 

BLACK-NECKED WEAVER Ploceus nigricollis 

Distribution given erroneously as "east to Lunda Sul" by Dean (2000). Collected at 

Songo (formerly Nova Gaia) (10°04'S, 17°33'E) in Malanje, not far west of the 



W. R. J. Dean et al. 1 84 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

Lunda Sul border. A species of secondary and coffee forest, and likely to occur more 
widely than present records indicate. 

BLACK-EARED CANARY Serinus mennelli 

The record from Cuanza Sul (Amboiva) (1 1°32'S, 14°44'E) is so very far west of the 
known range in eastern Angola that the specimen reported by Tray lor (1963) ought 
to be re-examined. There are suitable patches of climax miombo (Brachystegia) 
woodland from eastern Moxico through Bie and Malanje west to Cuanza Sul, and 
south to Huila, and theoretically the species could occur all the way west. There are 
two uncertain sight records by WRJD at N'Gola (14°20'S, 14°28'E), Huila, but the 
species was not recorded by Pinto (1970) for Huila Province. The possibility remains 
that the Amboiva specimen, if correctly identified (apparently in the Instituto de 
Investigacao Cientifica de Angola collection, now under the care of the Instituto de 
Ciencias da Educacao, Lubango, and not accessible for examination) is perhaps 
most likely of an escaped cage-bird. Alternatively, the Amboiva specimen could be 
a mis-identified Streaky-headed Canary Serinus gularis, a species that has not as yet 
been recorded from the Amboiva district, but that is more likely to occur there. 

Acknowledgements 

We thank Bernd Meyburg for additional data on Lesser Spotted Eagles, Kurt Lambert for details of his 
seabird records, Michael Walters (Natural History Museum, Tring) and Mark Peck (Royal Ontario 
Museum) for data on specimens, John Cooper for comments on seabird distributions, and Patrick Morant, 
Rico Sakko and Andre Schoeman for additional data on birds breeding on Ilha dos Tigres. RES thanks 
John Paterson and Rod Braby for assistance in the field in Namibia. 

References: 

Benson C.W. 1956. A contribution to the ornithology of Northern Rhodesia. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. Sth. 

Rhod. 3 (2 IB): 1-51. 
Bridgeford, PA. 1982. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus . Cormorant 10:126. 
Cooper, J., Brooke, R.K., Shelton, PA. & Crawford, R.J.M. 1982. Distribution, population size and 

conservation of the Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis. Fish. Bull. S. Afr. 16:121-143. 
Crawford, R.J.M. 2000. Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis. P. 136 in Barnes, K.N. (ed.) The 

Eskom red data book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, 

Johannesburg. 
Dean, W.R.J. 2000. The birds of Angola. BOU Checklist Series: 18. British Ornithologists Union, Tring. 
Hartlaub, G. 1857. System der Ornithologie Westafrika's. Bremen, Germany. 
Lambert, K. in press. Sightings of new and rarely reported seabirds in southern African waters. Marine 

Ornithology. 
Meyburg, B-U., Ellis, D.H., Meyburg, C, Mendelsohn, J.M. & Scheller, W. 2001. Satellite tracking of 

two Lesser Spotted Eagles, Aquila pomarina, migrating from Namibia. Ostrich 72: 35-40. 
Morant, P. D. (Compiler). 1 996. Environmental study of the Kunene River mouth. CSIR Report EMAS- 

C96023. CSIR, Stellenbosch, South Africa. 
Pinto, A. A. da R. 1970. Um catalogo das aves do Distrito da Huila. Mem. Trab. Inst. Invest. Cient. 

Angola 6: 5-192. 
Pinto, A. A. da R. 1983. Ornitologia de Angola. Vol. 1. Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, 

Lisbon. 
Sharpe, R. B. & Bouvier, A. 1 876. Etudes d'ornithologie africaine. Catalogue d'une collection recueillie 

a Landana et Chinchonxo (Congo), par M. Louis Petit, pendant les mois de Janvier, fevrier, mars et 

avril 1876. Bull. Soc. zool. France 1: 36-53. 



WR.J. Dean et al. 185 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Sharpe, R. B. & Bouvier, A. 1877. Nouvelle liste d'oiseaux recueillis dans la region du Congo par MM. 

le Dr A. Lucan et L. Petit, de Septembre 1876 a Septembre 1877. Bull. Soc. zool. France 2: 470- 

481. 
Simmons, R., Braby, R. & Braby, S.J. 1993. Ecological studies of the Cunene River mouth: avifauna, 

herpetofauna, water quality, flow rates, geomorphology and implications of the Epupa Dam. Madoqua 

18:163-180. 
Traylor, M. A. 1963. Check-list of Angolan birds. Publ. Cult. Comp. Diam. Angola 61 : 1-250. 

Addresses: Dr W. R. J. Dean {e-mail: lycium@mweb.co.za) and Dr R. E. Simmons {email: 
harrier@iafrica.com.na), Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape 
Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; R. J. Dowsett, 12 rue des Lavandes, Ganges F-34190, France 
{e-mail: Dowsett@aol.com); Dr Alison Sakko, P. O. Box 4426, Vineta, Swakopmund, Namibia 
{email: woodstock@iml-net.com.na). 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Differentiation of Xiphocolaptes 

(Dendrocolaptidae) across the river Xingu, 

Brazilian Amazonia: recognition of 

a new phylogenetic species and 

biogeographic implications 

by Jose Maria C. da Silva, Fernando C. Novaes 
& David C. Oren 

Received 24th April 2001 

The genus Xiphocolaptes encompasses several of the largest (> 1 00 g) species of 
forest and woodland woodcreepers in the Neotropical region. The species with the 
largest geographical range in the genus is the highly variable Strong-billed 
Woodcreeper X. promeropirhynchus , found from Mexico to Bolivia (Peters 1945). 
Within this range, 23 subspecies are recognized (Peters 1945). Cory & Hellmayr 
(1925) suggested that the subspecies of X. promeropirhynchus can be grouped into 
two species: X. promerophyrhynchus, the highland group, occupying Central America, 
mountains of northern Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia; and X. 
orenocensis, the lowland group, restricted to the Orinoco and Amazon basins. 
Although this arrangement was accepted by some authors (e.g., Gyldenstope 195 1), 
it has not been followed by most recent taxonomists (e.g. Zimmer 1934, Peters 
1945, Pinto 1978, Meyer de Schauensee 1978, Sibley & Monroe 1994). Ridgely & 
Tudor (1994) stated that it is premature to split orenocensis and promeropirhynchus 
without additional study, although they indicated that there is an altitudinal gap 
between the two forms along parts of the eastern slope of the Andes. 

According to Hellmayr ( 1 925), Peters (1951), Pinto ( 1 978) and Ridgely & Tudor 
(1994), the orenocensis group is composed of six taxa: orenocensis (southern 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 1 86 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

Venezuela, eastern Ecuador, northern Peru and western Brazil, north of the Solimoes), 
neblinae (Venezuela: Amazonas, Cerro de la Neblina), tenebrosus (Venezuela: 
western slope of the Mt. Chimanta-tepui and base of Mt. Roraima), obsoletus (Eastern 
Bolivia, Depto. Santa Cruz); berlepschi (eastern Peru and western Brazilian 
Amazonia, south of Solimoes to the left bank of the Madeira); and paraensis 
(Brazilian Amazonia, south of the Amazon between the Madeira and Tapajos rivers). 
No contact between two subspecies of the orenocensis group is known. This could 
be a consequence of the lack of detailed information about the range limits of these 
taxa, a common problem in neotropical ornithology (Oren & Guerreiro 1994, Silva 
1995a), but it is also possible that the ranges of these subspecies are effectively 
separated by major geographic barriers, such as mountains (neblinae and tenebrosus) 
or some of the largest Amazonian rivers (all remaining taxa). 

Most of the taxa included in the orenocensis group are diagnosable by an unique 
combination of plumage characters (Hellmayr 1925, Zimmer 1934, Todd 1948, 
Zimmer & Phelps 1948, Phelps & Phelps 1955). Thus, they could be regarded as 
good candidates to be ranked as species under the phylogenetic species concept 
(Cracraft 1983, 1997). The major taxonomic puzzle within this group is the status of 
neblinae, a taxon based on a single specimen from Cerro de la Neblina on the 
Venezuelan-Brazilian border (Phelps & Phelps 1955) which, in spite of concentrated 
research effort in the same area, has not been collected again, although it was seen 
once (Willard ef ar/. 1991). 

Until recently, the eastern limit of the genus Xiphocolaptes in Amazonia was 
considered to be the western bank of the river Xingu. During our studies of the birds 
of the Serra dos Carajas (06°00'S, 51° 20'W), a plateau region (300-800 m) located 
between the rivers Xingu and Tocantins/Araguaia, two specimens of a new population 
of Xiphocolaptes were collected in 1985 and 1986. Graves & Zusi (1990) recorded 
two further specimens of this population collected 52 km SSE of Altamira, east 
bank of the river Xingu (03°39'S, 52°22'W) in 1 986. We located another specimen in 
the ornithological collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo 
(MZUSP 65866), that was collected by J. Hidasi at Itupiranga (05°09'S, 49°20'W), 
Para, on 11 June 1967. Finally, another specimen was collected by J. Roma, M. 
Henriques and D. Pimentel at Sao Joao do Araguaia, Serra das Andorinhas (06°09'S, 
48°42'W), Para, on 31 August 1995. 

In this paper, we compare the plumage and body measurements of the specimens 
of Xiphocolaptes collected between the rivers Xingu and Tocantins/Araguaia with 
specimens collected between the rivers Tapajos and Xingu to determine if this recently 
discovered population represents a new taxon within the orenocensis group, or if it 
is paraensis, the geographically closest relative. In addition, we suggest that the 
region between the rivers Xingu and Tocantins/Araguaia should be ranked as a centre 
of endemism for the South American avifauna. Finally, we discuss why the Belem 
Centre, unlike other Amazonian centres of endemism, has no large woodcreeper of 
the genera Hylexetastes and Xiphocolaptes. 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 1 87 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 122(3) 

Methods 

We obtained data from all known specimens of the recently discovered population. 
We compared these specimens with those of the geographically closest relative, 
paraensis. Specimens are housed at the National Museum of Natural History 
(NMNH), Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CM), Museu Paraense Emilio 
Goeldi (MPEG), and Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo (MZUSP). 
Plumage characters were described according to Smithe (1975, 1981). Where 
possible, the following body measurements were taken for each specimen: wing 
length (flattened); tail length; total culmen (bill length measured from the insertion 
of the bill to skull to the tip); bill from nostril (bill length measured from the anterior 
edge of the nostril to the tip of the maxilla); and tarsus length. To evaluate if there is 
a significant difference in body measurements across the river Xingu, males (the 
number of female specimens was too small for any comparison) of the recently 
discovered population and paraensis were compared. Body measurements (log - 
transformed) were compared using t-tests. We generated a linear discriminant function 
to evaluate whether specimens of the new population and paraensis are separated 
correctly, based only on body measurements. All statistical tests were made using 
SYSTAT 7.0. 

Results 

Plumage variation 

The population between the rivers Xingu and Tocantins/Araguaia shares several 
plumage characters with paraensis, such as the general plumage pattern as well as 
tail, rump, wing, upper-parts and crown colour. However, there are important 
differences in the colouration of the under-parts, in the width and colour of the 
upper-part streaks, and on the stripe width in the pileum and head. These 
characteristics were not variable in the specimens we examined. 

Body measurements 

Apart from bill from nostril, all body measurements of males of the new population 
and of paraensis are significantly different (Table 1). In general, the specimens of 
the new population are significantly smaller than those of paraensis (Table 1). 
Between specimens of the new population and paraensis, there is no overlap in 
wing, tail, and total culmen measurements, a small overlap in tarsus, and extensive 
overlap in bill from nostril (Table 1). By combining all body measurements in a 
linear discriminant function, the individuals of the two groups are 100% correctly 
classified. 

Description of the new taxon 

All specimens of the recently discovered population ofXiphocolaptes from the region 
between Xingu and Tocantins/Araguaia can be easily separated from the specimens 
of paraensis, based on both plumage characters and body measurements. Both suites 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 1 88 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

of characters have a discontinuous variation across the river Xingu, as one could 
expect if these characters were result of genetic-environmental interactions 
(Barrowclough 1982). Based on this assessment, we propose that the specimens 
from the region between the rivers Xingu and Tocantins/Araguaia represent a new 
phylogenetic species, which we name: 

Xiphocolaptes carajaensis sp. nov., Carajas Woodcreeper 

Holotype. MPEG 38284, male (skull 100% ossified; testes 6x3 mm; no bursa), 
collected 21 July 1986 by Jose Maria Cardoso da Silva and Manoel Santa Brigida at 
Caldeirao, Serra dos Carajas (06°00'S, 5 1° 20'W), municipality of Parauapebas, Para, 
Brazil. 

Diagnosis. Similar to X. paraensis from Santarem, the geographically nearest 
phylogenetic species, but differs by the under-parts Clay Color (#26) rather than 
Antique Brown (#37), upper-parts with narrower and less conspicuous streaks, 
significantly shorter wing, tail and bill (Table 1) and, on average, narrower streaks 
on crown and head (Figure 1). 

Description of the holotype. Black pileum with rachis Clay Color (#26); upperparts 
Cinnamon-Brown (#33); rump Hazel (#35); tail upper surface Chestnut (#32); throat 
whitish; breast Clay Color (#26) with the streaks Pale Horn (#92) bordered with 
Grayish Horn (#91); flanks Clay Color (#26); belly Pale Horn (#92) with small dark 
interrupted bars; undertail coverts Buff (#124) with bars Grayish Horn (#91); 
underwing coverts Pale Horn (#92) with Olive-Brown (#28) bars. Undersurface of 
the remiges Cinnamon-Rufous (#40). Iris red, maxilla black, mandible grey with 
dark spots in the distal parts; tarsi greenish. 

Measurements (mm) of the holotype. Bill from nostril 29.2, culmen 37.7, wing 125.0, 
tail 115.0, tarsus 30.2, Mass 114.0 g. 

Paratype. MPEG 37216, collected by Manoel Santa Brigida and Rosemiro Pereira 
27 June 1985 at Manganes, Serra dos Carajas, municipality of Parauapebas, Para, 
Brazil. 

Measurements (mm) of the paratype. Culmen 51.0, bill from nostril 38.5, wing 
127.0, tail 113.2, tarsus 31.6 mm. 

Etymology. The name is derived from the region (Serra dos Carajas) where the 
holotype was collected. 

Habitat. At the Serra dos Carajas, the new taxon was collected and recorded in both 
tall mature terra firme forest (Manganes) and riverine varzea forest (Caldeirao). At 
both sites, only two individuals were recorded, even though intensive efforts were 
directed at these sites. 

Specimens examined. Xiphocolaptes carajaensis. Brazil, Para: Serra dos Carajas, 
Caldeirao (MPEG, 1 male, holotype) and Manganes (MPEG, 1 male, paratype); 
Itupiranga (MZUSP, 1 male); Xingu (NMNH, 1 male and 1 female); Sao Joao do 
Araguaia (MPEG, 1 male). Xiphocolaptes paraensis. Brazil, Para: Lago Batista (3 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 189 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3 ) 

TABLE 1 

Comparisons of the measurements of Xiphocolaptes paraensis andX carajaensis. 

Data are: range, mean ± standard deviation (n). 



Measurements 


X. paraensis 


X. carajaensis 


t-test 


Wing 


134.0-151.0, 142.8±6.2(9) 


121.0-129.0, 126.1±3.0(5) 


t 12 =5.8,/?<0.001 


Tail 


121.0-128.0, 125.4±2.8 (6) 


108.0-115.0, 111.4±3.2(4) 


t=7.2, /?<0.001 


Culmen 


51.2-59.5, 55.1*2.7(8) 


46.6-51.0, 49.4±1.8(5) 


t n =4.2,/?<0.01 


Bill from nostril 


36.0-47.9, 40.2±3.4(8) 


32.7-38.5, 36.6±2.4(5) 


t,=2.0,/?>0.05 


Tarsus 


30.5-35.3, 33.0±1.7(9) 


28.4-31.6, 29.8±1.3(5) 


t 12 =3.5, p<0.01 



males, including the holotype; 1 male immature); Estrada Santarem-Cuiaba, km 84 
(MPEG, 2 males) and km 2 1 2 (MPEG, 1 male); Para, Santarem (CM, 1 male; MZUSP, 
1 ?), Colonia do Mojui (CM, 1 male), and Apaci (CM, 1 female); Mato Grosso, 
Fazenda Sao Jose, Rio Peixoto de Azevedo (MPEG, 1 male). 

Discussion 

The status of the new phylogenetic species under the biological species concept 

A comprehensive programme of conservation and sustainable use of the biological 
diversity of a region will depend on having all taxonomically distinct, diagnosable 
populations identified and named. From this perspective, the species concept used 
by taxonomists has an important role (Cracraft, 1997). For instance, several 
methodologies to pinpoint priority areas for conservation and management (e.g., 
identification of areas with high number of endemic species or restricted-range 
species) may be influenced by how taxonomists recognise and delimit species. In 
ornithology, discussion on the species concept is becoming more frequent after more 
than 50 years dominated by the biological species concept [BSC; see McKitrick & 
Zink (1988) and Haffer (1992) for contrasting viewpoints]. 

An alternative to BSC is the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC): "a species is 
the smallest population or group of populations within which there is a parental 
pattern of ancestry and descent and which is diagnosable by unique combinations of 
character states" (Cracraft 1983). There are several reasons to use the PSC rather 
than BSC in studies on avian speciation, phylogeny reconstruction, geographic 
variation and biogeography (McKitrick & Zink 1988, Cracraft 1989). More recently, 
Cracraft (1997) listed several practical and theoretical reasons for using phylogenetic 
species rather than biological species in conservation biology. 

Although ornithologists are moving toward the use of the phylogenetic species 
concept (Zink 1997), most current avian taxonomy is based on the biological species 
concept (Snow 1997). It is useful therefore to evaluate the status of the new 
phylogenetic species also under the framework of the biological species concept. 

Although taxa comprising the orenocensis group are diagnosable and are not 
known to intergrade along their ranges, they should probably be grouped into a 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 



190 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 




HI 


1 


1 5 10cm 




1 \i i >' 




1 


si 



Figure l . Differences between Xiphocolaptes carajaensis, from the region between rivers Xingu and 
Tocantins/Araguaia, and X. paraensis, from the region between rivers Tapajos and Xingu. (a) Ventral 
aspect: lower, X. paraensis; upper, X. carajaensis. (b) Dorsal aspect: left, X. paraensis; right, X. 

carajaensis. 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 



191 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 



single biological species, because the strong similarities in plumage colouration 
among close relatives may indicate a potential to interbreed if these taxa came into 
contact. At least at this stage of knowledge on the natural history and distribution of 
Xiphocolaptes, X. carajaensis should be ranked as a subspecies of X. 
promeropirhynchus or X. orenocensis under the biological species concept. 

The region between the rivers Xingu and Tocantins deserves to be classified as 
an area of endemism for birds 

In the most recent attempt to identify the South American avian centres of 
endemism, Cracraft ( 1 985) recognized 33 centres, four of which are in the Amazonian 
forests south of the Amazon: South Amazon (Inambari) Centre, Rondonia Centre, 
Para Centre and Belem (Maranhao) Centre. The region between the rivers Xingu 
and Tocantins/Araguaia was grouped with the region between the rivers Tapajos 
and Xingu into the Para Centre (Figure 2). 

Cracraft (1985) listed 20 taxa as endemic to the Para Centre. Some of them (e.g. 
Piprapipra separabilis) occur indeed on both banks of the Xingu, but others occur 
only on one bank (e.g. Pipra vilasboasi). Recent studies have led to several taxonomic 
discoveries in the region between the rivers Xingu and Tocantins/Araguaia, supporting 
the case for this region to be ranked as a distinct centre of avian endemism. Endemic 
taxa that support this suggestion include: Psophia viridis inter] ecta, Pyrrhura perlata 




Figure 2. Distribution of Xiphocolaptes carajaensis in relation to avian areas of endemism identified for 
Amazonia. Duida and Gra-Sabana are sub-areas of endemism of the Panteupui area of endemism. Xingu 
and Tapajos areas were originally grouped into a single region named Para. The localities of X. carajaensis 
are as follows: Serra dos Carajas (star), Xingu (triangle), Itupiranga (circle) and Sao Joao do Araguaia 
(square). 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 1 92 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

anerythra, Hylexetastes brigidai, Xiphocolaptes carajaensis, an undescribed 
phylogenetic species of Dendrocincla (Oren & Pinto-Henriques, unpublished), 
Phlegopsis nigromaculata confinis, Pyriglena leuconota interposita, Conopophaga 
aurita pallida, and Procnias alba wallacei. 

An odd biogeographic pattern: why does the Belem Centre lack a large 
woodcreeper? 

The largest woodcreepers in Amazonia are represented by species of Xiphocolaptes 
and Hylexetastes. At least one species of these two genera is recorded in the 
Amazonian areas of endemism, the exception being the Belem Centre. Hylexetastes 
occurs north and south of the Amazon, but is not known from the Belem Centre. 
Xiphocolaptes occurs in most of Amazonia, except the Guiana and Belem centres. 
This is an odd biogeographic pattern that deserves an explanation. Lack of a species 
in a region, in which it could be expected, might be due basically to three reasons: 
(a) the region is still poorly-sampled for birds; (b) ecological reasons; (c) historical 
reasons. 

The Belem Centre is probably the Amazonian biogeographic region that has 
received the greatest attention from ornithologists during the last century (Oren & 
Albuquerque 1991). Although there are some areas of the Belem Centre that have 
never been sampled for birds, it is hard to imagine that the two largest woodcreeper 
genera in this entire region have simply been overlooked. 

Hylexetastes and Xiphocolaptes might be absent from the Belem Centre because 
one or more essential ecological factors are lacking in this region. Differences in 
forest structure and composition, climate, likelihood of fires and the presence of 
potential competitors are some of the factors that might be suggested. However, 
none of them alone can explain this pattern well. 

Finally, the absence of these genera from the Belem Centre might be due to 
historical reasons. Either these genera have never been in the Belem Centre, or they 
were present but have gone extinct. Hylexetastes is a genus endemic to Amazonia, 
with no representative outside this region. Thus, although we cannot rule out the 
hypothesis that Hylexetastes colonized and later went extinct in the Belem Centre, 
Hylexetastes may alternatively have never expanded its range towards the Belem 
Centre. This is not the case in Xiphocolaptes, which has a widespread range with at 
least one species in all major regions of tropical South America. In all centres of 
endemism around Belem (Guiana is the only exception), the genus Xiphocolaptes is 
represented: to the west, X. carajaensis is found; to the south-east, X.falcirostris, a 
bird associated with the dry forests of the Caatinga region, including part of Maranhao, 
occurs. Finally, X. albicollis, a species associated with Atlantic Forest, and that also 
inhabits the gallery forests of the Cerrado Region (Silva 1995b), is found south of 
the Belem Centre. 

Based on this unexpected gap in its range, the absence of Xiphocolaptes in the 
Belem Centre is more parsimoniously explained by local extinction rather than any 
other hypothesis. There are some reasons to think that paleoecological dynamics 
could have caused several extinctions in the Belem Centre. Endler (1982) pointed 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 1 93 Bull. B. O. C 2002 1 22(3) 

out that the Belem Centre is a peninsula of forest, isolated on one side by the Atlantic 
Ocean, and on two other sides by Cerrado and Caatinga. Because a peninsula of 
forest receives gene flow and dispersing individuals from fewer directions than do 
central populations with forest on all sides (Endler 1982), either differentiation in 
peripheral populations (Mayr 1963) or extinctions of large species with low densities, 
such as Hylexetastes and Xiphocolaptes, are amplified. This may result in areas of 
endemism that are characterized by both a number of endemic species and unexpected 
absence of some widespread taxa, such as the large Amazonian woodcreeper genera. 

Acknowledgements 

We thank Manoel Santa Brigida and the late Rosemiro Pereira for helping us in the fieldwork as well as 
Drs. Chris Feare and David Snow for useful comments on an earlier manuscript. Research in Carajas 
was supported by an agreement between Companhia Vale do Rio Doce and Museu Paraense Emilio 
Goeldi. JMCS and DCO received support from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico 
e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brazilian Federal Government. 

References: 

Barrowclough, G. F. 1982. The description of geographic variation in bird populations. XX Congressus 

Internationalis Ornithologici, 495-503. 
Cory, C. B & Hellmayr, C. E. 1925. Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands. Part 4. 

Field Museum of Natural History, Zoological Series 13 (4): 1-390. 
Cracraft, J. 1983. Species concepts and speciation analysis. Current Ornithology 1: 159-187. 
Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South American 

avifauna: areas of endemism. Ornithological Monographs 36: 49-84. 
Cracraft, J. 1989. Species as entities of biological theory. In Ruse, M. (Ed.) What the philosophy of 

biology is? Pp. 31-52. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht. 
Cracraft, J. 1992. The species of the birds-of-paradise (Paradisaeidae): applying the phylogenetic species 

concept to a complex pattern of diversification. Cladistics 8: 1-43. 
Cracraft, J. 1997. Species concepts in systematics and conservation biology - an ornithology viewpoint. 

In Claridge, M. F., Dawah, H. A., & Wilson, M. R. (Eds.), Species: the units of biodiversity, Pp. 

325-339. Chapman & Hall, London. 
Endler, J. A. 1982. Geographic variation, speciation, and dines. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton. 
Graves, G. R. & Zusi, R. L. 1990. Avian body weights from the lower Xingu. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 110: 

20-25. 
Gyldenstope, N. 1 95 1 . The ornithology of the Rio Purus region in western Brazil. Kungl. Svenska Vetenska. 

Akadem. Handlingar Band 22, 3:1-320 
Haffer, J. 1986. Superspecies and species limits in vertebrates. Z. Zool. Syst. Evolut.-forsch., 24: 169- 

190. 
Mayr, E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Harvard Univ. Press: Cambridge. 
McKitrick, M. C. & Zink, R. M. 1988. Species concepts in ornithology. Condor 90: 1-13. 
Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1970. A guide to the birds of South America. Livingston Publ. Company, 

Wynnewood, Pennsylvania. 
Oren, D. C. & Albuquerque, H. G. 1 99 1 . Priority areas for new avian collections in Brazilian Amazonia. 

Goeldiana Zoologia 6:1-11. 
Peters, J. A. 1 945. Check-list of birds of the world. Vol. 8. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 

Mass. 
Phelps, W. H. & Phelps, Jr., W. H. 1 955. Seven new birds from Cerro de la Neblina, Territorio Amazonas, 

Venezuela. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 68: 113-123. 
Pinto, O. M. O. 1978. Novo catdlogo dasAves do Brasil. Empresa Grafica da Revista dos Tribunals: Sao 

Paulo. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G 1994. The birds of South America. Vol. 2. Oxford Univ. Press. 



Jose Maria C. da Silva et al. 194 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Sibley, G. C. & Monroe, Jr., B. L. 1994. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale Univ. 

Press, New Haven. 
Silva, J. M. C. 1995a. Avian inventory of the cerrado region, South America: implications for biological 

conservation. Bird Cons. Int. 5: 291-304. 
Silva, J. M. C. 1995b. Birds of the Cerrado Region. Steenstrupia 21: 69-92. 
Smithe, F. B. 1975. Naturalist's color guide. American Museum of Natural History, New York. 
Smithe, F. B. 1981. Naturalist's color guide. Part III. American Museum of Natural History, New York. 
Snow, D. W. 1997. Should the biological be superseded by the phylogenetic species concept? Bull. Brit. 

Orn. CI 117:110-121. 
Willard, D. E., Foster, M. S., Barrowclough, G. F, Dickerman, R. W., Cannell, P. F, Coats, S. L., 

Cracraft, J. L. & O'Neill, J. O. 1991. The birds of Cerro de la Neblina, Territorio Federal Amazonas, 

Venezuela. Fieldiana Zool. 65: 1-80. 
Zimmer, J. T. 1934. Studies on Peruvian Birds XIV Amer. Mus. Novitates 753:1-26. 
Zink, R. M. 1997. Species concepts. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 1 17: 97-109. 

Address: Jose Maria Cardoso da Silva, Conservation International do Brasil, Av. Nazare 541/3 10, 66035- 
170, Belem, Para, Brazil; Fernando C. Novaes & David C. Oren, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, 
Departamento de Zoologia, C.P. 399, Belem, PA, Brazil. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

Extension of the known range of the 

Red-shouldered Vanga Calicalicus rufocarpalis 

in southwest Madagascar 

Innes M. W Sim & Sama Zefania 

Received 10 May 2001 

Madagascar has been isolated from the African landmass for some 1 65 million years 
and, as a result, most of its plants and animals have evolved in isolation. Over 50% 
of Madagascar's breeding birds are endemic. Although our knowledge of the status 
and distribution of these species has improved in recent years, much basic information 
remains unknown. In particular, the species inhabiting the subarid thorn scrub of the 
far southwest of Madagascar have been little studied. 

The Red-shouldered Vanga Calicalicus rufocarpalis was first described in 1997 
(Goodman et al. 1997). This description was based on two females, collected from 
two locations near La Table, 13-20 km southeast ofToliara, in 1948 (Fig. 1). More 
recently, in 1991, a probable male was photographed at a nest 17 km southeast of 
Toliara, and in 1998 an expedition further south located birds at Vohombe, Lavavolo 
and Antsihanaka (ZICOMA 1999). These latter records represented the southern 
limit of the known range of the species. Following consultation with Frank Hawkins 
(BirdLife International) and experts from Projet ZICOMA (Zones dTmportance pour 
la Conservation des Oiseaux a Madagascar), it was decided to undertake a joint 
expedition to southwest Madagascar in 2000, to determine if the species was present 
in previously unsurveyed areas. 



Innes M. W. Sim & Sama Zefania 



195 

Methods 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 



Surveys were carried out close to the villages of Lintsa (22-24 October) and Itampolo 
(30 October), between 0530 h and 1030 h, and 1530 h and 1800 h. These times were 
chosen to reflect the main periods of bird activity. The survey method was to walk 
slowly along paths through the scrub, recording all species seen or heard, but paying 
particular attention to records of Red-shouldered Vangas. We played a tape of Red- 
shouldered Vanga song at regular intervals, in an attempt to elicit responses from 
any birds present. 

Results and Discussion 

We located a minimum of nine singing male Red-shouldered Vangas within a 2 km 
radius of the village of Lintsa (25°00'S 44°24'E), and one singing male was found c. 
3 km E of Itampolo (24°41'S 43°58'E). Photographs and sound recordings were taken 
at both sites. Our record of a singing male Red-shouldered Vanga close to Itampolo 
is within the known range of the species, as determined by ZICOMA ( 1 999). However, 
we also found a population close to Lintsa, c. 50 km southeast of the southern limit 
of the previously known range of the species, extending its known range. 

Male and female Red-shouldered Vangas are similar to the respective sexes of 
the Red-tailed Vanga Calicalicus madagascariensis, which inhabits the same region, 
but there are several distinctive differences (see Hawkins et al. 1997 for details). S. 
Zefania was familiar with both species, after a previous visit to the region in 1998, 
and we are confident that our observations were accurate. 




Figure 1. Location of sightings of Red-Shouldered Vangas in southwest Madagsacar. 



Innes M. W Sim & Sama Zefania 1 96 Bull. B. O. C 2002 1 22(3) 

All sightings were in areas of semi-degraded subarid thorn scrub. The region is 
relatively densely populated, with many small villages scattered throughout the forest. 
Some parts of the forest have been cleared for timber, charcoal and agriculture, and 
low densities of livestock (mainly zebu and goats) are grazed throughout. The area 
suffers from annual droughts and is under increasing human pressure. 

Hawkins et al. (1997) speculated that the range of the Red-shouldered Vanga 
might extend up to 250 km south from Toliara, since there was an abundance of 
suitable habitat close to the coast. Our observations have confirmed that the species 
is present in good numbers at least as far south as Lintsa and, given that similar 
habitat exists to the south and east, it seems likely that the range of the Red-shouldered 
Vanga extends beyond our survey area. More survey work is needed to determine 
more precisely the range of this, and other, threatened species, in this remote region 
of Madagascar. 

Acknowledgements 

Many thanks to Frank Hawkins (BirdLife International), and the staff at Projet ZICOMA for all their 
help with planning the expedition. Sue O'Brien (Cambridge University) helped with survey work. 

References 

Goodman, S.M., Hawkins, A.F.A. & Domergue, C.A. 1997. A new species of vanga {Vangidae, 

Calicalicus) from southwestern Madagascar. Bull Brit. Orn. CI. 117: 5-10. 
Hawkins, A.F.A, Rabenandrasana, M., Marie, C.V., Rabeony, O., Mulder, R., Emahalala, R.E. & 

Ramariason, R. 1997. Field observations of the Red-shouldered Vanga Calicalicus rufo carp alls: a 

newly described Malagasy endemic. Bull. African Bird Club 5: 30-32. 
ZICOMA. 1999. Zones d'Importance pour la Conservation des Oiseaux a Madagascar. 266pp. Projet 

ZICOMA, Antananarivo, Madagascar. 

Addresses: Innes Sim, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Dunedin House, 25 Ravelston Terrace, 
Edinburgh, EH4 3TP, UK; Sama Zefania, Projet ZICOMA, BP 1074, Antananarivo, Madagascar. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



The first nest and egg records of Black-eared 

Ground Thrush Zoothera cameronensis, 

Budongo Forest, western Uganda. 

by Jeremy A. Lindsell 

Received 26 May 2001 

The Black-eared Ground Thrush Zoothera cameronensis is a poorly known forest 
understorey species of equatorial Africa. Its obscurity is reflected in the confusion 
that has existed over the identity of certain specimens collected in western Uganda 
and in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire) during the early to 



Jeremy A. Lindsell 1 97 Bull. B. O. C 2002 122(3) 

mid 20 th century (Prigogine 1965, 1978, Friedmann& Williams 1968,Dranzoa 1994, 
Lindsell unpublished). This confusion centred on the distinction between the batesi 
race of Grey Ground Thrush Zoothera princei and the then newly recognised eastern 
graueri race of Z. cameronensis. To date, all such distinctions continue to rely purely 
on morphology as no behavioural or other biological data exist for Z cameronensis. 

Z. cameronensis has been recorded from Cameroon, Gabon, the DRC and Uganda 
(Clement & Hathway 2000). It is known in Uganda from Budongo and Bugoma 
Forests, and Kibale Forest, if the form kibalensis is considered to be this species 
(Britton 1 980, Urban et al 1 997). Erickson Wilson ( 1 995), later followed by Rossouw 
& Sacchi (1998), listed cameronensis as occurring in Bwindi Forest but neither 
Kalina & Butynski (1996) nor Carswell et al. (in press) consider there to have been 
a record from Bwindi. Z princei is known in Uganda only from Semliki Forest 
(Dranzoa 1994; Lindsell unpublished) with specimens collected from there being 
held at Makerere University Department of Zoology Museum (R. Kityo, pers. comm.). 

Neither Urban et al. (1997) nor Clement & Hathway (2000) described any 
behaviour for Z cameronensis, other than that it forages on the ground and scratches 
in leaf litter. Vocalizations were not described, though the British Library holds 
recordings from birds in the hand (Wildlife ref. no. 80385, cc2414 & cc2413, R. 
Ranft pers. comm.). Breeding information is restricted to data from specimens; Urban 
et al. (1997) noted breeding condition females in Zaire and Uganda in May and 
June, fledglings there in May, breeding condition males in Gabon in December to 
January, and an immature in June. 

I present here the first observations of the nest and eggs of Z cameronensis and 
discuss these with respect to Z princei and habitat selection. 

Location of records 

Budongo Forest Reserve is situated in western Uganda between 1°37' and 2°03'N 
and 31°22' and 31°46'E. The forest is moist, tall and semi-deciduous and naturally 
dominated by one tree species, Cynometra alexandri (Eggeling 1947). The reserve 
occupies c. 793 km 2 , of which the forested section is 428 km 2 . All breeding records 
of Z cameronensis were made in one management compartment of the forest of c. 
7.5 km 2 , classified as ' Cynometra-mixed' forest (Eggeling 1947). This compartment 
was set aside in the 1930s as the Nyakafunjo Nature Reserve, and has never been 
commercially logged. The dominant tree species is Cynometra alexandri, but there 
are also many mahoganies {Khaya and Entandrophragma) in the canopy, which is 
one of the tallest in East Africa. The understorey is noticeably clearer (up to 50 m 
horizontal visibility) than the surrounding compartments which were selectively 
logged and treated with arboricide, and the forest floor is largely covered with a low 
growing herb (Leptaspis). The only verifiable report of a Z cameronensis in Budongo 
away from this compartment is of a single bird seen in the Kaniyo Pabidi section of 
the reserve in July 1999 (Borrow 2000 and pers. comm.) in forest with a similar 
structure, though lacking a thick herbaceous ground layer. 



Jeremy A. Lindsell 198 Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Breeding observations 

Five nests were located in September and October 1999 (14, 21 and 28 September 
and two on 6 October). Nests were located from repeated observations of adult birds 
in a restricted locality, searches of clusters of dead leaves lodged in understorey 
shrubs, or observation of adult birds flushing from bushes. Four nests were within 1 
m of a research trail and one was within 8 m, though with no intervening vegetation. 
All the nests were within an area of 50 ha. 

Sitting adults were extremely shy and left the nest when an observer was still up 
to 25 m away. This behaviour contrasted markedly with common forest species such 
as greenbuls (Pycnonotidae) and some other Turdidae which allow observers to 
come as close as 1 m and even to be picked up off the nest (Keith et al. 1992). 
Flushed birds returned to the nest within 1-2 min. 

Given their proximity and timing it is likely that two nests were from one pair of 
birds (see below). One of the five nests was inactive but identified on the basis of 
similarity of construction to the other four nests. Adult birds were seen attending all 
four active nests and eggs were eventually found in all four. 

Nest 

All nests were open cups, loosely built of dead leaves, some twigs and dry bark with 
many hair-like strands (fungus). These strands were woven loosely to form the cup 
shape, but there was no mud lining. The internal diameter of one cup was 80 mm 
and depth 45 mm. The nest was always a self contained unit, not built into natural 
gatherings of dead leaves but often in a clear fork of a shrub, 1.2 - 3.5 m above 
ground with three at c. 2 m. One nest was built into the fork of a fallen dead branch 
which hung precariously in the outer twigs of an understorey shrub; the nest was 
unattached to the living shrub. Three were in isolated shrubs (Rinoria), one was just 
below the crown of a many-stemmed shrub (Acalypha) and one was in the fork of a 
small tree (10 cm dbh) situated in a relatively dense area of understorey shrubbery. 
In all cases the sitting adult had a largely unobstructed view across the forest floor, 
often for 360°. 

Clutch 

Two clutches were of three eggs and two were of two eggs (mean 2.5). The eggs 
were gently tapered, pale turquoise/blue with brown speckling, denser towards the 
broad end with sometimes a clear patch on the broad end resulting in a halo of 
speckling. The degree of speckling varied with some having dense fine speckles and 
others having less dense and larger speckles. One measured egg was 18 mm x 26 
mm with a mass of 4.7 g (prior to onset of incubation). 

The timing of laying in one nest is worth noting: the nest was found empty at 
0830 h on day one. By 0650 h on day 2 the first egg was laid, and the second egg by 
1645 h on the same day. The adult was still sitting on two eggs at 1700 h on day 3, 
but on three eggs at 0700 h on day 4. 



Jeremy A. Lindsell 1 99 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 122(3) 

Nest survival 

All four active nests were eventually predated. In all cases the eggs were removed 
without the nests being damaged. The first nest was empty on the day after discovery. 
In the second nest, a single egg was predated from the clutch of two on day 10 or 1 1 
after discovery, but the adult continued to incubate the remaining egg for at least the 
next 4 days; but by day 17 the nest was found to be empty. The third nest was 
discovered before the clutch was laid. Two eggs were laid on day two and a third by 
day four. The nest was predated by day eight. The fourth nest contained one egg for 
the first two days, a second egg on day three and a third egg by day five. This nest 
was predated by day nine. Two nests were within 90 m of each other with the second 
being discovered 22 days after the first nest was depredated. This suggests a renesting 
attempt. The first nest is deposited as a specimen with Makerere University 
Department of Zoology Museum and the fourth nest with the Natural History 
Museum, Tring. 

Discussion 

These observations are very similar to those recorded for Grey Ground Thrush 
Zoothera princei. That species builds a 'bulky open cup of twigs, dead leaves and 
plant stems. . . lined with rootlets and plant fibres. . . situated 1 .5-3 m above ground 
in fork in centre of crown of small isolated tree in understorey' (Urban et al. 1997, 
and see photo in Brosset & Erard 1 976). Z. princei eggs are 'turquoise-blue to emerald 
green spotted and blotched with red-brown over lilac undermarkings' (Urban et al. 
1 997). Serle (1957) noted that what he presumed were Z. princei eggs were markedly 
truncated at the broad end. Brosset & Erard (1976) wondered about the identity of 
Serle's observations since the eggs they found for Z. princei were not distinctly 
truncated and were also slimmer and less spotted. Serle's eggs measured 22.8 x 19.6 
mm and 23.6 x 19.5 mm and Brosset & Erard's was 25 x 18 mm. The egg described 
in this paper was closest to the dimensions of Brosset & Erard's; it also differed 
from Serle's in having heavier spotting towards the broad end (with the exception of 
the very end in some cases) and was not distinctly truncated. The mean clutch size 
reported here for Z. cameronensis at 2.5 does not differ greatly from the 2.2 reported 
for Z. princei from nine clutches (Urban et al. 1997). 

Although it must now be concluded that Z. princei is not known from Budongo 
or Bugoma Forests where Z. cameronensis occurs (Lindsell unpublished contra Urban 
et al. 1997 and Clement & Hathway 2000), Plumptre (1997) caught both species 
(along with Z. cross leyi and Z. oberlanderi) in the Ituri Forest, DRC. They were not 
at exactly the same sites but very close to one another (Plumptre pers. comm.). 
Brosset & Erard (1977) also reported both species occurring at the same site, so it 
seems that both species can co-exist, which caused these authors to wonder as to 
their ecological distinction. 

Brosset & Erard (1986) noted the conspicuous location of Z. princei nests (as 
did Serle 1957 if his record was of Z. princei). This was also found for Z. 



Jeremy A. Lindsell 200 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

cameronensis. Brosset & Erard (1977) considered Z. princei to prefer thick 
undergrowth, but field observations of foraging Z. cameronensis suggest a preference 
for a more open understorey in accordance with their nesting sites (pers. obs.). Once 
detected, Z. cameronensis has not proven shy to observe. 

All breeding records in Budongo came from one forest compartment, which was 
also the only location (besides one recent sighting in Kaniyo Pabidi (Borrow 2000)), 
where field sightings and mist net captures have been made. Uganda's Forest 
Department conducted 59,795 metre net hours of mistnetting in Budongo and caught 
no Z. cameronensis (Howard et al. 1996). Owiunji (1996) caught no individuals in 
2085 captures and Plumptre (pers. comm.) caught only one in 1909 captures. 
Subsequently there have been a number of captures and sightings but all within the 
same compartment (Owiunji 1998 and personal data). Areas of the forest adjacent 
to, but not within, this compartment have been equally well surveyed, and in some 
cases more so, but with no records. These surrounding areas have all been selectively 
logged and/or treated with arboricide in the past (Plumptre 1996). Though the canopy 
is often complete, the understorey is much thicker and rarely resembles the structure 
found in the preferred compartment. This implies that Z. cameronensis is highly 
restricted in this part of its range, persisting in only pristine forest conditions, 
apparently where Cynometra alexandri dominates. The only other locality in Budongo 
with a sight record is also dominated by this tree. 

Finally, it is worth highlighting the ease with which nests were located. Though 
this may have had implications for the nesting success for this species, it does provide 
a method by which this species' status and biology may be investigated. Mist-nest 
captures are fairly rare, as are field sightings (Clement & Hathway 2000), but the 
discovery of five nests in a relatively restricted area of forest and in such a short 
period of time should encourage further efforts. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks to Mr Fred Babweteera, Professor Vernon Reynolds and the Budongo Forest Project, Uganda 
Forest Department, the Government of Uganda and the UNCST for providing the circumstances under 
which these observations could be made, Kennedy Andama for assistance in the field, Dave Willard in 
Chicago for checking skins, Richard Ranft for copies of recordings from the British Library archive, 
Peter Clement and Margaret Carswell for copies of forthcoming articles, John Quinn and Mike Wilson. 

References 

Borrow, N. 2000. Recent reports, Uganda. Bull. Afr. Bird CI. 7: 71-77. 

Britton, P. L. 1980. Birds of East Africa. EANHS, Nairobi. 

Brosset, A. & Erard, C. 1976. Premiere description de la nidification de quatre especes de la foret 

gabonaise. Alauda 44: 205-235. 
Brosset, A. & Erard, C. 1977. New faunistic records from Gabon. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 97: 125-132. 
Brosset, A. & Erard, C. 1 986. Les oiseaux des regions forestiers du Nord-Est du Gabon. Vol. 1 . Societe 

Nationale de Protection de la Nature, Paris. 
Carswell, M., Pomeroy, D., Reynolds, J. & Tushabe, H. in press. Bird atlas of Uganda. BOC/BOU, 

England. 
Clement, P. & Hathway, R. 2000. Thrushes. A. & C. Black, London. 
Dranzoa, C. 1994. Lyre-tailed Honeyguide Melichneutus robustus and Grey Ground Thrush Zoothera 

princei batesi: new records for Uganda. Scopus 18: 128-130. 



Jeremy A. Lindsell 20 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

Eggeling, W. J. 1947. Observations on the ecology of the Budongo rainforest, Uganda. J. Ecol. 34: 20- 

87. 
Erickson Wilson, S. 1995. Bird and mammal checklists for ten National Parks in Uganda. National 

Biodiversity Databank, Makerere University, Kampala. 
Friedmann, H. & Williams, J. G. 1968. Notable records of rare or little-known birds from western Uganda. 

Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 77: 11-36. 
Howard, P., Davenport, T. & Matthews, R. 1996. Budongo Forest Reserve biodiversity report. Forest 

Department, Kampala, Uganda. 
Kalina, J. & Butynski, T. 1996. Checklist of the birds of Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. East 

Africa Natural History Society, Nairobi. 
Keith, S., Urban, E. K. & Fry, C. H. 1992. The birds of Africa, volume IV. Academic Press, London. 
Owiunji, I. 1996. The long term effects of forest management on the bird community of Budongo Forest 

Reserve, Uganda. Unpublished MSc. thesis, Makerere University, Kampala. 
Owiunji, I. 1998. Biodiversity of Budongo Forest Reserve. African Tropical Biodiversity Programme 

1998 Report, MUIENR, Makerere University, Uganda. 
Plumptre, A. J. 1996. Changes following sixty years of selective timber harvesting in the Budongo 

Forest Reserve, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management 89: 101-113. 
Plumptre, A. J. 1997. Shifting cultivation along the Trans-African Highway and its impact on the 

understorey bird community in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Bird Cons. Int. 7: 317-329. 
Prigogine, A. 1 965. Notes sur quelques Geokichla de la Republique du Congo. Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 

71:230-244. 
Prigogine, A. 1978. A new ground thrush from Africa. Le Gerfaut 68: 482-492. 
Rossouw, J. & Sacchi, M. 1998. Where to watch birds in Uganda. Uganda Tourist Board, Kampala. 
Serle, W. 1957. A contribution to the ornithology of the Eastern Region of Nigeria. Ibis 99: 628-685. 
Urban, E. K., Fry, C. H. & Keith, S. 1997. The birds of Africa, volume V. Academic Press, London. 

Address: Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, Department of Zoology, South Parks Road, Oxford 
OX1 3PS. jeremy.lindsell@zoo.ox.ac.uk 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

Erroneous and unconfirmed bird records 
from Belize: setting the record straight 

by H. Lee Jones 

Received 13 June 2001 

Ideally, a bird species should not be included on any country list without proper 
documentation, no matter how many times the bird has been reported, how likely it 
is to occur, or how easy it may be to identify. Documentation need only consist of 
enough information to eliminate all other species conclusively. Sometimes this is 
straightforward, sometimes not. If the credentials of the person reporting the species 
are not known, then it is helpful (but not mandatory) if the bird is photographed or 
more than one person sees and reports on the bird. For difficult-to-identify species, 
documentation of the record can be more challenging, even for a seasoned veteran. 
In these cases, detailed notes with field sketches and, ideally, a photograph or 
specimen may be necessary, or a tape-recording of calls/song where appropriate. 



H. Lee Jones 202 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Until a country's expected avifauna has been clarified, it may be hard to know 
which species are rare enough to warrant documentation. Consequently, for countries 
with a relatively poorly characterized avifauna, few sight records are likely to be 
adequately documented. The "accepted" list is primarily specimen based. Such was 
the case for Belize (then British Honduras) when Russell (1964) published the first 
reasonably comprehensive avifauna for the country. Since 1964, birding has become 
increasingly popular in Belize. With this growing popularity, the number of sight 
records has increased exponentially. Many, if not most, sight records of rare and 
unexpected species, including first country records, were inadequately documented, 
if at all. In some instances, birds were added to the popular checklists of the time 
based solely on verbal communications. For these, no permanent record exists, and 
details such as date, locality, observer, and description, if any, have long since been 
lost or forgotten. 

A significant part of the problem in understanding which species were and were 
not expected to occur in Belize was the result of: ( 1 ) birds that were poorly illustrated 
in the available field guides (e.g., Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaeniaflavogaster, various 
hawks), (2) a lack of understanding of the range of plumage variation (Ferruginous 
Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum, Summer Tanager Piranga rubra, Black-cowled 
Oriole Icterus prosthemelas), (3) taxonomic confusion (nightjars and potoos), (4) 
distribution (White-throated Swift Aeronautes saxatalis, Rufous-winged Tanager 
Tangara lavinia, etc.), and (5) potential for vagrancy (Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus , 
Lark Bunting Calamospiza melcmocorys, Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia, etc.) 

In the past decade, we have learned a lot about the expected avifauna, and 
conversely, the unexpected avifauna of Belize. The landmark^ guide to the birds of 
Mexico and northern Central America (Howell & Webb 1995) was the turning point. 
Those authors questioned many records that had been generally accepted by the 
birding community, and even a few that were considered a regular part of Belize's 
avifauna. Of these species, many have since been documented, but some remain 
undocumented. Now is an appropriate time to review those which remain unverified 
for Belize. 

This publication is my attempt to set the record straight. It is also a call for 
information. For some of the species discussed in the following accounts, supporting 
evidence for their occurrence may well exist in someone's field journal or, perhaps, 
as photographs, or even a misplaced specimen in a museum. 

The following accounts are by no means the final word on this subject. They 
merely reflect my opinion based on the information at my disposal. The species 
included in these accounts have all appeared in literature, including peer-reviewed 
journals, informal trip reports published in local or regional journals, and popular 
checklists and other material generally available to the birding public. Such 
"publications" include the Belize Audubon Society Newsletter, all Christmas Bird 
Counts (CBCs), published or otherwise widely disseminated checklists, and 
manuscripts deposited in government offices or institutions, libraries, and the Belizean 
National Archives in Belmopan. I do not include records gleaned from unpublished 
field notes, personal correspondence, word-of-mouth, or unavailable data bases. 



H. Lee Jones 203 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

It is not my intention to embarrass or offend anyone whose records I may have 
included in the accounts below - only to bring to the attention of the reader those 
species included in documents and checklists in the public domain that I believe 
lack adequate supporting information, and those species that may have been 
misidentified based on a combination of the observer's lack of experience with birds 
in the region and his or her reliance on the limited and often inaccurate reference 
material available at the time. There is no question that some of the species listed 
below were, indeed, correctly identified. I myself have recorded species new to 
Belize that meet my personal criteria for acceptance, but for which I was unable to 
obtain documentation necessary for their general acceptance. For example, I have 
heard the distinctive calls of American Pipit Anthus rubescens in Belize, a species 
with which I am thoroughly familiar and which is also long overdue in Belize, but 
my hearing of a vocalization of an unseen bird without a tape-recording does not 
constitute adequate documentation for the species' inclusion on the Belize list. 
Someday the occurrence of American Pipit will be properly documented. At that 
time, my record will serve as supporting evidence for its occurrence in Belize. 

While the opinions expressed and determinations made in this paper are mine 
alone, it is important to note that Belize is in the process of establishing a bird 
records committee, whose purpose will be to evaluate the validity of all claimed 
first country records (including those discussed in this paper), as well as other 
designated rarities. Its determinations may well differ from my own in some instances. 
The committee, expected to be operational by mid-2002, consists of seven voting 
members and a non-voting secretary. All records of birds thought to be extremely 
rare or unrecorded in Belize should be submitted to: Secretary (currently Carolyn 
Miller), Belize Bird Records Committee, Gallon Jug, Belize, Central America. For 
more information on the Belize Bird Records Committee, including a list of species 
to be evaluated by the committee, visit either www.belizebirds.com or the Belize 
Biodiversity Information System at http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/wcs/. 

Species Accounts 

SOOTY SHEARWATER Puffinus griseus 

Listed by Wood et al. (1986), Garcia et al. (1994), Miller & Miller (1994, 1998b, 
2000), Sargeant (1995), and Stotz et al. (1996). Miller & Miller (1998b, 2000) 
indicated that there are at least two records of this species by including it in their 
"Coastal Savannas" and "Cayes & Offshore" columns. I have been unable to locate 
any information whatsoever on this (these) record(s). Unless information on at least 
observer, date, locality, and circumstance is forthcoming, this (these) record(s) should 
be disregarded. 

RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON Tigrisoma lineatum 

An immature was reported by three observers near Chan Chich Lodge, western 
Orange Walk District, on 14 April 1994(Mallory 1994) and described briefly: "...the 
throat was white and feathered." Because of the unprecedented nature of the record 



H. Lee Jones 204 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

- it has not been reliably recorded west of eastern Honduras (Howell & Webb 1995) 

- and the extreme brevity of the published description, the identification should be 
considered as tentative until such time as a pattern of occurrence in northern Central 
America is established. If a detailed written description of this individual was taken, 
it should be published. 

RUDDY DUCK Oxyura jamaicensis 

Listed by Sargeant ( 1 995). Russell ( 1 964) stated, "Eisenmann ( 1 955a: 1 9) specifically 
includes British Honduras within the range of the species. I can find no basis for this 
inclusion. Mr. Eisenmann (in litt.) does not have the source of this record; 
consequently, the species should not be included on the list of British Honduran 
birds. " I am not aware of any specific reports of this species in Belize. 

BALD EAGLE Haliaeetus leucocephalus 

Counsell (1988) published an "inconclusive sighting" of this species: an immature 
closely observed in flight at Guacamallo Bridge on 3 March 1986. Although it was 
seen by ten observers, one familiar with this species, and some field marks consistent 
with this species were recorded, the identification was considered tentative by the 
author. Miller & Miller (1998a), citing Counsell (unpubl. report), dismissed this 
record as "unlikely" but implied that it was reported, at least initially, as confirmed. 

WHITE-BREASTED HAWK Accipiter [striatus] chionogaster 
Sargeant (1995) included White-breasted Hawk but not Sharp-shinned Hawk 
Accipiter striatus, which is a regular but uncommon winter visitor in Belize. There 
are also unpublished reports of A. chionogaster in Belize that most likely pertain to 
juvenile Double-toothed Kite Harpagus bidentatus, which can appear similar. White- 
breasted Hawk was recently merged with Sharp-shinned Hawk by the AOU (1998). 
This well-marked form is a resident of the highlands of southern Mexico east to 
Nicaragua. Although some seasonal altitudinal movement may occur (Howell & 
Webb 1995), it would not be expected to reach Belize. 

SWAINSON'S HAWK Buteo swainsoni 

For a species whose occurrence in Belize has never been documented, the Swainson's 
Hawk has been reported surprisingly frequently. Weyer (1984), for instance, stated: 
"Although the migrating flocks do not fly over Belize, one or two are usually seen in 
a day's birdwatching during the fall and winter, and these birds apparently maintain 
winter territories in Belize. It has been suggested that Swainson's Hawks wintering 
in Central America are mostly immatures, but the birds sighted in Belize are in full 
adult plumage." She states further: "The black phase, often considered rare, is not 
uncommon here." 

Wood et al. ( 1 986) listed it as an uncommon transient and winter resident in four 
of six regions. Wood & Leberman (1987) reported three occurrences: 23 February 
1983 (Caves Creek); 23-24 March 1984 (Columbia River Forest Camp, Toledo 
District); and 6 April 1 984 (Hummingbird Hwy). Counsell ( 1 988) reported one seen 



H. Lee Jones 205 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

on 18 March 1986 at Guacamallo Bridge, Cayo District, but gave no details. Garcia 
et al. (1994) included it as an occasional transient, and it was listed by Miller & 
Miller (1994), Sargeant (1995), Stotz et al. (1996), and Edwards (1998). It was 
recorded on six of the first seven Belize City Christmas Bird Counts (1972-1978) 
and seven of the first ten Belmopan counts ( 1 975- 1 984). Despite the seeming plethora 
of occurrences, Howell & Webb (1995) emphasized that reports from Belize require 
verification. Perhaps following their lead, Miller & Miller (1998a) discussed it under 
the heading "Problematic Species Requiring Verification in Belize," yet included it 
on both their original (1998b) and revised (2000) checklists. 

Reports of this species in winter are probably erroneous as this species is rare 
and local north of South America in winter. The fact that most reports are of adults, 
and even more remarkably, of the rare dark morph, runs directly counter to what 
would be expected, as birds seen outside their normal migratory pathways are usually 
birds of the year, and there is no reason to believe that dark morph birds would be 
disproportionately represented. While it is likely that Swainson's Hawk may occur 
in Belize as a very rare transient, even its occurrence on migration has yet to be 
documented. In fact, despite the frequency of reports in the literature, I am unaware 
of any description whatsoever accompanying a claimed Swainson's Hawk in Belize. 
That so many records of swains oni have been claimed in the past is due, in part, to 
the complexities of hawk identification coupled with (until recently) poor 
representation of hawks in the popular field guides, and in part to the generally poor 
understanding of the occurrence and seasonality of swainsoni in Central America, 
as demonstrated in Weyer's comments above. It is likely that most claims of swainsoni 
in Belize pertain to juvenal and 1 st basic plumage White-tailed Hawks {Buteo 
albicaudatus), a closely related species with a complex array of immature plumages. 
Some may also pertain to the Short-tailed Hawk {Buteo brachyurus), another species 
that, like swainsoni and albicaudatus, may fly with its wings held above the horizontal 
plane and its outer primaries held closely adpressed. 

PURPLE SWAMPHEN Porphyrio porphyrio 

An Old World species listed, apparently in error, by Sargeant (1995) who does not 

list the Purple Gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), a locally common resident of Belize. 

DOUBLE-STRIPED THICK-KNEE Burhinus bistriatus 

Russell ( 1 964) included this species based on a sight record by Lancaster and Verner 

in Belize City on the night of 1 1 February 1958. This record has been dismissed by 

all subsequent authors. Dr. Verner kindly sent me a copy of his field notes for that 

date 43 years ago, and they establish by both plumage description and vocalization 

that the bird was a juvenile night-heron, most likely Yellow-crowned Nyctanassa 

violacea. 

PIPING PLOVER Charadrius melodus 

M. H. Peck supposedly collected one at Manatee Lagoon, southern Belize District, 

in March 1901, but the specimen has never been located (Russell 1964). 



H. Lee Jones 206 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

BAIRDS SANDPIPER Calidris bairdii 

Listed by Wood et al. ( 1 986), Garcia et al. ( 1 994), Miller & Miller ( 1 994), Sargeant 
( 1 995), and Stotz et al. ( 1 996), but not by Miller & Miller ( 1 998b, 2000) or Edwards 
(1998). Howell & Webb (1995, p. 276) included extreme southwestern Belize within 
its normal migration route but did not cite any specific records. While this species 
surely occurs in Belize on occasion as a vagrant or rare transient, I can find no 
published records and only one unpublished record, but the unpublished report does 
not meet the criteria for acceptance as a first country record. 

GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL Larus marinus 

Listed as very rare (" 1 record") by Wood et al. ( 1 986), perhaps based on its inclusion 
on a list of birds seen at Caye Bokel, Turneffe Atoll, on 24-25 October 1983 (Anon. 
1 984). Howell et al. ( 1 992) reported a 1 st winter bird photographed in Belize City on 
11-12 January 1 989, but the photograph has never been critically examined and may 
have been lost. Based on this published record, it has been included in most reviews 
and checklists since (e.g., Miller & Miller 1994, 1998b, 2000; Howell & Webb 
1995; Sargeant 1995; Stotz et al. 1996; Edwards 1998). Howell (pers. comm.) has 
not seen the photograph and no longer accepts the record. With other similar species 
now turning up (or being recognized for the first time) with some regularity in the 
Gulf of Mexico (Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus; Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus 
fuscus; Band-tailed Gull Larus belcheri), L. marinus should not be considered the 
"default" large, dark-backed gull in the region (cf. Howell & Webb 1995). Therefore, 
this species remains unverified for Belize and Central America. As it continues to 
expand its range southward, it may yet reach Belize, but extreme care is needed in 
attempting to identify any large, atypical gull in Belize regardless of plumage or 
perceived likelihood of occurrence. 

ZENAIDA DOVE Zenaida aurita 

Included by Wood et al. (1986), Garcia et al. (1994), and Miller & Miller (1994) 
based on an 1 893 specimen in the Royal Ontario Museum, collected "50 miles back 
of Belize". The accuracy of the locality information accompanying this specimen 
has been questioned by Barlow et al. (1969) and Howell & Webb (1995). 

NORTHERN PYGMY-OWL Glaucidium gnoma 

Counsell (1988) mist-netted and photographed a pygmy-owl at the Guacamallo 
Bridge, Cayo District, on 8 March 1986 and mentioned two field marks that do not 
distinguish it from Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum. Both Steve 
Howell (pers. comm.) and I have examined digital images of the original photograph, 
and believe the bird to be a "typical" G. brasilianum. According to Walters (1993), 
this species was also mist-netted and ringed on 24 February 1960 in western Cayo 
District, but he included no citation or details. It was included on the list of birds in 
Belize by Stotz et al. (1996), although Howell (1995) had expressed grave doubts 
about these records a year earlier. Most observers are unaware of the wide range of 
colour and pattern variation in brasilianum. Without regard to geography, some 



H. Lee Jones 207 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 122(3) 

individuals are rich rufous-brown above and others are dull grey-brown. Also, the 
tail pattern in brasilianum is highly variable, from pale rufous to dark brown with 
up to 8 paler or darker bars or no bars at all. Thus, attempting to differentiate 
brasilianum from gnoma on plumage characters alone is problematic. Without a 
specimen or diagnostic photographs, it is best told by its vocal differences. 

TAWNY-COLLARED NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus salvini 

Included by Wood et al. (1986) before it was generally recognized that the form 
occurring in the Yucatan Peninsula, including northern Belize, was a separate species- 
the Yucatan Nightjar Caprimulgus badius (AOU 1995). Perhaps anticipating the 
pending split of Tawny-collared and Yucatan Nightjars, but confused as to which 
one occurred in Belize, Garcia et al. (1994) included both salvini and badius in their 
checklist. Sargeant (1995), on the other hand, incorrectly included salvini, but not 
C. badius, in his list. 

BUFF-COLLARED NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus ridgwayi 

Hallchurch (1982) reported two heard near the Swasey Bridge on the Southern 
Highway on 8 March 1982. Because of confusion at that time in the literature and on 
commercial audiotapes about the proper assignment of vocalizations to the various 
Central American nightjars, coupled with the frequent taxonomic lumping and 
splitting of species in the Caprimulgus complex by various authors, it is most likely 
that what they heard was some other species. C. ridgwayi is almost exclusively a 
resident of the Pacific slope and highlands of Mexico and northern Central America 
(Howell & Webb 1995) and therefore most unlikely to appear in Belize. 

GREAT POTOO Nyctibius grandis 

Listed by Wood et al. (1986) as very rare in coastal savannas, by Garcia et al. (1994) 
without any status information, and by Sargeant ( 1 995) and Stotz et al. ( 1 996) without 
comment; however, reports from Belize were considered to be erroneous by Howell 
& Webb (1995). The inclusion of this species on lists of birds recorded in Belize is 
based, in part at least, on confusion of its vocalizations with those of the Northern 
Potoo Nyctibius jamaicensis, a fairly common resident. Older commercial tape 
recordings were often of the southern Common Potoo N. griseus, formerly considered 
conspecific with jamaicensis. N. griseus, which is not known north of Nicaragua 
(AOU 1998), has a very distinctive call, whereas jamaicensis has a vocal repertoire 
that is much more similar to that of grandis, especially when heard at a distance. N. 
grandis may well be a rare resident in southern Belize, and at least one experienced 
ornithologist familiar with grandis is confident he has heard it in Belize. However, 
a recognizable archived tape recording of this species in Belize should be the 
minimum criterion for acceptance. 

BLACK SWIFT Cypseloides niger 

Included by Sargeant (1995) without explanation. 



H. Lee Jones 208 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

WHITE-NAPED SWIFT Streptoprocne semicollaris 

Listed by Garcia et al. (1994), Sargeant (1995), and Miller & Miller (1998b, 2000), 
apparently based on a report by Mallory (1994). Mallory reported 7-12 birds in the 
upper Raspaculo River area (from Cushta Bani downstream to near the Guacamallo 
Bridge) between 2 May and 3 June 1993. All of the birds had a prominent white 
nape but lacked the full white collar of adult White-collared Swifts Streptoprocne 
zonaris. She reasoned that it would be unlikely for an entire flock to be comprised 
of juvenile zonaris, which lack the full white collar. Additionally, according to 
Mallory, at least one bird seen clearly had a rounded tail, a characteristic of 
semicollaris. I have observed flocks of zonaris on several occasions in which most 
individuals lacked or appeared to lack the full white collar. Also, a widely spread 
tail, or one moulting the outer rectrices, can appear rounded. Because of the difficulty 
in observing key field marks on rapidly flying swifts, and the unprecedented nature 
of this record, it is best to consider this species' occurrence in Belize as, at best, 
tentative or inconclusive. The occurrence of zonaris in Honduras was considered 
highly tenuous by Monroe ( 1 968), even though the evidence (multiple sightings over 
a ten-year period by a number of experienced observers) was much stronger than that 
presented by Mallory. Monroe, in fact, considered it more likely that these birds 
represented an undescribed species than the improbable zonaris so far out of range. 

WHITE-THROATED SWIFT Aeronautes saxatalis 

Included in Russell ( 1 964) based on two or more sight records of multiple individuals 
and a nest collected on 27 May 1906 in the Cockscomb Mountains (Bent 1940; 
MCZ specimen no. 1 1748), although he included this species in brackets, as he did 
all records unsupported with specimens. The nest, which contained 5 eggs, proved 
to be that of Chaetura vauxi, not A. saxatalis, based on photographs provided by 
MCZ secretary Alison Pirie and examined by M. Marin (pers. comm.). Hallchurch 
(1982) reported 3 each at Big Falls, Cayo District, and Airport Camp, Belize District, 
on 5 March 1982, but did not provide any details or suggest that they were unusual. 
Perhaps, based on these records, it was included in Wood et al. (1986) as "very rare" 
in three regions. Garcia et al. (1994) and Miller & Miller (1994, 1998b, 2000) also 
included it in their checklists, but its occurrence in Belize was questioned by Howell 
& Webb (1995). Also, Edwards (1998) did not include it for Belize in his recently 
revised field guide. 

GREEN VIOLET-EAR Colibri thalassinus 
Included without explanation by Sargeant (1995). 

EMERALD-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD Abeillia abeillei 
Listed by Wood et al. (1986) as rare in coastal savannas, by Garcia et al. (1994) as 
resident (no other status information given), and by Miller & Miller ( 1 994), Sargeant 
(1995), and Stotz et al. (1996). However, Howell & Webb (1995) stated that reports 
from Belize "are not credible." The rationale for including this most unlikely montane 
species on the Belize list is not known. 



H. Lee Jones 209 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

GREEN-FRONTED HUMMINGBIRD Amazilia viridifrons 
Hallchurch ( 1 982) included this species on the basis of one mist-netted on 1 March 
1982 at Blue Creek, Toledo District. Although he stated: "Description and 
measurements verified against skins in the British Museum...", he provided no 
description or measurements in his published account; thus, it cannot be independently 
evaluated. Miller & Miller (1998a) rightly questioned the record, and no other 
published list of which I am aware has included it. 

MAGNIFICENT HUMMINGBIRD Eugenes fulgens 

Listed by Miller & Miller ( 1 994), Garcia et al. ( 1 994), and Edwards ( 1 998), probably 
based on its reported occurrence, without any descriptive information, in the Bladen 
Reserve by Brokaw & Lloyd-Evans (1987). This species superficially resembles the 
smaller Violet-crowned Woodnymph Thalurania colombica which, coincidentally, 
is found in Belize primarily in the Bladen Reserve and nearby areas in the Maya 
Mountains and foothills of central and western Toledo District. 

RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD Selasphorus rufus 

Listed by Miller & Miller (1994) without explanation other than an accompanying 
asterisk, which indicates that it has occurred in the Chan Chich/Gallon Jug area of 
western Orange Walk District. Interestingly, it was also included by Edwards ( 1 998) 
as accidental in Belize. The basis for this species' inclusion on the Belize list by 
these two authors is unknown to me. 

BLACK-BANDED WOODCREEPER Dendrocolaptes picumnus 
Included without explanation by Sargeant (1995). 

PILEATED FLYCATCHER Xenotriccus mexicanus 

This species first reached the attention of Belize birders with a brief exchange of 
letters in the Belize Audubon Society Newsletter (Vol. 26, No. 1, p. 15) in 1994. 
What began as an inquiry into the possibility of this species occurring in Belize, 
rapidly escalated to its being considered a common resident in the Cockscomb Basin 
Wildlife Sanctuary (Emmons et al. 1996). What caused the confusion was a poorly 
illustrated Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster in a popular field guide 
(Peterson & Chalif 1973). In life, the Yellow-bellied Elaenia more closely matches 
Peterson's illustrated Pileated Flycatcher, a southwest Mexican endemic, than it 
does his Yellow-bellied Elaenia. This species is still reported regularly to the author 
by local birders using Peterson & Chalif as their principal, or only, field guide. 

EASTERN PHOEBE Sayornis phoebe 

Reported on the 26 December 1978 Belmopan Christmas Bird Count, and on the 30 
December 1979 Belize City Christmas Bird Count. Hallchurch (1982) reported 
without explanation two seen at Big Falls on 2 March 1982. Although the occasional 
occurrence of this species in Belize is possible, the likelihood of two occurring 
simultaneously in the same area so far from its normal winter range is exceedingly 



H. Lee Jones 2 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

slim, as virtually all out-of-range records are of single birds. Wood et al. (1986) 
stated that it is accidental, with "2 records". Additionally, Garcia etal. (1994) indicated 
that it is also accidental on the cayes, but the basis for this is unknown to me. Miller 
& Miller (1994), Sargeant (1995), and Stotz et al. (1996) also included it in their 
lists. Howell & Webb (1995) on the other hand stated that "reports from 
Belize... require verification." As it appears that no supporting information exists for 
any of these records, its occurrence in Belize should be dismissed. A specimen record 
exists from southern Quintana Roo within a few km of the Belize border (Peters 
1913), so the possibility exists that it may yet be verified from Belize. 

WESTERN KINGBIRD Tyrannus verticalis 

Walters (1993) reported without explanation one banded near Dangriga on 16 April 
1963, and Stotz (1996) also listed this species. A tourist, on his first trip to Belize, 
reported verticalis on 29 December 1993 (Anon. 1994). He described the bird as 
having white outer tail feathers and "whit" "whit-ker-whit" vocalizations. His brief 
description does not rule out juvenile Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus tyrannus, 
which may sometimes appear yellow on the lower undersides, has a short black tail 
with white in the outer tail feathers, and similar vocalizations. Only in flight do its 
forked tail and bright pink under wing coverts become evident. 

BELL'S VIREO Vireo bellii 

Included without explanation by Sargeant (1995). 

HUTTON'S VIREO Vireo huttoni 

Listed as accidental by Wood et al (1986), Garcia et al. (1994), Miller & Miller 
(1994), and Sargeant (1995), presumably based on an 1888 specimen that has since 
been re-examined (Phillips 1991) and determined to be a juvenile Plumbeous Vireo 
Vireo plumb eus notia of the resident Belize population. Walters (1993) cited two 
huttoni banded by Nickell on 22 March 1963 and 19 March 1965 but gave no 
supporting details, other than mention of the 1888 specimen as evidence for its 
occurrence in Belize. 

CORAYA WREN Thryothorus coraya 

Included without explanation by Sargeant (1995). This species is a native of South 
America and may have been inadvertently included in place of the similarly named 
Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus . The Carolina Wren, sometimes referred 
to as the White-browed Wren Thryothorus [ludovicianus] albinucha, is a local 
resident of northern and western Belize. 

RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET Regulus calendula 

An interesting account comes from the Belize Audubon Society Newsletter (Anon. 
1984), in which Ray Ashton reported six on 25 October 1983 at Caye Bokel in the 
Turneffe Atoll during what must have been the most spectacular autumn migration 



H.Lee Jones 211 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(3) 

fallout ever witnessed in Belize. Unfortunately, he gave no details of these 
observations other than his recognition that it was unrecorded in Belize. Mallory & 
Brokaw (1997) also included it in a list of birds of the Chiquibul Forest Reserve 
without explanation. 

WHITE-LORED GNATCATCHER Polioptila albiloris 

Listed without explanation by Sargeant (1995). As he did not list the common Blue- 
gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea, it can only be assumed that he inadvertently 
listed the wrong species. 

BROWN-BACKED SOLITAIRE Myadestes occidentalis 

Listed in Wood et al. ( 1 986) as "very rare", and by Garcia et al. ( 1 994) as "accidental." 
It was also listed by Miller & Miller ( 1 994), Sargeant ( 1 995), and Stotz et al. ( 1 996). 
Wood & Leberman ( 1 987) cited a record for 2 1 June 1 985 in the Chiquibul region of 
southern Cayo District, which they described only as having an "eye-ring and 
contrasting back and nape color." They also stated that it "has been observed on a 
very few occasions near the western border of the country (Weyer, personal 
communication)". Howell & Webb (1995) stated that "a report from Belize... requires 
verification." Clement (2000), on the other hand, mis-stated Howell & Webb: "Has 
apparently wandered to Belize, but Howell & Webb (1995) questioned whether the 
record might refer to an escaped bird." I have been unable to find any additional 
supporting information for the Chiquibul bird or any other reported occurrence in 
Belize. 

ORANGE-BILLED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH Catharus aurantiirostris 
A bird believed to be this species was briefly described by Kamstra ( 1 995) from the 
Lamanai Archaeological Reserve, Orange Walk District, on 10 February 1995. His 
description: 

"...observed closely for about 10 minutes at 7 am... perched in a tall tree in 
full sunlight, about 8 metres above the ground. It was calling and occasionally 
shifted its position within the tree. The bird had a thrush-like body form with 
relatively long tail. The back was dull olive-grey while the undersides were 
uniform pale grey. It had a distinctive bright orange bill. I did not notice the 
leg colour." 

This species is subject to some degree of vagrancy (one recently in southern 
Texas) and is, therefore, not entirely unlikely; however, the observer's description is 
at odds with a nightingale-thrush's typical haunts. The Orange-billed Nightingale- 
thrush is a bird of shaded forest understory and would be most unlikely 8 metres 
high in a tree in full sunlight. But for the bright orange bill (a yellow bill could be 
perceived as orange in bright sunlight), the description is consistent with that of a 
White-throated Robin Turdus assimilis, a species that is occasionally seen at Lamanai 
(England 2000). 



H. Lee Jones 2 1 2 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3 ) 

GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER Dendroica chrysoparia 
Wood et al. (1986) included this species without explanation as a very rare transient 
in the Mountain Pine Ridge, and Garcia et al. (1994) listed it as accidental in the 
Mountain Pine Ridge. It was also listed by Miller & Miller (1994), but not in their 
1998 checklist or their revised 2000 checklist. Howell & Webb (1995) stated that "a 
report from Belize... requires verification." This rare species winters locally at higher 
elevations (typically above 1,500 m) in Guatemala and southern Mexico (Braun et 
al. 1986; Howell & Webb 1995), and could perhaps occur as a stray in the Mountain 
Pine Ridge (maximum elevation 1,020 m). 

PINE WARBLER Dendroica pinus 

Wood et al. (1986) and Garcia et al. (1994) included this species as very rare in the 
Mountain Pine Ridge. Miller & Miller (1994, 1998b, 2000), Sargeant (1995), and 
Stotz et al. (1996) also listed it. Ashton (Anon. 1984) listed this species, along with 
two others new to Belize (see Great Black-backed Gull and Ruby-crowned Kinglet 
accounts, above) in an account of the incredible fall migration at Caye Bokel on 24- 
25 October 1983. Howell & Webb (1995), however, rejected all claims from Belize 
as unsupported. This species is unlikely to occur on geographic grounds, as it is very 
rare even as far south as extreme northern Mexico (Howell & Webb 1995; Rodewald 
et al. 1999). D. pinus can present an especially difficult identification challenge, as 
it is routinely confused with several other members of the Parulidae. 

CONNECTICUT WARBLER Oporornis agilis 

Included by Russell (1964), and subsequently on all published checklists for the 

country, based on an observation by J. Verner: 

"On 7 May 1958, Verner observed a typical male Connecticut Warbler under 
ideal conditions on Half Moon Caye. Verner spent over an hour in an 
unsuccessful attempt to collect the bird; at times the bird was so close to him 
that he was unwilling to shoot it for fear that he might destroy the specimen. 
On several occasions he was able to see the grey hood and the very distinct, 
complete eye-ring. Verner had collected Oporornis Philadelphia the day before 
and saw another while trying to collect the Connecticut Warbler. He was 
quite aware of the rarity of this species." 

I consider this sight record by a single observer tenuous for the following reasons: 
( 1 ) it would represent the only record of this species for all of Mexico and northern 
Central America (Howell & Webb 1 995); (2) there is no mention in Russell's account 
of this species' characteristic walking gait which easily separates it from the other 
Oporornis; (3) the fact that female Philadelphia can have a complete white eye-ring 
and nearly all grey hood in alternate plumage (thus resembling agilis) was virtually 
unrecognized before the 1970s; and (4), a specimen collected by Verner on Little 
Water Caye one week later (14 May 1958), which he identified as agilis, was instead 
a female Philadelphia (LSU specimen no. 22439). 



H. Lee Jones 2 1 3 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 122(3) 

RED-HEADED TANAGER Piranga erythrocephala 

Wood et al. (1986) included this species on the basis of one record; however, the 
source and details of that record are unknown to me. Miller & Miller (1994) and 
Sargeant (1995) also included this species in their lists. P. erythrocephala is a west 
Mexican endemic that is most unlikely to occur anywhere near Belize; therefore, it 
is not surprising that Howell & Webb (1995) rejected it as not credible. This species 
may have been confused in the past with moulting male Summer Tanager Piranga 
rubra, which often have red confined almost entirely to the head. Earlier field guides 
did not illustrate this plumage of/? rubra. 

RUFOUS-WINGED TANAGER Tangara lavinia 

Wood et al. (1986) listed this species as rare in southern hardwood forests, and 
Peterson & Chalif (1973) stated: "Reported B. Honduras." Miller & Miller (1994), 
Sargeant (1995), and Stotz et al. (1996) also listed it for Belize. This species is a 
resident of southern Central America occurring north only to eastern Honduras (AOU 
1998), and it is unlikely to occur in Belize on geographical grounds. The Belize 
records were rejected by Howell & Webb (1995, p. 770) as "not credible", and a 
record from Guatemala was a mislabeled Golden-hooded Tanager Tangara larvata 
(Jenkinson & Mengel 1979). 

LARK BUNTING Calamospiza melanocorys 

Included as very rare in northern hardwood forest by Wood et al. (1986). Garcia et 
al. (1994), Miller & Miller (1994), and Stotz et al. (1996) also listed it for Belize. 
Peterson & Chalif (1973) stated: "Accidental B. Honduras." The basis for the 
inclusion of this species in these publications is unknown to me. It is found in winter 
south only to north-central Mexico. Extreme caution is needed in identifying all 
out-of-range birds, no matter how striking they may be, and especially birds whose 
identification is based largely on the presence of white wing patches. For example, 
partially albinistic or leucistic sparrows and finches with white patches in their wings 
are frequently reported as C. melanocorys in the United States (personal experience). 

GRASSLAND SPARROW Ammodramus humeralis 

This South American species was included in error by Sargeant (1995), apparently 
in place of its congener the Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum, which 
is locally common in pine savannas in Belize. 

SONG SPARROW Melospiza melodia 

Included without explanation by Miller & Miller (1994). 

LAZULI BUNTING Passerina amoena 

According to Miller & Miller (1998a), "One record exists from a reliable observer 
along the Macal River, Chiquibul National Park, where several individuals were 
seen during a four-day period in 1993 (Tzib pers. comm.)." My attempts to learn 



H. Lee Jones 2 1 4 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

more about this improbable record (e.g., time of year, number of birds, sex, how 
identified, etc.) have not been successful. Unless more information is forthcoming, 
this record should be disregarded as hearsay. 

AUDUBON'S ORIOLE Icterus graduacauda 

Included by Garcia et al. ( 1 994) and Miller & Miller ( 1 994, 1 998b, 2000). Edwards 
( 1 998) included it as accidental with a question mark. Miller & Miller ( 1 998a) stated 
"...records exist for Gallon Jug and Rio Bravo, as well as Lamanai (Noble et al. 
pers. comm.) and the Bladen (Brokaw & Lloyd-Evans 1987). Robbins (pers. comm.) 
recorded two individuals in the Toledo District in January 1989." This species is 
widely reported in Belize despite the fact that it is sedentary and found no closer to 
Belize than central Veracruz on the Atlantic Slope and Oaxaca on the Pacific Slope, 
each 800 km to the west. I suspect that most or all of these reports are based on 
misidentified Black-cowled Orioles Icterus prosthemelas. The extent of plumage 
variation in female and juvenile prosthemelas is greatly under-appreciated. For 
example, many prosthemelas (immature males and adult females) have a nearly 
complete black hood, and some of these in turn have no black in the back (personal 
observations). Howell & Webb (1995, Plate 66) illustrated some of these plumage 
variations. 

Conclusion 

Forty-five species for which confirmation appears to be lacking, are reviewed in 
this paper. Some have undoubtedly occurred and only lack proper documentation; 
others (primarily migratory species) have the potential to occur but fall short of 
having the minimum required documentation, and still others (mostly sedentary or 
near-sedentary species) are highly improbable and are, no doubt, based on 
misidentifications. My placement of these species in the above categories (Table 1) 
is, of course, somewhat arbitrary, and to some degree reflects my consideration 
about their likelihood of occurrence. Until we learn more about patterns of dispersal, 
especially in the nocturnal, hard to identify, and easily overlooked species (e.g., 
owls, nightjars, and swifts), the assignment of birds to these various lists is tenuous. 
For example, I would never have predicted Flame-colored Tanager Piranga bidentata 
to have a resident population in Belize (Jones et al. 2000) before receiving a report 
from a highly competent observer and subsequently seeing it myself. Other mid- 
elevation species from the mountains of nearby Guatemala may yet prove to have 
small populations on one or more of the higher, unexplored peaks in Belize, but 
their presence remains undocumented. 

Acknowledgments 

I would especially like to thank Alison Pirie, Secretary to Dr. R. A. Paynter, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard, for providing photographs of the swift nest, and to Manuel Marin, for critically 
examining photographs of the swift nest. Steve Howell kindly reviewed the manuscript and offered a 
number of useful suggestions. 



H. Lee Jones 2 1 5 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

References 

AOU. 1995. Fortieth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union check-list of North American 

birds. Auk 112:819-830. 
AOU. 1998. The A.O. U. Checklist of North American Birds (7 th ed.). AOU, Washington, DC. 
Anon. 1984. Warbler migration. Belize Audubon Society Newsletter 15(10):7. 
Anon. 1994. Unusual bird species for Belize. Belize Audubon Society Newsletter 26(1): 15. 
Barlow, J. C, Dick, J. A., Baldwin, D. H. & Davis, R. A. 1969. New records from British Honduras. Ibis 

111:399-402. 
Bent, A. C. 1 940. Life histories of North American cuckoos, goatsuckers, hummingbirds and their allies. 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 176:313. 
Braun, M. J., Braun, D. & Terrill, S. B. 1986. Winter records of the Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica 

chrysoparia) from Mexico. Amer. Birds 41:564-566. 
Brokaw, N. L. V. & Lloyd-Evans, T. L. 1987. The Bladen Branch Wilderness: a special report, pp. 38- 

42. Manomet Bird Observatory. 
Clement, R 2000. Thrushes. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 
Counsell, D. 1988. The RAFOS expedition to Belize, Feb-Mar 1986. Royal Air Force Ornithol. Soc. J. 

18:17-63. 
Edwards, E. P. 1998. A field guide to the birds of Mexico and adjacent areas. Univ. Texas Press, Austin. 
Eisenmann, E. 1955. The species of Middle American birds. Trans. Linnaean Soc. 7, New York. 
Emmons, K. M., Horwich, R. H., Kamstra, J., Saqui, E., Beveridge, J., McCarthy, T, Meerman, J., 

Silver, S. C, Pop, I., Koontz, F., Pop E., Saqui, H., Ostro, L., Pixabaj, P., Beveridge, D. & Lumb, J. 

1996. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary: Its History, Flora and Fauna for Visitors, Teachers 

and Scientists. Producciones de la Hamaca, Caye Caulker, Belize, and Orang-utan Press, Gays 

Mills, Wisconsin. 
England, M. C. 2000. Landbird monitoring programme at Lamanai, Belize: a preliminary assessment. 

Cotinga 13: 32-43. 
Garcia, J., Matola, S., Meadows, M. & Wright, C. 1994. A checklist of the birds of Belize. World Wildlife 

Fund, Belize City. 
Hallchurch, T. T. 1982. Exercise King Vulture Belize: 23 February - 16 March 1982. Adjutant 12: 1-37. 
Howell, S. N. G. 1995. A critique of Walters' (1993) new bird records from Belize. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 

115:177-180. 
Howell, S. N. G. & Webb, S. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. 

Oxford Univ. Press, New York. 
Howell, S. N. G, Dowell, B. A., James, D. A., Behrstock, R. A. & Robbins, C. S. 1992. New and 

noteworthy bird records from Belize. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 112:235-244. 
Jenkinson, M. A. & Mengel, R. M. 1 979. Notes on an important nineteenth century collection of Central 

and North American birds made by N. S. Goss. Occas. Papers Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 81:1- 

10. 
Jones, H. L., McRae, E., Meadows, M. & Howell, S. N. G. 2000. Status updates for selected bird species 

in Belize, including several species previously undocumented from the country. Cotinga 13:17-31. 
Kamstra, J. 1995. Two new bird species for Belize. Belize Audubon Society Newsletter 27(1): 10. 
Mallory, E. 1994. Noteworthy bird sightings: JSSEUR Expedition. Belize Audubon Society Newsletter 

26(3):12. 
Mallory, E. P. & Brokaw, V. L. 1997. Impacts of silvicultural trials on birds and tree regeneration in the 

Chiquibul Forest Reserve, Belize. Consultancy Report No. 20, The Forest Planning and Management 

Project, Ministry of Natural Resources, Belmopan. 
Miller, B. W. & Miller, C. M. 1998a. Ornithology in Belize since 1960. Wilson Bull. 110:544-558. 
Miller, B. W. & Miller, C. M. 1998b. Birds of Belize: a checklist. Belize Audubon Society, Belize City. 
Miller, B. W. & Miller, C. M. 2000. Birds of Belize: a checklist, 2" d revised edition. Belize Audubon 

Society, Belize City. 
Miller, C. M. & Miller, B. W. 1994. Exploring the tropical forest at Chan Chich Lodge Belize. Wildlife 

Conservation Society, Gallon Jug, Belize. 



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Monroe, B. L., Jr. 1968. A distributional survey of the birds of Honduras. Ornith. Monog. No. 7, AOU, 

Lawrence, Kansas. 
Peters, J. L. 1913. List of birds collected in the territory of Quintana Roo, Mexico, in the winter and 

spring of 1912. Auk 30:367-380. 
Peterson, R. T. & Chalif, E. L. 1973. A field guide to Mexican birds. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 
Phillips, A. R. 1991. The known birds of North and Middle America, Part II. A. R. Phillips, Denver, 

Colorado. 
Rodewald, P. G, Withgott, J. H. & Smith, K. G. 1999. Pine Warbler {Dendroica pinus). In The birds of 

North America, No. 438 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, 

Pennsylvania. 
Russell, S. M. 1964. A distributional study of the birds of British Honduras. Ornith. Monog. No. 1, 

AOU, Lawrence, Kansas. 
Sargeant, D. E. 1995. Birder's checklist of the birds of Belize. Self-published, Holt, Norfolk, UK. 
Stotz, D. F., Fitzpatrick, J. W., Parker, T. A., Ill & Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology 

and conservation. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago. 
Walters, R. 1993. Some records of birds from Belize, Central America, including three first records. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 113:145-147. 
Weyer, D. 1984. Diurnal birds of prey of Belize. The Hawk Trust Annual Report 14:22-39. 
Wood, D. S. & Leberman, R. C. 1987. Results of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History expedition to 

Belize. III. Distributional notes on the birds of Belize. Annals Carnegie Mus. 56:137-160. 
Wood, D. S., Leberman, R. C. & Weyer, D. 1986. Checklist of the birds of Belize. Carnegie Mus. Spec. 

Publ.No. 12. 

Address: H. Lee Jones, 6108 Wildwood Road, Lake Isabella, California 93240, USA. E-mail: 
buteo@attglobal.net 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

A newly discovered specimen of Kalinowski's 

Tinamou Nothoprocta kalinowskii from the 

Andean Pacific slope of Peru 

by Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos 

Received 10 July 2001 

Kalinowski's Tinamou Nothoprocta kalinowskii is a threatened species endemic to 
Peru, known only from two ancient specimens (BirdLife International 2000) and a 
recent sight record. The first specimen was collected in 1 894 at Licamachay, south 
of Cuzco town, Cuzco (elevation 4,575 m) and the second from Tulpo, on the Andean 
Pacific slope, south-east of Huamachuco, La Libertad (c. 3,000 m) (Blake 1977, 
Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990, Collar et al 1994, Stattersfield et al. 1998, BirdLife 
International 2000). In May 2000, G. Engblom saw a Kalinowski's Tinamou and 
collected a feather from near Tulpo (per J. Fjeldsa, pers. comm.). The aim of this 
paper is to report a newly discovered specimen of this rare bird from the Andean 
Pacific slope of Peru. 



Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos 



217 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 



When examining some bird specimens 
from Peru, deposited in the 'Colecao 
Ornitologica do Departamento de 
Zoologia da Universidade Federal de 
Minas Gerais' (DZUFMG) in Belo 
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, I found 
one tinamou identified as Ornate Tinamou 
Nothoprocta ornata. I checked this 
specimen with the plate and description in 
Fjeldsa & Krabbe (1990) and concluded it 
was a Kalinowski's Tinamou Nothoprocta 
kalinowskii, since its wing-coverts are very 
densely barred, and secondaries and 
tertials barred with rufous-brown (Fig. 1). 
The neck is not uniform drab-gray, as 
described for N ornata (Fjeldsa & Krabbe 
1990), but it is whitish, speckled with dark- 
brown. This specimen cannot be the 
Curve-billed Tinamou Nothoprocta 
curvirostris, another species with rufous 
colouration in the secondaries, because of 
its spotted (rather than striped) face, the 
grey breast, finely mottled pinkish grey 
underparts, and distinctly shorter bill (also 
in comparison with N. ornata) (Blake 
1977, Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990). 

This male bird (DZUFMG 3014) was collected by Ismael Arevalo Benites on 10 
December 1970 at Sinsicap, Otuzco, La Libertad. Unfortunately, there is no 
information about the habitat at the collecting site on the specimen's label. The 
measurements (mm) taken were: wing (flat) 187.0, tarsus 31.3, culmen (to skull) 
26.6. 

Otuzco (07°50'S, 78°30'W) is c. 60 km from Huamachuco (07°50'S, 78°05'W), 
close to the locality where the second N kalinowskii specimen was collected. 

Since the species had not been found since 1900 there were suspicions that it 
was extinct (Collar et al. 1994, BirdLife International 2000), but this specimen and 
the recent sighting by G. Engblom show that N kalinowskii lived in the Otuzco 
region at least till 1970, and still survives nearTulpo. To ascertain its current status 
and distribution more precisely, searches for N kalinowskii should be undertaken 
on the Pacific slope of La Libertad, and also in Cordillera Vilcabamba and adjacent 
Apurimac, where remnant populations of this rare species may still exist. 



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Figure 1. Kalinowski's Tinamou Nothoprocta 
kalinowskii specimen (DZUFMG 3014) from 
Otuzco, La Libertad, Peru. Photo: M. F. 
Vasconcelos. 



Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Dr. Jon Fjeldsa for his critical review of the manuscript. 



Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos 2 1 8 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

References: 

BirdLife International. 2000. Threatened birds of the world. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, 

Barcelona and Cambridge, UK. 
Blake, E. R. 1977. Manual of Neotropical birds. Vol. 1. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago. 
Collar, N. J., Crosby, M. J. & Stattersfield, A. J. 1994. Birds to watch 2: the world list of threatened 

birds. BirdLife International (Conservation Series 4), Cambridge, UK. 
Fjeldsa, J. & Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes . Zoological Museum University of Copenhagen 

and Apollo Books, Copenhagen and Svendborg. 
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. & Wege, D. C. 1 998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities 

for biodiversity conservation. BirdLife International (Conservation Series 7), Cambridge, UK. 

Address: Colecao Ornitologica, Departamento de Zoologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 
C.R 486, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, e-mail: bacurau@mono.icb.ufmg.br. Current 
address: Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Av. Rui Braga, 
s/n°, 39401-089, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Relationship of the Red-thighed Sparrowhawk 

Accipiter erythropus and the African Little 

Sparrowhawk A. minullus 

by Michel Louette 

Received 13 July 2001 

The taxonomy of the two smallest and parapatric African Accipiters is in dispute; 
some authors consider them as belonging to a single species (Wattel 1973, Snow 
1978), others as separate species (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1994). In the 
forest-dwelling Red-thighed Sparrowhawk Accipiter erythropus, two subspecies are 
recognised by Brown et al. (1982): the smaller nominate race in forested Upper 
Guinea, the larger A. e. zenkeri in forested Lower Guinea. In the African Little 
Sparrowhawk A. minullus, living in woodland from Ethiopia to the Cape, several 
races were described but none is nowadays recognised. In measurements, these two 
sparrowhawks are very similar, although A. e. zenkeri is c. 5% larger in wing-length 
than A. minullus (Wattel 1973, Prigogine 1980, Kemp & Crowe 1994, Kemp & 
Kemp 1998), which in turn is therefore about the same size as A. e. erythropus 
(Brown et al. 1982). They share an unique pattern of a white rump and broken white 
upper tail-bars. They differ in adult plumage colour: the Red-thighed Sparrowhawk 
is darker above than the African Little Sparrowhawk, is indistinctly barred or unbarred 
ventrally and has unbarred rufous flank and thigh feathers, whereas the African 
Little Sparrowhawk is distinctly barred ventrally with paler flanks. The eye is reddish 
in the Red-thighed Sparrowhawk and normally yellow in the African Little 
Sparrowhawk (Allan 1997, but see Liversidge 1962 for occasional red eye colour). 



Michel Louette 219 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(3) 

Other authors, including Dowsett & Dowsett -Lemaire (1993) advocated that, 
before deciding on their specific status, more evidence was required. I present here 
four points, based on (old) material in collections. 

Specimen information 

1) Prigogine (1980) studied the specimens present in the Royal Museum for Central 
Africa (RMCA). He claimed that the taxa 'ne sont pas en contact dans Test du Zaire' 
(suggesting that they are, elsewhere) and produced a map with localities in Zaire 
(now Democratic Republic of Congo - DRC) and adjoining countries. The map 
contains one dot for A. minullus in western DRC, also present in Snow's (1978) 
atlas. This locality is Gungu (according to the 'Gazetteer and Maps of African bird 
localities', prepared by B.P. Hall for the atlas publications) at 05°44'S, 19°19'E. The 
presence of A. minullus at Gungu was indeed mentioned by Schouteden (1965). 
This, unfortunately, is in error: in fact H. Wille collected two specimens of Shikra A 
badius (RMCA 101059 and 1 1 1290, already correctly identified in 1964) there. It is 
surprising that A. Prigogine, who had ample access to the RMCA collection, did not 
look up these specimens. Two more localities for A erythropus from DRC became 
known after the publication of Prigogine's map: Ngongo at 04°24'S, 17°42'E and 
Kibu at 03 o 21'S, 28°33'E. I confirm that there are no specimens of A minullus from 
western DRC, which seems to be occupied completely by A. erythropus, apparently 
occurring also in the well-wooded regions outside evergreen forest. 

2) A. erythropus is traditionally mentioned from a single locality in Angola: 'Quibula, 
interior of Benguella' of Barboza du Bocage (1892a, 1892b), said to be by Rosa 
Pinto ( 1 983) 'near Massano de Amorim, Huambo province' . It is indicated on Snow's 
and Prigogine's maps. This isolated far southern occurrence was repeated in Traylor 
(1960, 1963), Rosa Pinto (1983) and Dean (2000). The specimen (female according 
to Barboza du Bocage 1892a, Traylor 1960 and Rosa Pinto but male according to 
Barboza du Bocage 1892b) was collected by Anchieta and said to have been sent to 
the Museum in Lisbon. It is no longer available (the Lisbon collection was destroyed 
by fire in 1978), but it is uncertain if it was ever deposited there (some Barboza du 
Bocage specimens were donated to other museums). Traylor and Rosa Pinto were 
unable to examine it. Barboza du Bocage's identification of this singleton (as A. 
hartlaubi, a synonym of A. erythropus) was made in comparison with a plate in 
Sharpe (PI. V, published in 1876, according to Traylor 1960, but in fact PI. VI, 
published in 1874) where an adult Red-thighed Sparrowhawk is depicted. Traylor 
(1960) says 'that the picture is perfectly clear' (with which I agree) and 'it would 
not be possible to confuse with a specimen of minullus' (which I doubt). In his 
1 892a paper, Barboza du Bocage gives the colour of the unfeathered parts, as noted 
by Anchieta: 'iris colour of red minium, cere and eye rim pale yellow, legs virgin 
wax colour' (my translation). This combination of colours does not correspond well 
with an adult Red-thighed Sparrowhawk (which has orange cere and legs). I have 



Michel Louette 220 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

serious doubts that A erythropus was really involved, or that it is present in this part 
of Angola. Whereas A minullus is widespread in Angola (Dean 2000), the sympatry 
of the two taxa in this country is unproven. 

3) The RMCAhas three specimens of A minullus taken in Baraka at 04°06'S, 29°06'E, 
Kivu, on Lake Tanganyika, DRC by Cdt Pauwels, in or before 1910. In the register 
the eye colour for all three is given as 'red'. Careful re-examination of the two adult 
males and the one adult female reveals the following: 

Male RMCA 1500 was compared with 10 adult male A minullus from Kenya, 
Rwanda and southern DRC and 25 adult male A. e. zenkeri from DRC. It is decidedly 
an intermediate. Diagnosis: dorsal colour darker than A. minullus, not quite so dark 
as A. erythropus. Ear coverts grey, not black as in A. erythropus. Ventral side within 
the variation for A. erythropus, not A. minullus: weak barring, uniform red flank 
feathers; thighs to the contrary barred grey on white as in A. minullus, not rufous or 
rufous and unbarred grey as in A. erythropus. 

Male RMCA 1499 is somewhat stained on ear-coverts and breast. I consider it to 
resemble A. minullus, but it has deep rusty flanks, compared to the other adult A. 
minullus males in RMCA. It could be an intermediate with mostly A. minullus 
characteristics. 

Female RMCA 1498 was compared with nine adult female A. minullus from 
Kenya, Ethiopia, Rwanda and DRC and with nine adult female A. erythropus from 
DRC, and seems to fall within the normal variation for A. minullus. 

Two adult male birds from southern Rwanda also deserve mentioning (RMCA 
69605 from Mayaga at 02°15'S, 29°35'E and RMCA 88559 from riviere Akanyaru 
at c. 2°24'-48'S, 29 o 35'S-30°00'E). Their dorsal side and head is very dark, darker 
than all other A. minullus available in the RMCA collection; ventrally they match A. 
minullus. 

Wing lengths of the males cited above (in mm): 1500: 147; 1499: 147; 69605 in 
moult; 88559: 145. These measurements are within the range for both taxa, as given 
inPrigogine(1980): A e. zenkeri 145-157 mm; A. minullus: 137-147 mm (including 
the birds singled out here). 

It is conceivable that some hybridisation takes place in the DRC- Rwanda border 
region, which is a potential contact zone between the taxa {contra Prigogine 1980). 

4) Differences in juvenile plumage are raised as an important point by those authors 
advocating specific separation of the two taxa. Differences do exist but there is also 
variation within each taxon (Chapin 1932, Kemp & Kemp 1998). I examined 14 A 
minullus specimens from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda and DRC (including AMNH 
262 1 90, collected by Chapin (1932) at Kisenyi at 1 °42'S, 29° 1 5'E, not on Prigogine's 
map), two A. e. erythropus from Togo and six A. e. zenkeri from DRC. Stresemann 
(1926) described two juvenile birds from Beni at 0°28'N, 29°28'E as A. minullus 
sassii. I have seen pictures of both, they seem to be typical A e. zenkeri. In general, 
A. erythropus is darker dorsally than A. minullus; ventrally: A. erythropus is saturated 



Michel Louette 22 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

with rusty on the thighs and on the flanks, which are also heavily barred. The two A. 
erythropus races differ apparently in that the central part of the belly is sparsely 
marked in A. e. zenkeri, which is weakly streaked or spotted, but in the nominate 
race, the ventral side is heavily barred rufous. The ventral side of A. minullus is 
variable, but in most specimens heavily streaked or spotted, including the central 
parts of the belly and breast. In fact, the differences between A. erythropus and A. 
minullus are those one would expect between such differently coloured birds as 
adults. Indeed, immature plumage heralds the adult plumage (Louette 2000, 2001 
for the African Goshawk A. tachiro) and this may explain the difference in dorsal 
hue. Differences in spotting on the ventral side in the juvenile are also present among 
the similarly distributed African Goshawk, which represents a similar but more 
complex case, demonstrating plumage variation according to habitat in this genus 
(Louette 2000, 2001). 

Conclusion 

The provisional distribution in the west of the potential contact zone, the occasional 
hybridisation in the east and the variation in the juvenile plumage lead me to consider 
the Red-thighed Sparrowhawk and the African Little Sparrowhawk as typical 
allospecies in a superspecies (Amadon & Short 1992). They may even prove to 
belong to a single biological species in the classical sense (see above for morphometry, 
suggesting a similar ecology and identical complex upper tail pattern). They are 
likely to have evolved for some time in separate regions and possess a plumage hue 
according to the general habitat there (forest and woodland). In more recent times, 
their distribution ranges approached, with localised (occasional or regular?) 
hybridisation (even by 1910, before massive deforestation). The range of the African 
Little Sparrowhawk is peculiar: it is nowadays still absent from west Africa, which 
is surprising, because the habitat seems adequate; its region of origin must have 
been to the south or east of that of the Red-thighed Sparrowhawk. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank I. Carreira, C. Hazevoet and R. Prys-Jones, who commented upon the destination 
of bird skins in the Barboza du Bocage collection. C. Blake sent a specimen on loan from the American 
Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York and A. Gamauf and S. Frahnert sent pictures of type 
material held in the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna and the Museum fuer Naturkunde, Berlin. 

W. Tavernier translated parts of the Portuguese texts. M. Herremans, A. Reygel and P. Herroelen 
were helpful with literature and specimen examination. 

References: 

Allan, D.G. 1997. Field identification of African Accipiter species and similar-looking hawks. Bull. Afr. 

Bird CI. 4: 74-82. 
Amadon, D. & Short, L.L. 1992. Taxonomy of lower categories - suggested guidelines. Bull. Brit. Orn. 

CI. Suppl. 112A: 11-38. 
Barboza du Bocage, J.V. 1892a. Aves do sertao de BengueMa.Jornal de Sciencias, Mathematicas, Physicas 

eNaturaes.2(U): 157-172. 
Barboza du Bocage, J.V. 1 892b. Additions et corrections a l'Ornithologie d' Angola. Jornal de Sciencias, 

Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes. 2 (VIII): 248-264. 



Michel Louette 222 Bull. B.O. C 2002 122(3) 

Brown, L.H., Urban, E. K. & Newman, K. 1982. The birds of Africa. Volume 1 . Academic Press, London. 
Chapin, J.P. 1932. The birds of the Belgian Congo. Part l.Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-756. 
Dean, W.R.J. 2000. The birds of Angola. An annotated checklist. Checklist N° 18. British Ornithologists's 

Union, Tring. 
del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of birds of the world. Vol 2. Lynx Edicions, 

Barcelona. 
Dowsett, R.J. & Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1993. Comments on the taxonomy of some Afrotropical bird 

species, pp 323-389. In: Dowsett, R.J. & Dowsett-Lemaire, F. A contribution to the taxonomy of 

Afrotropical and Malagasy birds. Tauraco Research Report N° 5. Tauraco Press, Liege. 
Kemp, A. & Crowe, T. 1994. A morphometric analysis of Accipiter species. In: Meyburg, B.U. & 

Chancellor, R.D. Raptor conservation today, pp 651-665. Pica press, East Sussex. 
Kemp, A. & Kemp, M. 1998. Birds of prey of Africa and its islands. New Holland, London. 
Liversidge, R. 1962. The breeding biology of the Little Sparrowhawk Accipiter minullus. Ibis 104: 399- 

406. 
Louette, M. 2000. Evolutionary exposition from plumage pattern in African Accipiter. Ostrich 71: 45- 

50. 
Louette, M. 2001 . Redesciption of African Goshawks Accipiter tachiro on Bioko island and the adjacent 

mainland. Ostrich 72: 24-27. 
Prigogine, A. 1980. Etude de quelques contacts secondaires au Zaire oriental. Gerfaut 70: 305-384. 
da Rosa Pinto, A. A. 1983. Ornitologia de Angola. 1° Volume (Non Passeres). Instituto de Investigacao 

Cientifica Tropical, Lisboa. 
Schouteden, H. 1965. La faune ornithologique de la province du Kwango. Doc. Zool. (Musee Royal de 

lAfrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique) 8: 1-60. 
Sharpe, R.B. 1874. Catalogue of birds in the British Museum. Volume I. Trustees of the British Museum 

(Natural History), London. 
Snow, D.W. 1978. An atlas ofspeciation in African non-passerine birds. Trustees of the British Museum 

(Natural History), London. 
Stresemann, E. 1924. Accipiter minullus sassii subsp. n.. Orn. Mber. 32: 109. 
Traylor, M.A. 1960. Notes on the birds of Angola, non-passeres. pp. 131-186. In: Estudios Diversos 

(XIX). Publ. Culturais. N° 51. Companhia de diamantes de Angola, Lisboa. 
Traylor, M.A. 1963. Check-list of Angolan birds. Publ. Culturais. N° 61. Companhia de diamantes de 

Angola, Lisboa. 
Wattel, J. 1973. Geographical differentiation in the genus Accipiter. Publ. Nuttall Orn. Club. 13: 1-231. 

Address: Dr Michel Louette, Royal Museum for Central Africa, B 3080 Tervuren, Belgium. 
louette@africamuseum.be 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

Hippolais warblers apparently breeding on the 
north Somalia coast 

by J. S.Ash & D.J. Pearson 

Received 17 July 2001 

In May 1979 JSA and J.E.Miskell found two intriguing species of warblers in trees 
near the north-west Somalia coast. One was an Acrocephalus with a wing formula 
like that of the African Reed Warbler A. baeticatus, the other a small Hippolais. In 



J. S. Ash & D.J.Pearson 223 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(2) 

the following May, these observers found the same two species in north and north- 
east Somalia, singing in coastal mangroves. Examination of specimens of the 
Acrocephalus warbler, together with similar birds collected from the Red Sea coasts 
of Eritrea, Sudan and Arabia, resulted in the naming of a new taxon, A.[baeticatus] 
avicenniae (Ash et al. 1989), soon shown to be widely present in the Red Sea and 
Gulf of Aden mangroves. The Hippolais warblers were also thought to be a locally 
breeding form, for examples collected all had enlarged gonads. They were treated 
by Ash & Miskell (1998) under Olivaceous Warbler H. pallida, but further study 
and comparisons were required. 

We have recently re-examined the 1979-80 specimens and compared them 
carefully with other small brown or greyish-brown Hippolais forms. We have 
investigated reports of similar warblers elsewhere on the southern Red Sea and north 
Somalia coasts, and have located a specimen from Eritrea which appears to be the 
same as the Somalia mangrove birds. 

Observations in Somalia 1979-1980 

In 1979, Hippolais warblers were first found singing on 8 May in the tops ofTamarix 
trees in a dry wadi 6 km north-east of Giriyaad (10°51'N, 43°16'E), within 30 km of 
the sea. One bird was netted and collected. From 9-12 May, several more were 
singing in tall Acacia, Tamarix and Conocarpus trees in irrigated gardens at Takoshe 
(11°21'N, 43°25'E), near Zeila. 

In 1980, observations were made further east at Alula (1 1°58'N, 50°46'E) on 2-3 
May. Many warblers were singing in mangroves round a coastal lagoon 1 km east of 
the town. The situation was confused by the presence of several migrants (Marsh 
Warbler A. palustris and Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita identified with certainty), 
but the bulk of the song came from two species, a pale brown Acrocephalus, later to 
be described as the Mangrove Reed Warbler A. (baeticatus) avicenniae and a 
somewhat greyer Hippolais. The Hippolais had a tinge of brownness above and 
were pale below, with long pale supercilia, sagittate bills and no trace of pale wing 
panels; they lacked the tail or wing-flicking typical of//, pallida elaeica or Upcher's 
Warbler H. languida. They sang rather like elaeica but with frequent paired notes 
reminiscent of A. scirpaceus. On 6 May, nets erected in the mangroves at dawn 
quickly caught six birds, consisting of one A. palustris, two A. [b.] avicenniae and 
three of the unidentified Hippolais. These last were collected and their gonads were 
found to be much enlarged. They were in worn plumage like the avicenniae and 
were very similar in size and wing-length, but were greyer, with broader bills, 
yellower (less orange) mouths, browner (less greyish) legs without yellow on the 
soles, squarer tails and shorter undertail-coverts. Their wing structure was similar to 
that of the avicenniae although the first primary was much longer (Table 1). They 
were certainly not H. p. elaeica, a form which overwinters commonly in north-east 
Africa. Indeed, in wing length and wing formula they showed a much closer 
resemblance to Sykes's Warbler H. rama. 



J. S. Ash & D. J. Pearson 224 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(2) 

A few days later, on 8 May, three more warblers were found in intense early 
afternoon heat in a small patch of degraded mangroves at the mouth of the Garas 
Wadi (11°15'N, 40°02'E), 17 km west of Bosaso. These were again greyish birds 
with pale brown legs, no wing- or tail-flicking and no wing panel. They had the 
same Hippolais -typ>Q song as the Alula birds and were presumed to be of the same 
form. 

The four Hippo I 'a is specimens from 1979-80 are now housed in the Smithsonian 
Institution collection, Washington, DC, USA (Reg. Nos. 571271, 571272, 571275, 
571365). 

Other reports and specimens from the Red Sea, 
Somalia and north-east Arabia 

The following Hippolais are probably all of the same form as the birds in the Somalia 
mangroves: a) four January to April specimens from the Eritrean coast listed as 
rama by Zedlitz ( 1 9 1 0- 1 9 1 1 ) on page 7 1 , but which he later (pages 611-612) decided 
were H pallida; b) a fresh-plumaged bird collected by K. D. Smith while singing in 
mangroves at Arafale (15°05'N, 39°45'E), Eritrea, on 5 November 1951, labelled as 
H. pallida elaeica and examined by us in the Tring collection (Reg. No. 1952.4.7); 
c) a moulting bird netted in mangroves, examined in detail and released at Ras 
Siyan (12°29'N, 43°19'E), Djibouti, on 18 October 1985 (Welch & Welch 1986). 

We have examined a specimen from the AMNH collection (Reg. No. 595191) 
taken on 20 February 1919 at Berbera (10°26'N, 45°00' E), north Somalia, by G. F. 
Archer, which was initially labelled H. pallida but then re-identified by 
Meinertzhagen as rama (Archer & Godman 1961). This may well be H. p. elaeica, 
but some wing formula details are unusual (see Table 1). We have also examined 
two worn Hippolais in the Tring collection from coastal sites in the United Arab 
Emirates: a) a bird collected at Khor Khalba (25°01'N, 56°22'E) in Sharjah on 24 
March 1971 by M.D.Gallagher, and identified as H.(caligata) rama (Reg. No. 
1 977. 1 8.27); b) a male with enlarged testes, collected by Gallagher while singing in 
mangroves at Ras al Khaimah (c. 25°57'N, 56°03'E) on 16 June 1972, and labelled 
H. pallida elaeica (Reg. No. X912.6.5). We consider that both of these belong to H 
rama (see below and Table 1 ), and they resemble the Somalia specimens very closely. 

Details and Comparisons of Specimens 

Measurements and wing formula details of the four Somalia specimens are given in 
Table 1 . We have compared them carefully at Tring (see Table 2) with five small 
Hippolais forms: H. pallida elaeica of SE Europe and SW Asia (which winters in 
NE and E Africa); H. p. pallida of Egypt (which migrates to the Sudan); H. p. laeneni 
of the southern Sahara; H rama of central Asia (which winters from India to Arabia); 
and H. caligata of W Russia and N central Asia (which also winters in India). 

The Somalia birds are all in worn, rather faded plumage. They are uniform dull 
greyish brown above, similar to elaeica in the same state of plumage, but slightly 



J.S.Ash & D.J.Pearson 



225 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 



darker and less grey. They are darker (much less buffy or ochreous) than nominate 
pallida or laeneni. They match worn rama closely, but lack the olive tones of caligata. 
Pale fringes near the tips of the outer tail feathers have been practically lost, but 
feather wear is not so extreme as to seriously affect comparisons of measurements 
and wing formula with those of other taxa. In wing-length the Somalia birds fall 
below the range of elaeica and average less than pallida, but agree closely with the 
other three forms. They have a mean tail/wing ratio of 81 %, higher than in elaeica 
or caligata but somewhat lower than in rama. But note that tail measurement in 
these worn birds was probably reduced by 1-2 mm. Bill shape resembles that of 
rama, elaeica, pallida and laeneni, rather broad-based and with straight or marginally 
concave sides (differing from the more markedly concave-sided, finer-tipped bill of 
caligata). In length and width, bills agree most closely with rama, averaging slightly 
narrower than in elaeica and pallida, but larger than in caligata. 

Wing structure is characterised by a short primary extension, with distances from 
6 th primary tip to wing tip and 1 th primary tip to wing tip much less than in elaeica, 
and matching rama and laeneni. There are some subtle differences from rama 



TABLE 1 
Measurements and wing structure of Hippolais specimens from Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti and the 

United Arab Emirates 



Country 
Locality 

Date 

Sex 

Wing 

Tail 

Bill length * 

Bill width** 

Tarsus 

Longest p. 

p2 = p? 

p2 < wing tip 

p6 < wing tip 

plO< wing tip 

ss < wing tip 

pi >pc 

p2>pl 

Emarginated pp 

Gonads (mm) 

Weight (g) 

Museum 

Reg. No. 

Collected by 



Somalia Somalia Somalia Somalia 
Giriyaad Alula Alula Alula 



Eritrea UAE UAE Djibouti Somalia 



8.V.79 
F 

60 

47 

15 

3.8 

20 

3-4 

6/7 

4.5 

3.5 
9 

9.5 
7 

25 

3-5 

1,5 

9.3 

USNM 

571275 

JSA/JEM 



5.V.80 
M 

62 

50 

16 

3.8 

21 

3-4 

7 

5.5 

3.5 

11 

12 

6 

28 

3-5 
7x6 

10.4 

USNM 

571272 

JSA/JEM 



5.V.80 
F 

58 
49 

15 
4.0 
20.5 
3-4 

7 

5 

3 

9 

10 

4.5 

26.5 

3-5 

5x5 

10.5 

USNM 

571365 

JSA/JEM 



5.V.80 
M 

62 

50 

15.5 

4.2 

20 

3-4 

6/7 
6 
4 

11 

11 

5.5 

27.5 

3-5 
7x6.5 

9.9 

USNM 

571271 

JSA/JEM 



Arafale 

5.xi.51 

? 

59 

49 
16 

4.2 
20 
3-5 

7 

4.5 
2.5 

9 

7 

25 
3-5 



Khor 
Khalba 

24.iii.71 
M? 
59 
52 
14.5 
4.0 
21.5 
3-4 
8/9 
6.5 
1.5 
9 

6.5 
24 
3-6 



Ras al 
Khaimah 
16.vi.72 

M 

61 

52 

15.5 

4.2 

21 

3-4 

7/8 

5.5 
2 

9.5 



24 
3-6 
large 



Ras 

Sayan 
18.X.85 

9 

62 

15 

3.5 

3-4 
7 
5 
3 



3-5 



Berbera 

20.ii.19 

F 
64 
51 

16 
4.2 
20 
3-4 
7/8 

7 

4 
10.5 

2 
30 

3-5 



Tring Tring Tring 

1952.4.7 1977.18.27 1972.6.5 
Smith Gallagher Gallagher 



AMNH 

595191 
Denton Archer 



J. S. Ash & D.J.Pearson 226 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(2) 

TABLE 2 

Measurements (mm) and wing formula details of the mangrove Hippolais of N Somalia compared 

with those of various small Hippolais forms. Measurements are given for the number of birds 

indicated, as (mean) range or range only. Equal numbers of MM and FF 

were included in comparison samples. 



N Somalia coast birds elaeica 


pallida laeneni caligata 


rama UAE coast birds 


Number measured 


4 


10 


10 12 10 


20 


2 


Wing 


(60.5) 58-62 


(65.5) 62-69 


(63.0)60-66 (61.8)59-65 (60.2)58-64 


(60.7)57-64 


59,61 


Tail 


(49.0)47-50 


(51.3)48-56 


(49.5)48-52 (50.4)47-53 (47.5)45-50 


(52.2)47-56 


52,52 


Mean tail/wing 


(81.0) 


(78.3) 


(78.6) (81.6) (78.9) 


(86.0) 


(85.8) 


ratio (%) 












Tarsus 


(20.4)20-21 


(21.2)20-22.5(21.2)20.5-22.5(20.5)19.5-21.5(19.7)19-20.5) (20.4)20-21 


21,21.5 


Bill length 


(15.4)15-16 


(15.7)15-17 


(15.6)15-16.5 (15.0)*14.5-15.5(13.3)12.5-14 


(14.8)14-15.5 14.5, 15.5 


Bill width 


(3.9)3.8-4.2 


(4.4)4.2-4.8 


(4.4)4.0-5.0 (4.3)**4.2-4.6 (3.7)3.4-4.0 


(4.0)3.6-4.2 


4.0, 4.2 


P 2 = p? 


6/7-7 


5/6-7 


6/7-7/8 6/7-8 6-7/8 


6/7-8/9 


7/8, 8/9 


p2 < wing tip 


4.5-6 


3-6 


3.5-6.5 4-7.5 4-6 


4.5-8 


5.5, 6.5 


p6 < wing tip 


3-4 


2.5-4.5 


1.5-3.5 1.5-3 1-2.5 


1-2.5 


1.5,2 


plO < wing tip 


9-11 


11-14.5 


9.5-12 9.5-12 9.5-11 


8-10.5 


9,9.5 


pl>pc 


4.5-7 


3-6.5 


5-8.5 4.5-8 3-8 


4.5-8 


6.5,8 


Number with p6 


0/4 


1/10 


4/10 4/12 5/10 


16/20 


2/2 


emarginated 













*n = 10, **n = 9 

In order to achieve a degree of standardisation all measurements were taken or retaken by DJP at the 

Natural History Museum, Tring. 



however: the second primary is equal to or longer than the 7 th (in rama it is usually 
shorter) and there is no distinct emargination on the 6 th primary (a feature of most 
rama). In wing structure detail, the Somali birds in fact agree more precisely with 
laeneni than with rama. 

Also given in Table 1 are details of the specimens from the Red Sea and eastern 
Arabia, and of Archer's Berbera bird. The November bird from Eritrean mangroves 
is in fresh plumage. It is certainly not elaeica and has a much shorter wing. Like 
rama it has brownish-white fringes around the distal part of the outermost tail feathers 
which merge with the darker centres (less well demarcated than the whitish edges at 
the tips of the outer tail feathers of elaeica), and has narrower and less conspicuous 
pale fringes to the outer edges and tips of the secondaries and tertials than fresh- 
plumaged elaeica, pallida or laeneni. But it seems to be a little greyer than freshly 
moulted rama from India, and its wing formula details (2 nd primary equal to the 7 th ' 
and 6 th without emargination) would place it with the Somalia birds rather than as a 
wintering migrant rama from Asia. It should be noted that Smith (1957) reported 
Hippolais warblers (which he assumed to be elaeica) as possibly resident and singing 
commonly in Eritrean mangroves in mid-May, and Laurent ( 1 990) refers to H. pallida 
as being "very common and breeding in March- April" in Djibouti. The bird caught 
in October in Djibouti mangroves was moulting, with the inner six primaries and 



J.S.Ash & D.J.Pearson 227 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(2) 

some of the tail feathers new. Its measurements and wing formula match those of 
the Somalia and Eritrea specimens. 

Archer's Berbera bird is not badly worn, but has feathers broken or missing in 
both wings, and one half of the tail missing. Sexed female, its wing length of 64 mm 
and its other measurements would place it as elaeica, which it matches well in 
plumage colour. However, it has an unusually short second primary (between 7 th 
and 8 th ) and a short 10 th primary shortfall (10.5 mm) which fit better with the 
measurements of the mangrove birds. It is difficult to place this bird with certainty. 
The two worn Tring specimens from the United Arab Emirates match rama in tail 
length (tail/wing ratio 86%) and wing formula (2 nd primary shorter than 7 th , 6 th primary 
emarginated). They can confidently be assigned to this form, which is recorded as 
an uncommon local migrant and possible breeder in mangroves on the Batinah coast 
(Cramp 1993, Eriksen & Sargeant 2000). Note however that but for the small wing 
formula difference and their slightly longer tails these individuals could have been 
considered identical to the Somalia mangrove series. 

Conclusions 

To judge from their territorial behaviour and their enlarged gonads, the Hippolais 
present during May in the north Somalia mangroves represent a local breeding form, 
with which we would associate the specimens from Eritrea and Djibouti. It is still 
uncertain whether these birds belong under H. pallida or H. rama, and further work 
is required on their song and behaviour. They are quite distinct from the larger, 
longer-winged H. pallida elaeica, and the much more buff and also longer-winged 
H. p. pallida. Although they match H. p. laeneni in size and structure they are quite 
different in colour. Their resemblance to H. rama is striking, and they differ only in 
minor details of wing formula and in their slightly shorter tails. A resident north- 
east African population of rama would be expected to be shorter-winged with a 
shorter second primary and a higher tail/wing ratio than migrant birds breeding in 
Asia. In the Red Sea/ Somalia birds, however, the second primary is longer than in 
Asian rama and the tail/wing ratio appears to be slightly lower. 

Acknowledgements 

John Miskell is thanked by JSA for his company and great help, and for his taxidermic skill under 
extenuating circumstances in the field; Geoff and Hilary Welch and Mike Denton kindly provided details 
of their Djibouti Hippolais; Michael Gallagher helped with details of his collected specimens and over 
localities in Oman and adjoining areas; Dr Storrs L. Olsson and James Dean kindly arranged for the loan 
of specimens from the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.; Paul Sweet and Peter Capainolo 
arranged the loan of Archer's specimen from the American Museum of Natural History, New York; and 
Dr Robert Prys-Jones and Mark Adams provided invaluable facilities and support at the Natural History 
Museum, Tring. 

References: 

Archer, G & Godman, E.M. 1961. The birds of British Somaliland and the Gulf of Aden. Vol. IV. Oliver 
& Boyd, Edinburgh & London. 



J. S. Ash & D. J. Pearson 228 Bull. B.O. C 2002 122(2) 

Ash, J.S. & Miskell, J.E. 1998. Birds of Somalia. Pica Press, Sussex. 

Ash, J.S., Pearson, D.J., Nikolaus, G. & Colston P.R. 1989. The mangrove reed warblers of the Red Sea 

and Gulf of Aden coasts, with description of a new subspecies of the African Reed Warbler 

Acrocephalus baeticatus. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 109: 36-43. 
Cramp, S. 1993. The birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 6. Oxford Univ. Press. 
Eriksen, J. & Sargeant, D.E. 2000. Oman Bird List, Edition 5. Oman Bird Records Committee, Muscat, 

Sultanate of Oman, pp 168. 
Laurent, A. 1 990. Catalogue commente des oiseaux de Djibouti. Ministere du Commerce, des Transports 

et du Tourisme, pp 89. 
Smith, K.D. 1957 An annotated check list of the birds of Eritrea. Ibis 99: 307-337. 
Svensson, L. 2001 Identification of Western and Eastern Olivaceous, Booted and Sykes's Warblers. 

Birding World 14: 192-219. 
Welch, G.R. & Welch, H.J. 1986. Djibouti 2: autumn 1985. Duplicated Report: 197 pp. 
Zedlitz, O.G. 1910-1911. Meine Ornithologische Ausbeute in Nordost-Afrika. J. Orn 58: 290-394, 731- 

807; 59: 1-92,591-693. 

Addresses: JSA, Godshill Wood, Fordingbridge, Hants SP6 2LR; DJP, 4 Lupin Close, Reydon, Southwold, 
Suffolk IP18 6NW, UK 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



More on Boyd Alexander's types 
from Lake Chad 

by R. J, Dowsett 

Received 19 August 2001 

Boyd Alexander collected eleven new avian taxa when he visited Lake Chad in 
1 904-05. Dowsett & Moore ( 1 997) clarified the type localities of two of these (Lesser 
Swamp Warbler Acrocephalus gracilirostris neglectus and Greater Swamp Warbler 
A. rufescens chadensis). It is useful now to examine the remaining nine. Coordinates 
are given for localities not in the gazetteer of Elgood et al. (1994). 

The following three races were described simply from "Lake Chad", with no 
other locality indicated: 

Caprimulgus natalensis chadensis Alexander 1908 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 21 : 90. Natal 

Nightjar. 

No date was given originally, but the type was collected 30 April 1905 — date on 

label per Warren ( 1 966), where the locality is given as Kowa Baga ( 1 3°07'N, 1 3°52'E), 

thus in Nigeria. 

Erythropygia galactotes oliviae (Alexander \908 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 23: 15). Rufous 
Bush Chat. 

Collected 21 November 1904, and Warren & Harrison (1971) give locality on label 
as near Yo, thus in Nigeria. 



R. J. Dowsett 229 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

Bradypterus baboecala chadensis Bannerman 1936 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 57: 43. Little 
Rush Warbler. 

Collected 1 December 1904 (though "Nov" on label per Warren & Harrison 1971), 
thus in any case at the same time generally as Acrocephalus gracilirostris neglectus 
(Alexander 1 908) and Batis orientalis chadensis (see below). At that time Alexander 
was working the Nigerian shore, as shown by Dowsett & Moore (1997). Mrs A. 
Moore informs me (in lift.) that Alexander's notebooks (in the Natural History 
Museum, Tring) list birds collected at "Kopichi near Kuka" [i.e. Kukawa, 
12°55'N,13°34 , E] on 30 November and also "Quelea .... Mongono 28.11.904"; 
although his map (Alexander 1907) shows Mongono on the Chad side of the lake 
(13 o 19'N,14 o 04'E), at the end of November he would would more likely have been 
at the Monguno in Nigeria at 12°41 'N, 13°36'E (on most maps), just south of Kukawa. 

The type locality of B. baboecala chadensis can thus be considered "Lake Chad 
(Nigeria)". Elgood etal. (1994) knew of "no positive record" from the Nigerian side 
of the lake. The species has recently been rediscovered there (Ulf Ottosson et al. 
unpublished). 

Traylor (in Mayr & Cottrell 1986) has recognized this race, but as all anyone has 
had for examination is the single (immature, damaged) holotype, the best treatment 
remains that of Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1941), who treated it as a synonym (of 
B. b. elgonensis). The taxonomic status of other populations in northern Nigeria 
(Elgood et al. 1994) remains equally uncertain. 

For the remaining six races full details of locality were in the original description, 
and all are on the Nigerian side of Lake Chad: 

Mirafra cantillans chadensis Alexander 1908 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 21: 89. Singing 

Bush Lark. 

Kowa Baga, Lake Chad. Coll. 19 April 1905 (date on label per Warren & Harrison 

1971). 

Riparia paludicola sudanensis (Alexander 1908 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 21: 88). African 
Sand Martin. 

Bulturi, Lake Chad (13°28'N,12 56'E). Coll. 12 January 1905. Bulturi is in fact on 
the Yobe river, some distance from the lake. 

Batis orientalis chadensis Alexander 1908 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 21: 105. Grey-headed 
Batis. 

Arrigi (Arege), Lake Chad. Coll. 30 November 1904 (in original description male 
type 30.x. and female 30.xi.). 

Tchagra senegala chadensis Bannerman 1922 Rev. Zool. afr. 9: 355. Black-crowned 

Tchagra. 

Yo, Lake Chad. Coll. 5 January 1905. 



R.J. Dowsett 230 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Vidua chalybeata neumanni (Alexander 1908 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 23: 33). Village 

Indigobird. 

Yo, Lake Chad. Coll. 19 November 1904. 

Amadina fasciata sudanensis Alexander 1907 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 19: 104. Cut- 
throat Finch. 

Two types were designated in the original description, near Kukawa ("22 Nov. 1905" 
sic) & Marfoni (Maifoni, near Maiduguri) (28 January 1905). "Kuka" [i.e. Kukawa] 
was taken as the type locality by Sclater ( 1 930). Note that Warren & Harrison (1971) 
gave the date on the label as 24 November 1904 (and indeed, on 22 November 1905 
Alexander was far away, in the Oubangui region). 

Note that it was through a slip of the pen that Warren & Harrison (1971) gave as 
"Pettia, Lake Chad" the type locality of the Mocking Chat Myrmecocichla 
cinnamomeiventris claudi (Alexander 1906 Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 16: 124). Pettia 
(10°09'N, 09°06'E) is in central Nigeria, and Alexander collected the type on 25 
August 1904, a date which accords with his travels through that region. 

Acknowledgements 

I thank Amberley Moore for her comments on a draft of this note. 

References: 

Alexander, B. 1907. From the Niger to the Nile. (2 vols). Edward Arnold, London. 

Alexander, B. 1908. [Two new species of birds from Lake Chad.] Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 23: 33. 

Dowsett, R.J. & Moore, A. 1997. Swamp warblers Acrocephalus gracilirostris and A. rufescens at Lake 
Chad, Nigeria. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 117: 48-51. 

Elgood, J.H., Heigham, J.B., Moore, A.M., Nason, A.M., Sharland, R.E. & Skinner, N.J. 1994. The 
birds of Nigeria. B.O.U. Checklist No. 4 (2nd edition), Tring. 

Mackworth-Praed, C.W. & Grant, C.H.B. 1941. A survey of the African species placed in the genus 
Bradypterus. Ibis (14) 5: 441-455. 

Mayr, E. & Cottrell, G.W. (eds) 1986. {Peters s) Check-list of birds of the world. Vol. XI. Mus. Compar. 
Zool., Cambridge, Mass. 

Sclater, W.L. 1930. Systema Avium Aethiopicarum. Vol. 2. B.O.U., London. 

Warren, R.L.M. 1966. Type-specimens of birds in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 1 Non- 
Passerines. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London. 

Warren, R.L.M. & Harrison, C.J.O. 1971. Type-specimens of birds in the British Museum (Natural 
History). Vol. 2 Passerines. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London. 

Address: R.J. Dowsett, 12 rue des Lavandes, Ganges F-34190, France, e-mail: Dowsett@aol.com. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



R. J. Dowsett 23 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3) 

Further records of range extension in the 
House Crow Corvus splendens 

by Colin Ryall 

Received 19 August 2001 

The House Crow Corvus splendens is indigenous to the Indian Subcontinent, southern 
Iran and Myanmar (Burma). Over the past century or so they have spread, by both 
deliberate introduction and ship-assisted passage, throughout much of the Indian 
Ocean rim including the Arabian Peninsula, eastern and southern Africa, some Indian 
Ocean islands and sites in southern Asia. 

Range expansion continues and the aim of this paper is to update information 
given in Ryall (1994, 1995) using information from published records, 
correspondence from past reporters or responses to requests for information in 
international and national journals. Contributors' initials are given in brackets after 
information and names are given in full under Contributors. 

Europe 

Netherlands 

The population of House Crows, initiated in Hoek van Holland in 1994 (Ryall 1995) 
has now increased through both successful breeding by the founder pair, starting in 
their first year (Anon 1994a), and by the arrival of additional birds. 

In November 1994 a further, individual bird arrived in Renesse, c.30 km SW of 
Hoek van Holland (Ebels & Westerlaken 1996) and remained in association with 
Jackdaws Corvus monedula and Carrion Crows Corvus corone (van de Berg 1 994) 
until at least 27 December 1995. Reports of single birds in Renesse in June 1997, 
13-14 June 1999, early 2001 (GS) and of a dead bird found on 19 May 2001, may 
refer to the original bird (GO) or perhaps further arrivals. 

The two original Hoek birds have survived eight Dutch winters, including the 
coldest for a decade when temperatures on 25 and 26 January 1996 reached -8°C in 
Rotterdam (GS). This pair raised single chicks in 1 997, 1 998 (Ebels 1 998) and 2000. 
Thus five House Crows were in Hoek van Holland in February 2000, which increased 
to eight during 2001 (GO). 

Additional records are: single birds flying at Den Haag, 31 March and 7 April 
1999, may concern birds from the Hoek van Holland population, c. 20 km distant 
(GO); one at Muiden, near Amsterdam, August-December 1999 (TE, PE); one in 
Utrecht, 30 km S of Amsterdam, 18-19 December 1999 (GS), which may refer to 
the same bird (Berg & Bosman 200 1 ); one at Kollummerland, Friesland, 5-19 August 
1998; possibly the same bird at Winsum, Groningen, 20-22 September 1998 (GS); 
one atBreskens, Zeeland, 3 May 1999 (GO); one on the island of Schiermonnikoog, 
eastern Waddenzee, 21-23 March 2000; one in Hoorn, c. 40 km NE of Amsterdam, 



Colin Ryall 232 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

December 2000 (GS), which may also refer to the Muiden bird; one at Den Haag,13 
May 2001, which may be one of the Hoek birds (GO). 

Republic of Ireland 

One seen and photographed in Dunmore East harbour, County Waterford, 3 November 
1974 (Anon 1994b), was the first record of the House Crow for Europe. Although 
mentioned in the 1974/5 Waterford Bird Report (O'Meara 1976), it was largely 
overlooked until interest in the species increased following the Dutch arrivals. It 
was then accepted by the Irish Rare Birds Committee and admitted to Category D2 
of the Irish List (McAdams et al. 1999). 

The crow was first encountered perched in the rigging of a trawler, being described 
as "confiding" and in pristine condition. It remained in the area for 5 years, allegedly 
fed by some local people until at least August 1979, by which time it was in poor 
condition (Mullarney et al. 1999). These authors suggested that the bird may have 
arrived on a cattle boat from the Middle East. 

UK 

One, identified initially as a Hooded Crow Corvus corone comix and later as a 
House Crow, was seen on Bournemouth seafront on 25 December 1997 (Anon 1997). 
Despite searches the bird was not seen again (SR). 

Denmark 

There are two records: one seen on a single day in autumn 1986 near the coal harbour 
at Stigsnses, Skaslskor, Vestsjaelland (RC); one on 17 September 1996, seen in a city 
park in Haderslev, Jylland (Anon 1996). Neither was reported to the Danish Rarities 
Committee. 

France 

There are two recent reports: one at Roubaix Nord, near Lille, 10 January 2000 
(Davies 2001) which, if accepted, is the first record for France; one seen along the 
canal at Givors, south of Lyon, 18-21 May 2001 (Anon 2001) and photographed by 
G Bruneau (J-YF). 

Spain 

The House Crow which appeared on Gibraltar in spring 1991 (Ryall 1994) is also 
reported to have flown to Algeciras, c. 8 km away on the Spanish mainland (JP), the 
first record for Spain. 

Middle East 

Saudi Arabia 

Having arrived in Jeddah in the late 1970s and Eastern Province in the early 1980s, 
populations have continued to increase rapidly and spread along the east coast. In 
Ras Tanura, Eastern Province, a control programme has been launched (Jennings 
1 995). They are now considered a nuisance in parts of Jeddah with reports of attacks 
on humans appearing in the local press (RS). 



Colin Ryall 233 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Oman 

House Crows have spread and are now established along the coastal strip between 
Muscat and Sohar, and are beginning to spread inland in some areas (MJ). 

Bahrain 

Numbers appear to have remained relatively stable since they were first recorded as 
resident in the 1970s (MJ). 

Qatar 

House Crows were not reported from Qatar until the early 1990s. Records are: 26 
House Crows seen at Ras Laffan, October 1993 - March 1994, around a new industrial 
town under construction c. 60 km north of Doha, and subsequently at a beach villa 
compound further south; up to 13 counted at Al Khar, c. 40 km north of Doha, 
February - April 1994 (Nation et al. 1997); three seen for at least 3 hours at Ras Abu 
Ahboud, an urban part of Doha, 13 April 1994; on 24 April 1994, a newspaper 
article on the species triggered reports of 30-40 birds over the proceeding 7 months, 
from 4 separate locations on the east coast and offshore; several seen 15 km south of 
Doha in June 1994; 4 reported at Halul Island, the main station for offshore oil and 
shipping, January - April 1994, where they were suspected to be raiding domestic 
pigeon nests (Nation et al. 1997). 

Yemen 

House Crows have long been established in Aden (Ryall 1994), spreading to adjacent 
Lahej and Abiyan, and then Hodeidd and El Khawka by the 1 980s. They have become 
a major pest in the Aden-Lahej -Abiyan area due to the extremely high density that 
the House Crow population has achieved, presumably supported the ready availability 
of refuse, drying fish and market gardens. Jennings (1992) reviewed their status and 
described attempts to control their numbers in Aden. 

Socotra 

In late 1996 or early 1997, two were reported by a ship's captain to have stayed with 
his ship from Aden, alighting when the ship arrived at Hadibu on Socotra. They 
nested in a tall palm in a nearby wadi and have remained there ever since. Numbers 
have increased to 6 in November 1997, 15 by September 1998, 20 by December 
1998 (MJ) and 26 by May 1999 (OASA-S). An eradication programme was launched 
in December 1998 and has reduced the population (OASA-S). 

Islands of the Indian Ocean 

Seychelles 

Further details have come to light concerning the Seychelles population, which 
modifies that given in Ryall (1994). A single bird arrived in Mane on a ship from 
Bombay in 1970, but the breeding population did not establish until several birds 
arrived there in 1977 (CF). Though the population was centred on Mane, isolated 
birds were also seen on Bird Island, Aride, Praslin, Moyenne, Cousin and He aux 



Colin Ryall 234 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Vaches Marines (Skerrett etal. 2001). Having reached a peak of c. 25 birds in 1986, 
centred around Anse Etoile, they appear to have been extirpated after a concerted 
eradication programme; the last two birds were shot in Victoria in mid- 1994. Further 
single birds have been seen on Mahe since then: one was shot at the Providence 
refuse dump in mid 1998 and one seen at Machabee in mid-2000. Skerrett et al. 
(2001) suggested that these were probably new arrivals, emphasising the need for 
constant vigilance. 

East Asia & Australia 

Thailand 

House Crows formerly occurred at Phet Buri, but there are no recent records (Madge 
& Burn 1994). A single bird was, however, seen 550 km to the south at Krabi on 5 
June 2001 (Robson 2001). 

Malaysia 

Though long established in Malaysia they were, until recently, restricted to the 
mainland (Ryall 1994). Recent records elsewhere include one at Kota Kinabalu, 
Sabah, July 1997, and two on 7 August 1999 (SH). A local birdwatcher reported that 
there had been several around this city for "several years" (AS). 

Indonesia 

First recorded 6 September 1984, when one was seen at Cidaon in the Ujung Kulon 
National Park, Java (MacKinnon & Phillipps 1993). In September 1986, one appeared 
repeatedly and was photographed at the camp of the Zoological Expedition to the 
Karakataus on Anak Karakatau (Thornton et a/. 1990). It was tame, inquisitive and 
attempted to steal food scraps at the camp kitchen. One was seen perching on a 
telephone wire in Belawan, a major port c. 20 km from the city of Medan, Northern 
Sumatra (Shepherd 2000), probably in January 1998 (DH). This bird most probably 
arrived by boat from the neighbouring population c. 1 00 km away in Klang, Malaysia, 
across the Strait of Malacca. 

Singapore 

The population which numbered 1800 to 3700 in 1987 (Ryall 1994) has now grown 
to at least 20,000 birds, occupying 25 roosts in tall trees. They are considered to 
have reached pest proportions (SKL) and the authorities are now undertaking a control 
programme. The numbers are swollen by birds flying over from neighbouring 
Malaysia where there has long been a thriving population (DW). 

Hong Kong 

House Crows, possibly escaped captives (Viney et al. 1996), were recorded in 
Kowloon in ones and twos from the mid 1 970s to 1 989 (Ryall 1 994). The population 
has clearly grown recently as flocks of 10 - 20 are now seen regularly in the area 
(Fung 2000). They probably breed near the new container port at Stonecutters (PL) 
and have been seen regularly around the port area since late 1998 (MK). 



Colin Ryall 235 Bull BO. C. 2002 122(3) 

Taiwan 

One was seen in the Lang-Yu Islet, Taitung County, 8 July 1980 (L). Although a 
typhoon occurred at the time, the nearest populations were then in Burma and 
Malaysia, 2,500 - 3,000 km away, and so ship-assisted introduction seems the most 
likely source. 

The House Crow was recently included in Appendix II of the Checklist of Birds 
of Taiwan prepared by the Chinese Wildbird Federation (2000), indicating that it 
has been recorded since 1995. However, a photograph of a crow perched on a power 
line was not regarded, beyond doubt, to be a House Crow by the Taiwan Record 
Committee (W-hF) 

Japan 

A House Crow, unable to fly, was captured on a street near the Osaka Port of 
Konohana-ku, 9 January 1981, and was placed in Tennoji Zoo (Nakamura 1987). 
This record was accepted by the Bird Record Committee as a ship-assisted arrival 
but, remarkably, this crow was subsequently found to speak "good Japanese" and so 
has since been regarded as an escape or release from captivity (NI). 

Australia 

House Crows have arrived in Australia on many occasions since the 1 920s (Ryall 
1994). Up to June 2000, more than 50 arrivals have been recorded. In 1951, a pair 
nested in Fremantle, but this pair and all subsequent arrivals have been killed (MM). 

Africa 

Djibouti 

After their arrival in 1958, the population in Djibouti city and later, in Obok, reached 
a high density, and there are now smaller populations inTadjoura and Loyada (Archer 
2001). According to Archer, an intensive control programme in the late 1990s has 
greatly reduced the Djibouti city population. 

Somalia 

Several dozen House Crows were seen in Berbera on the north coast in 1988, 
indicating a well established colony (Fry & Keith 2000). These may have spread by 
ship from the massive Aden population c. 280 km due north or from Djibouti. They 
are also present in Zeila c. 200 km to the west (Ryall 1994). 

Kenya 

Although established in Mombasa coast since the 1940s and Malindi, to the north, 
since the late 1970s, they did not spread further than c. 50 km inland, probably due 
to the arid unpopulated savannah that lay beyond (Ryall 1992). The Mombasa 
population grew to an estimated one million by 1 99 1 (Schmidt 1 996) despite various 
control attempts, and the Malindi population had also reached pest proportions by 
1988 (Archer 1994). 



Colin Ryall 236 Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Starting in 1984, a range of control strategies have been applied intermittently in 
the Mombasa area and along the Kenyan coast, including poisoning, nest destruction, 
trapping, reducing food availability and occasionally shooting (CR). In the mid 1990s, 
a further programme was implemented, along with monitoring of the crow population 
(Lens 1996). Likewise, in Malindi and Watamu, a control programme, using similar 
approaches, was launched in November 1988 with great success (Archer 2001). 

In the early 1990s, a single bird was seen in a Nairobi city park and two at 
Hillcrest School, Nairobi, c. 500 km inland from Mombasa (GCS). These are most 
likely the result of deliberate releases or escapes. 

Tanzania 

The once dense and long established population of House Crows in Zanzibar was, 
due to its pest status, reduced by 80% between 1990 and 1995 through an intensive 
eradication programme funded by FINNIDA (Archer 1996). Funds ran out so that 
the programme was discontinued in 1995 (WCST 1998). 

Since their arrival in Dar-es-Salaam in the 1950s, House Crows have increased 
to 15,000 - 20,000 (Schmidt 1996) and have spread not only along the coastal strip 
but inland as far as Morogoro, where recorded in 1999 (HR). Since July 1997, a 
control programme has also been in operation in Dar-es-Salaam (WCST 1998). 

Mozambique 

Further to the information provided by Ryall (1994), House Crows were present in 
Inhaca Island by the 1 960s (Nhancale et al. 1 998) and they have been recorded there 
and in Maputo since 1976 (IS). Liversidge (1985) described them as a breeding 
resident on Inhaca Island and also present in Maputo. According to Nhancale et al. 
(1998), there have been several unsuccessful eradication campaigns and a further 
one is under consideration. 

In December 1976, IS saw 8 to 10 birds near the Polana Hotel in the beach resort 
of Maputo and, in September 1 99 1 , 6 near the docks. The long established population 
on Inhaca Island has increased from the c. 50 in the mid-1980s to c. 100 in 1999, 
concentrated mainly around the Inhaca Resort Hotel, but crows have not been 
recorded at other locations along the Mozambique coast (SM). 

South Africa 

House Crows may have been present in Durban since 1966-67 (Newmann 1974). 
They have subsequently spread through several coastal cities (Ryall 1994). Since 
their arrival in Cape Town docks in the mid 1970s, they have increased rapidly and 
in 1999, they were common around Cape Town International Airport, mainly in 
small groups although flocks of up to 50 birds are frequent (RD). Single House 
Crows have also been seen at the University of the Western Cape campus. The birds 
that arrived in Cape Flats in 1989 (Ryall 1995) persisted as a small colony but had 
not increased substantially by mid- 1996. Nevertheless, the species is expected to 
become "a dominant and problematic urban species in southern Africa" (Berruti 
1997). They have also spread northwards from Durban to Richards Bay (Allan & 
Davies2001). 



Colin Ryall 237 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(3 ) 

A control programme employing shooting, trapping, nest destruction and 
poisoning was launched in Durban in 1989 (Berruti & Nichols 1991). This reduced 
the population from > 1000 to c. 150 by 1991 but numbers had risen again to > 500 
by 1993 (Berruti 1997). 

The Americas 

Barbados 

In 1994, a House Crow arrived in Barbados, the first such record for the Neotropics 
(Norton 1995). It was present from early May to August and during this period it 
was extremely mobile, being seen on the east and west coasts, at Bridgetown in the 
south, and in the centre of the island at c. 280 m a.s.l. (MF). 

Chile 

Further details of two birds which arrived in Punta Arenas in 1993 (Ryall 1995) 
have become available (Matus 1998). The birds, first sighted on 10 October 1993, 
were seen repeatedly foraging near a meat packing plant. They remained together 
for several months but at the beginning of the austral winter one crow was seen 
perched close to a chimney. The last record was on 8 June 1994, so that both 
disappeared during the austral winter of 1994. 

U.S.A. 

On 25 January 1995, a single House Crow was photographed at Cabrillo Beach, Los 
Angeles Harbour, California (KG). It was present for a "couple of years" prior to 
being photographed. Although the species has arrived on the Atlantic Coast on 2 or 
perhaps 3 occasions (Ryall 1995), this appears to be the first record for the west 
coast of North America. 

Conclusions 

Range Expansion 

The House Crow's spread has continued unabated since the reviews of their 
distribution published previously (Ryall 1994, 1995) with, for example, a further 
extension eastwards through the islands of SE Asia. Introduced populations already 
established are increasing and consolidating as is evident in the Arabian Peninsula 
and South Africa, and they have now established breeding populations in 20 countries 
outside their native range. In addition birds, mainly single, have been reported from 
about 10 other locations, where they have so far failed to establish breeding 
populations. The latter records undoubtedly represent the tip of an iceberg, as many 
arrivals must go unnoticed and/or unreported. 

The majority of records are from ports and other coastal locations, reinforcing 
the past observation that most spread is ship-assisted. In keeping with their regular 
appearance in Australia since the 1920s, House Crows continue to show a capacity 
for long ocean crossings as demonstrated by their appearance in Chile, California, 



Colin Ryall 238 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

Charleston, New Jersey and Barbados. These longer journeys have undoubtedly 
been made easier in recent years by the increased speed of modern ocean-going 
vessels. Not all arrivals are ship-assisted, however; their occurrence in Osaka and 
Nairobi, and perhaps Hong Kong, may be attributable to deliberate releases or escapes 
of captive birds. 

Concerns and control 

They have continued to attained pest status as predators of native avifauna, crop 
raiders, nuisance, potential public health risk and so forth (Ryall & Reid 1987, Archer 
200 1 ) in virtually all locations where their population has built up, such that control/ 
eradication programmes have been or are in progress at many sites; most recently in 
Djibouti, Socotra and Singapore. Feare & Mungroo (1989) have emphasized the 
particular threat House Crows pose to island endemic birds. With the exception of 
the Seychelles, where eradication has been achieved, control measures have only 
secured a temporary respite with populations quickly recovering as soon as control 
efforts are slackened, as in Mombasa in the late 1980s (pers. obs), in Durban (Berruti 
1997) and in Zanzibar, where a very successful programme in the 1990s was 
discontinued due to lack of funds (Archer 2001). The approach adopted in Australia 
of "shooting on sight" has proved very successful in preventing House Crows from 
establishing at all, despite > 50 arrivals, presumably from the Indian subcontinent, 
over the last 80 years. 

The continued presence of the small but increasing population in Hoek van 
Holland is noteworthy as this is the first evidence that the species can survive 
temperate winters and breed successfully. Added to this are other European records, 
albeit of solitary birds, from the Netherlands, Ireland, France, Gibraltar/Spain, 
Denmark and perhaps UK. Although these isolated birds have so far failed to establish 
breeding populations, the fact that some have probably survived for 5 to 7 years, in 
Waterford and Renesse, increases the chances of later arrivals facilitating breeding. 
The Hoek birds are a popular local attraction to birdwatchers and this, combined 
with public sensitivities on the control of alien bird species, suggests that the Dutch 
birds will persist unmolested. If, however, as seems to be the case, the population 
does gradually build up, lack of early action may make later control very difficult 
and expensive. 

As introduced populations of House Crows increase, uncontrolled due to 
inadequate resources and/or lack of awareness, they may act as secondary nuclei of 
spread, so accelerating the overall rate of dispersal. Indeed, those appearing in Europe 
may well have originated from the long established Suez population, and those in 
Socotra from Aden. Ryall (1994) suggested that Sumatra and Madagascar may be 
under imminent threat of invasion. House Crows arrived in Sumatra in 1998, but as 
yet there are no reports from the ports of Madagascar. 

Request for information 

All records of new locations or update information on existing introduced House 
Crow populations, including numbers, activity, food sources, possible origin and 



Colin Ryall 239 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(3) 

dates, would be greatly appreciated and can be sent via www.housecrow.com or e- 
mailed directly to c.ryall@farn-ct.ac.uk . 

Contributors 

AS - Andrew Siani, CF - Chris Feare, CR - Colin Ryall, DH - Derek Holmes, DT - D. Todd, DW - 
David Wells, GCS - G R Cunningham van Someren, GO - Gert Ottens, GS - Gerard Steinhaus, HR - 
Hugo Rainey, IS - Ian Sinclair, JP - J Pinilla, J-YF - Jean-Yves Fremont, KG - K. Garrett, L - Professor 
Lu , MF - Martin Frost, MJ - Michael Jennings, MK - Mike Kilburn, MM - Marion Massam, NI - N. 
Ichida, OASA-S - Omar A S Al-Saghier PE - Pien Eekhout, PL - Paul Leader, RC - Rolf Christensen, 
RD - Richard Dean, RS - Robin Sowerby, SH - Simon Harrap, SKL - Sin Kim Lian, SM - Simon 
Marsh, SR - Simon Robson, TE - Ton Eggenhuizen, W-hF - Woei-horng Fang. 

Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to all the 35 or so contributors listed above for providing records of House Crows, and 
particularly to Alison Duncan, Gert Ottens, Gerard Steinhaus, Chris Feare, Ricardo Matus, Ian Sinclair 
and Killian Mullarney for providing contacts, copies of reports and/or other details. 

References: 

Allan, D. & Davies, G. 2001. The 'problem' House Crow of Durban, South Africa - can, and should, 

they be 'brought to heal'? Ostrich Supplement No: 15: 253. 
Anon. 1994a. Bird News: European Bird Report. Birdwatch 25: 61. 
Anon. 1994b. Another House Crow. Birding World 7: 258. 
Anon. 1996. Bird News: European Bird Report. Birdwatch 45: 60. 
Anon. 1997. Bird News: European Bird Report. Birdwatch 57: 54. 
Anon. 2001. Bird News: European Bird Report. Birdwatch 110: 61. 

Archer, A. 1994. Indian House Crow control in Malindi and Watamu. Kenya Birds 3: 42-74. 
Archer, A. 1996. Indian House Crow control in Zanzibar. Aliens 3: 2. 
Archer, A. 2001. Control of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens in eastern Africa. Ostrich 

Supplement 15: 147-152. 
Berruti, A. 1997. House Crow; In: Harrison, J. A., Underhill, L.G., Herremans, M., Tree, A. J., Parker, V. 

& Brown C.J. 1997. The atlas of southern African birds Vol 2: Passerines. BirdLife South Africa, 

Johannesburg. 
Berruti, A. & Nichols, G. 1991. Alien birds in Southern Africa: The crow must go. Birding in South 

Africa 43:52-57 '. 
Chinese Wildbird Federation. 2000. Birding in Taiwan. http://www.geocities.com:0080/RainForest/9003/ 

Checklist.htm Nov. 2000. 
Davies, C. 2001. The European Bird Report: Passerines. British Birds 94: 428. 
Ebels, E.B. 1998. Huiskraai broedend in Hoek van Holland in 1997 en 1998. Dutch Birding 20: 291- 

295. 
Ebels, E.B. & Westerlaken, H. 1996. Huiskraaien bij Hoek van Holland sinds april 1994 en bij Renesse 

sinds November 1994. Dutch Birding 18: 6-10. 
Feare, C.J. & Mungroo, Y. 1989. Notes on the House Crow Corvus splendens in Mauritius. Bull. Brit. 

Orn. CI. 109: 199-201. 
Fry, C.H. & Keith, S. 2000. The birds of Africa. Vol VI. Academic Press, London. 
Fung, R. 2000. A flock of House Crow in Kowloon Tsai Park, http://www.hkbws.org.hk/board/messages 

Nov. 2000. 
Jennings, M.C. (Ed) 1995. Recent Reports. The Phoenix. 12: 2. 
Jennings, M.C. 1992. The House Crow Corvus splendens in Aden (Yemen) and an attempt at its control. 

Sandgrouse 14: 27-33. 
Lens, L. 1996. Hitting back at House Crows. Kenya Birds 4: 55-56. 



Colin Ryall 240 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 122(3) 

Liversidge, R. 1985. Alien bird species introduced to South Africa. In: Bunning L.J. (Ed) Proc. birds 

and man symposium, pp. 31-44. Witwatersrand Bird Club, Johannesburg. 
MacKinnon, J. & Phillipps, K. 1993. A field guide of the birds of Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. 

Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. 
Madge, S. & Burn, H. 1994. Crows and jays. Helm (A & C Black), London. 
Matus, R. 1998. Presencia accidental de Corvus splendens (Aves: Corvidae) y nuevas registros de aves 

raras en Magallanes: Rollandia gallardoi y Eremobius phoenicurus. Anales Instituto Patagonia, 

Serie Cs. Nat. (Chile). 26:137-139. 
McAdams, D, Milne, P. & O'Sullivan, O. 1999. Forty-sixth Irish Bird Report. 1998. Irish Birds 6: 377- 

406. 
Mullaney, K., O'Sullivan & Lovatt, J.K. 1999. House Crow Corvus splendens in County Water ford - an 

addition to the Irish List. Irish Birds 6: 427-430. 
Nakamura, K. 1987. Secret passenger. Iden (Heritage) 41: 84-87. 
Nation, B., Nation, N. & A. Hooper 1997. Birds new to Qatar. Sandgrouse 19: 56-62. 
Newmann, N. 1974. Indian House Crow. Natal Wildlife 14: 19-20. 
Nhancale, C.C., Bento, CM. & Fred de Boer, W. 1998. The impact of the House Crow Corvus splendens 

on the Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Ostrich 69: 443. 
Norton, R.L. 1995. West Indies Region. National Audubon Society Field Notes 49: 203-204. 
O'Meara, M. 1976. Bird occurrences in County Waterford for 1974/5. Irish Wildbird Counservation, 

Dublin. 
Robson, C. 2001. From the Field. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 34: 47-55. 
Ryall. C. 1992. The pest status of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens in Mombasa and a survey of 

its expansion of range in coastal Kenya; In: Bennun, L. (Ed.) Proc. VII Pan-African Orn. Congr. 

Nairobi, Aug-Sept 1988. PAOC, Nairobi. 
Ryall, C. 1994. Recent extensions of range in the House Crow Corvus splendens. Bull. Brit .Orn. CI. 

114:90-100. 
Ryall, C. 1995. Additional records of range extension in the House Crow Corvus splendens. Bull. Brit. 

Orn. CI. i 15: 185-187. 
Ryall, C. & Reid, C. 1987. The Indian House Crow in Mombasa. Swara 10: 9-12. 
Schmidt, O. 1996. Recent extensions of range in the House Crow Corvus splendens. Promerops 222: 5- 

6. 
Shepherd, C. 2000. House Crow observed in north Sumatra. Kukila 10: 162-3. 
Skerrett, A.P., Bullock, I. & Disley, T. 2001. Birds of the Seychelles. Helm (A & C Black), London. 
Thornton, I.W.B., Zann, R.A. & Stephenson, D.G. 1990. Colonisation of the Krakatau islands by land 

birds, and the approach to an equilibrium number of species. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B., Biol. Sci. 

328: 55-93. 
van de Berg, A.B. 1994. WP Reports. Dutch Birding 16: 157-166. 
van de Berg, A.B. & Bosman, C.A.W. 2001 . Rare birds of the Netherlands, Revised Edition. Pica Press, 

East Sussex. 
Viney, C, Phillipps, K. & Lam, C.Y. 1 996. Birds of Hong Kong and South China. Government Publishing, 

Hong Kong. 
WCST 1998. House Crow control May/June 1998. Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania, Dar-es- 

Salaam. 

Address: Centre for Environmental Management, Farnborough College, Boundary Road, Farnborough, 
Hampshire, GUI 4 6SB, UK 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



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COMMITTEE 

Dr. C.F Mann (Chairman) (2001) R.E. Scott (1998) 

Revd. T. W. Gladwin (Vice-Chairman) (2001) J. A. Jobling (1999) 

Cdr. M.B. Casement, OBE, R.N. (Hon. Secretary) (1996) Professor R.A. Cheke (2001) 

D.J. Montier (Hon. Treasurer) (1997; Mrs M.N. Mutler (2001 ) 

DrP.GW. Salaman(2001) 

Hon. Editor: Professor C.J. Feare 

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Hon. Publications Officer: J. A. Jobling 

Registered Charity No. 279583 



Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 

ISSN 0007-1595 
Edited by Professor Chris Feare 

Volume 122, Number 3, pages 161-240 

CONTENTS 

CLUB NEWS 161 

CLEERE, N. A review of the taxonomy and systematics of the Sickle-winged and White-winged 

nightjars (Caprimulgidae) 168 

DEAN, W.R.J., DOWSETT, R.J., SAKKO, A. & SIMMONS, R.E. New records and amendments 

to the birds of Angola 180 

DA SILVA, J.M., NOVAES, F.C. & OREN, D.C. Differentiation of Xiphocolaptes 

(Dendrocolaptidae) across the river Xingu, Brazilian Amazonia: recognition of a new 

phylogenetic species and biogeographic implications 185 

SIM, I.M.W & ZAFINA, S. Extension of the known range of the Red-shouldered Vanga Calicalicus 

rufocarpalis in southwest Madagascar 194 

LINDSELL, J.A. The first nest and egg records of Black-eared Ground Thrush Zoothera 

camaronensis, Budongo Forest, western Uganda 196 

JONES, H.L. Erroneous and unconfirmed bird records from Belize: setting the record straight.... 201 
DE VASCONCELOS, M.F A newly discovered specimen of Kalinowski's Tinamou Nothoprocta 

kalinowskii from the Andean Pacific slope of Peru 216 

LOUETTE, M. Relationship of the Red-thighed Sparrowhawk A ccipiter erythropus and the African 

Little Sparrowhawk A. minullus 218 

ASH, J.S & PEARSON, D.J. Hippolais warblers apprently breeding on the north Somalia coast . 222 

DOWSETT, R.J. More on Boyd Alexander's types from Lake Chad 228 

RYALL, C. Further records of range extension in the House Crow Corvus splendens 23 1 



Authors are invited to submit papers on topics relating to the broad themes of taxonomy and distribution of birds. 
Descriptions of new species of birds are especially welcome and will be given priority to ensure rapid publication, 
subject to successful passage through the normal peer review procedure; they may be accompanied by colour 
photographs or paintings. On submission, two copies of manuscripts, typed on one side of the paper, double 
spaced and with wide margins, should be sent to the Editor, Prof. Chris Feare, 2 North View Cottages, Grayswood 
Common, Haslemere, Surrey GU27 2DN, UK. Note that electronic versions are not required on first submission. 
Where appropriate half-tone photographs may be included and, where essential to illustrate important points, the 
Editor will consider the inclusion of colour figures (if possible, authors should obtain funding to support the 
inclusion of such colour illustrations). 

When papers are accepted, revisions should be returned to the Editor as both a hard copy, as outlined above, and 
also on a 3.5" disk, as Word or Wordperfect files for PC. At this stage authors should send their email addresses, 
as completion of the editing process and proofreading will be undertaken electronically. 

For instructions on style, see the inside rear cover of Bulletin 122 (1) or the BOC website: 

www.boc-online.org 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

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}&Z. 



Bulletin of the 



British 




Ornithologists' 

Club 




MEETINGS are held at Imperial College, South Kensington, London, SW7, usually in the Sherfield 

Building. The nearest Tube station is at South Kensington; a map of the area will be sent to members, on 
request. See also website: http://www.boc-online.org. (Limited car parking facilities can be reserved, on 
prior application to the Hon. Secretary). 

The cash bar is open from 6.15 pm, and a buffet supper, of two courses followed by coffee, is served at 
7.00 pm. (A vegetarian menu can be arranged if ordered at the time of booking). Dinner charges are 
currently £18.50 - as from 1 January 2003. Informal talks are given on completion, commencing at about 
8.00 pm. 



FORTHCOMING MEETINGS 

Tuesday 21 January 2003 - Jonathan Ekstrom - 'Singing for your supper: the bizarre sex life of 
Madagascar's Greater Vasa Parrot'. 

Jonathan last gave a talk to the BOC, in 1999, about the remarkable birds of New Caledonia, including a 
report of the rediscovery of the elusive New Caledonian Owlet-Nightjar that was made during the Cambridge 
conservation expedition to the island in 1998. Since then he has been studying the behavioural ecology of 
the Greater Vasa Parrot of Madagascar for his PhD, based in Tim Birkhead's lab at Sheffield University. His 
research has revealed that, in contrast to most Psittaciformes, Greater Vasa Parrots are highly promiscuous 
and live in large breeding groups without pair bonds between individual birds. In addition, females are 
dominant to males and it is females who sing, defend territories and develop breeding season ornamentation. 
Although this is all new to science, he also discovered it was common knowledge for the Malagasy people 
who call female Greater Vasa Parrots 'the prostitute bird' on account of the females always chasing after the 
males... 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 7 January please. 

Tuesday 25 March - M.P Walters - "Hypothetical Birds". 

Michael Walters is well-known to anyone who has visited the Natural History Museum at Tring within the 
last 30 years, where he has been Curator of Egg Collection - the largest in the world - since 1972. He has a 
special interest in extinct birds, and is author of numerous books and ornithological papers including The 
Complete Birds of the World (1980), Eyewitness Handbook: Birds Eggs (1994), and co-author, with Alan 
Knox, of BOC Occasional Publications Series No 1 , Extinct and Endangered Birds in the Collections of the 
Natural History Museum (1994). He is near to completing a book about birds described in old literature but 
whose descriptions have never satisfactorily been identified with any known extant species. 

Applications to the Hon. Secretary by 11 March please. 



Future meetings - Tuesdays: 

29 April - AGM and social evening 

24 June, 23 September, 4 November and 2 December. 



Overseas Members visiting Britain are especially welcome at these meetings, and the Hon. Secretary 
would be very pleased to hear from anyone who can offer to talk to the Club, in 2003 or 2004, giving as 
much advance notice as possible - please contact: Michael Casement, Dene Cottage, West Harting, Petersfield, 
Hants. GU31 5PA. UK. Tel/FAX:0 1730-825280 (or Email: mbcasement@aol.com). 



Club News 241 

Bulletin of the 



HISTORY P3! crp »M 

" » 5m//. B.O.C 2 

TRING LIBRARY 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS , CLUB 

Vol. 122 No. 4 Published 19 December 2002 

CLUB NEWS 

Membership News 

It is with great regret that we report the death of Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Meise (2001-2002, ex-subscriber), 
on 24 August - just short of his 101st birthday - see obituary below. 

Greg Alexander (Club Member 1994 - ) has privately published a delightful booklet entitled The Birds 
of Nursling - a recent history of Bird Life in a village near Southampton (2000, 79pp). This reports 
meticulously his personal observations and ringing and nesting records over 20 years to demonstrate the 
breeding success and population changes, species by species, over this study period. His conclusions 
concerning species in decline convincingly demonstrate the scale of the problem in this local area. 
Highly readable, with excellent illustrations, this booklet appeals to both serious and part-time 
birdwatchers, and should inspire others to follow the author's example, to conduct and write similarly of 
their own local areas - MBC. 

Copies available @ £7.50 (post free) from: G. Alexander, 14 Blake Close, Nursling, Southampton S016 
0TL (Tel: 023 80 731743) or E-mail: greg@nursling.fsnet.co.uk 

Subscription Rates for 2003 

These are unchanged for next year @ £18.00 p.a. but £12.00 only for paid-up Members of BOU - see 
details inside rear cover. Please complete NOW the enclosed subscription renewal form to avoid the 
need for subsequent reminders, thus saving administration costs. Members with Bankers Standing 
Orders in force, or who have paid in advance for 2003, need take no further action. 

The BOC Website - http://www.boc-online.org This continues to expand and grow in usefulness. Do 
please look at it and let us have your suggestions for improvement. 

Meetings. Seven dinner meetings are planned for 2003 - see details inside front cover. 

BOU Meetings 

• 1 1-16 April 2003. Long-term studies of birds, in collaboration with the EGI annual student conference, 
Oxford University. Includes BOU AGM on Sat 12 April. 

• Autumn 2003. Birds and Public Health (re-scheduled from November 2002) 

• Spring 2004. Farmland birds. Date and venue to be announced. 

• Autumn 2004. Research and conservation in the UK Overseas Territories. 

For further details see the BOU website: www.bou.org.uk and for bookings contact 
steve.dudley@bou.org.uk 

Obituary - Prof Dr Wilhelm Meise 

Prof Dr Wilhelm Meise, who died on 24 August 2002 just a few weeks short of his 101 s1 birthday on 
12 th September, was our oldest BOC member and one of the most prominent figures in ornithology. 
However, his career was far from straightforward. Trained as teacher Meise went back for further education 



Club News 242 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

in 1924 enrolling for science and Russian at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat at Berlin, while catching 
up with Latin and getting an external High School exam. Short of any money, Meise earned his living by 
playing cello in a little orchestra at Berlin-Johannisthal. In 1926, initiated and supervised by Prof Dr 
Erwin Stresemann, he wrote his thesis on the hybridisation of the Carrion Crow. He stayed on in the bird 
section of the Museum ftir Naturkunde at Berlin for another one and a half years, working as an assistant 
for Stresemann. In 1929, Meise moved to Dresden becoming an assistant and later full curator of the 
zoological collections of the Staatliche Museum fiir Tierkunde und Volkerkunde. A year later Meise 
married, and subsequently three children were born. Meise gave one of the main lectures at the 
International Ornithological Congress in Oxford in 1934. Subsequently Meise stayed a faithful visitor 
of all other world congresses until 1986. The war and subsequent Siberian prison camp imposed a break 
on science, but in 1950 Meise had a come-back when he was made the head of the mammal section at 
the Berlin Museum. At the age of 50, he commenced his last, but longest life position, when he joined 
the zoological institute & museum of the Universitat Hamburg as curator, later head curator and lecturer. 
In 1976 he was honoured for his work with the title "professor". Meise was many years the chair of the 
Verein Jordsand, which publishes the ornithological & conservational journal Seevogel, and initiated in 
this role the conservation of several areas along the north German mud-flats. However, besides many 
other scientific publications (over 170) Meise is best known for his work on Grzimeks Tierleben, Die 
Naturgeschichte der Vogel and Das Handbuch der Oologie. Meise maintained a keen interest in 
ornithology even at advanced age, when he, then aged 98, wrote to Michael Walters of the Natural 
History Museum a card indicating that Walters' latest publication on eggs of the Pink-headed Duck 
(Bull. B.O.C. 118(3): 187-191) showed interesting differences to Meise's own studies. Subsequently I 
had some correspondence with Prof Dr Meise, obtaining the personal data used in this obituary. 

Frank D. Steinheimer 



The 911th meeting of the Club was held on Tuesday 24 September 2002, in the Sherfield Building 
Annexe, Imperial College. 24 Members and 9 guests attended. 

Members present were: Dr C.F. MANN (Chairman), Captain Sir Thomas BARLOW Bt., DSC, RN, 
Mrs D.M. BRADLEY, P.J. BELMAN, D.R. C ALDER, Cdr M.B. CASEMENT RN, Professor R.A. 
CHEKE, Dr. J. COOPER (Speaker), EM. GAUNTLETT, Rev. T.W. GLADWIN, D. GRIFFIN, C.A.R. 
HELM, R.H. KETTLE, Mrs A.M. MOORE, R.G. MORGAN, D.J. MONTIER, Mrs M.N. MULLER, 
P.J. OLIVER, R.C. PRICE, Dr. P.W.G. SALAMAN, P.J. SELLAR, S.A.H. STATHAM, N.H.F. STONE 
and M.P WALTERS. 

Guests attending were: D. BRADLEY, Mrs J.B. CALDER, Mrs C.R. CASEMENT, Mrs M.H. 
GAUNTLETT, Ms J. GOFFE, Mrs J.M. GLADWIN, Mrs M. MONTIER, P.J. MOORE and Mrs S. 
STONE. 

After dinner, Dr Joanne Cooper gave a highly entertaining illustrated talk about her recent conservation 
work on the Chatham Islands titled Storm Petrels in the soapdish and Black Robins on the verandah. 
The following is a brief synopsis: 

The Chatham Islands lie c. 870 km due east of New Zealand, a group of two large and over a dozen 
smaller islands on the convergence between subantarctic and subtropical waters. Prior to human 
colonisation, the archipelago was inhabited by over 100 bird species, many of them known from abundant 
fossil remains. Characterising the terrestrial communities was a high proportion of endemics evolved 
from mainland New Zealand species, and the islands also supported a remarkable range of sea birds, 
including at least 21 species of petrel. Following the arrival of humans, the combination of hunting, 
habitat clearance, introduced mammalian predators and livestock proved disastrous to the islands' 
avifaunas. Some 18 taxa went extinct following Polynesian settlement around 500 years ago, amongst 
them at least six endemics. After Europeans arrived in 1791, a further eight taxa disappeared, four of 
them endemics. Of the original communities, only 25 marine and 15 terrestrial species still breed there. 
Seventeen endemics survive, ten of them rare or endangered. 



Club News 243 Bull B.O. C. 2002 122(4) 

The Chatham Islands are now the focus of some of the most intensive conservation projects anywhere 
in the world. These include the renowned efforts to save the charismatic Black Robin Petroica traversi, 
once the rarest bird in the world (Butler, D. & Merton, D. 1992. The Black Robin: Saving the World's 
Most Endangered Bird. OUP), and the ongoing recovery programme to conserve the elusive Chatham 
Island Taiko Pterodroma magentae. However, there are many lesser-known species being assisted in 
equally dedicated fashion. 

One such species is the Chatham Island Petrel Pterodroma axillaris, thought to have a population of 
c. 1,000. Breeding only on the 218 ha South East Island, a protected Nature Reserve, their particular 
problem is intense competition for burrows with the very common Broad-billed Prion Pachyptila vittata. 
Chatham Island Petrels are elusive and strictly nocturnal on land. Relatively little was known about 
their habits until a formal research programme was initiated in the late 1980s, and conservation began in 
the early 1990s. As a result, some 145 burrows have been located to date and these are now closely 
monitored and managed to improve breeding success. Prions still present a serious problem, as prospecting 
adults will attack and kill Chatham Petrel chicks to take possession of a burrow, but techniques to 
reduce prion interference are constantly being explored, for example the use of neoprene door flaps 
fitted to burrow entrances to deter prion entry. Longer term, it is hoped that Chatham Petrels can be 
encouraged into new artificial colonies, both on South East Island, away from main prion concentrations, 
and on a second island in the Chathams, by translocation of chicks. 

Whilst the history of the birds of the Chatham Islands will always stand as a tragic testament to the 
possible consequences of human activities, they must also now be regarded as a hopeful example of 
what conservation can achieve. South East Island and the endangered species it is sanctuary for, are 
compelling proof of the persistence and endurance of nature - when it is given a chance (New Zealand 
Department of Conservation, 1996. Chatham Islands: Heritage and Conservation. In association with 
Canterbury Univ. Press). 

Jo acknowledged her thanks to the Chathams Area Office, Department of Conservation, for the 
opportunity to visit the islands, and to Helen Gummer for updates on Chatham Petrels. 

The talk stimulated a lively question and discussion period. 



BOOK RECEIVED 

Beitrage zur Kultur- und Naturgeschichte Sudamerikas insbesonders von Amazonien. Rudolstddter 
Naturhistorische Schriften, Suppl. 4, pp 1-124. ISBN 3-910013-42-2. No price given. 

This somewhat eclectic publication contains eight papers, of which one focuses on Amazon rainforest 
conservation, two are anthropological, one describes a new species of rodent ectoparasite and four are 
ornithological. The major contribution among the latter is a substantial paper by Jiirgen Haffer entitled 
"A rare hybrid manakin (Aves, Pipridae) and the origin of vertebrate species in Amazonia", which 
contains considerable new information regarding the unique specimen described by Sclater as Pipra 
heterocerca. This leads into a discussion of the Pipra aureola superspecies, which is then widened into 
a review of speciation models which have been proposed for the Amazonian biota. The other bird 
papers comprise a review of Jamaican hummingbird biology, the breeding biology of city-nesting Barred 
Antshrikes Thamnophilus doliatus in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and a review of the chewing lice (Phthiraptera) 
parasitising Burrowing Parrots Cyanoliseus patagonus in Argentina. 

Robert Prxs-Jones 



Clemency Fisher & Janet Kear 244 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

The taxonomic importance of two early 

paintings of the Pink-headed Duck 

Rhodonessa caryophyllacea (Latham 1790) 

by Clemency Fisher & Janet Kear 

Received 1 7 May 2001 

A fine painting of a male Pink-headed Duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea, acquired 
by the Liverpool Museum, National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside (NMGM) 
in 1998, seems to be the earliest depiction of this species from Bangladesh and 
Burma, which is now thought to be extinct (Fig. 1). The painting was executed 
between 1777 and 1782 by Bhawani Das, a Hindu miniaturist of the Moghul tradition 
and is entitled "Redhead" in Persian. It was commissioned by Lady Impey, the wife 
of Sir Elijah Impey, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in Bengal, who was based in 
Calcutta between 1774 and 1782. The model for the painting was, in our opinion, 
alive and so closely observed that it must have been in captivity at the time. Lady 
Impey is known to have established, whilst in Calcutta, a considerable aviary and 
menagerie of native wildlife. Many of these species were painted, at her request, by 
some very talented local artists, who produced between them over 300 watercolours 
(Christies' 1998; Lugt 1938, 1953). 1 

Sir Elijah and his wife returned to England with the pictures in 1783, and some 
were used by the distinguished English ornithologist John Latham (1740-1837) as 
the basis for his type descriptions of several Indian and Asian birds new to science. 
After Sir Elijah's death in 1809, part of the Lady Impey collection was sold at Phillips 
in London (in May 1810, see footnote). At some stage, possibly at this sale, about 
twenty of the Impey paintings were purchased by the 13th Earl of Derby, of Knowsley 
Hall, near Liverpool. The Earl was a notable zoologist and friend of Latham's, and 
it was probably Latham who alerted him to the existence of these unique pictures. 
The four recently purchased by NMGM were previously part of this Knowsley group. 

In effect, the Impey paintings from which Latham described new species became 
the type specimens of the taxa that he named. As such, they are of enormous 
zoological, as well as artistic, importance. There must be many as yet unknown 
Latham types amongst the Impey paintings, particularly those that are now in private 
hands. Two of the Impey paintings recently purchased by NMGM are undoubtedly 
types; of Cuculus polio cephalus Latham 1790, the "Grey-headed Cuckow" and of 

'Footnote. The original Phillips catalogue of the first sale of items from the Impey Collection seems to 
be unobtainable, even in the libraries of Phillips itself, the British Library or the Victoria & Albert 
Museum. The total number which was arrived at by Christies' (1998), of 326 watercolours sold, has 
come from an unknown source. The only vaguely reliable figures of the size of the Impey Collection 
can be compiled from Lugt (1938, 1953), where he records in French the numbers of "Tableaux" (pictures) 
and "Dessins persans" and "Dessins chinois" (Persian and Chinese drawings) sold by members of the 
Impey family, which may (or may not) refer to zoological items commissioned by Lady Impey. These 
total 340 and are listed under sales in 1810 ("Sir Elijah Impey") and 1845 ("Miss Impey"). 



Clemency Fisher & Janet Kear 



245 



Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



Sitta longirostra Latham 1790, the "Long-billed Nuthatch". The watercolour of the 
Pink-headed Duck may have the same status. 

The stance of the duck in the Impey picture immediately brought to mind a much 
cruder drawing of the Pink-headed Duck in Latham's General Synopsis of Birds 
(1787, Supplement vol. 1, plate 119; opposite page 276. See Fig. 2). This illustration 
accompanied Latham's account of the "Pink-headed D[uck]", a name he formally 




Figure 1, 



Clemency Fisher & Janet Kear 



246 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 




Figure 2. 



latinised three years later as Anas caryophyllacea ("the carnation-pink duck") in 
Index Ornithologicus (1790, see Figs. 1 & 2). Although Latham did not specify in 
his type description that he was deriving his account from the Impey painting (he 
did, for instance, specify that Impey paintings were the basis of his accounts of 
Cuculus poliocephalus and Sitta longirostra), there seems little doubt that he had 
seen Bhawani Das' artwork, even if he did not actually have it in front of him at the 
time. 

The information that the Impey portrait and Latham's comments gives us on the 
history of the Pink-headed Duck in captivity is extremely useful. There is little doubt 
that Bhawani Das was working from a living bird in good condition. Latham reported 
in Synopsis (1787) that the Pink-headed Duck "Is often kept tame" (information that 
he obtained from a Mr Middleton); in his type description in 1790 that it was "facile 
mansuescit" (easily tamed) (Fig. 3) and in 1824 that it "is often kept tame, and 



Clemency Fisher & Janet Rear 247 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

becomes tolerably familiar". The Pink-headed Duck was also kept in captivity (during 
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries) in England; at the Zoological Society of 
London in 1874, at Lilford Hall in 1882 and by Alfred Ezra at Foxwarren Park in 
Surrey, where it was photographed in the 1930s. Though birds lived for some years, 
they never bred. There are also records of captive Pink-headed Ducks at Cleres in 
France, and one even reached Connecticut, U.S.A. (Fooks 1947, Delacour 1956, Ali 
1960, Prestwich 1974, Kear 1990). 

Although Latham (1824) mentioned that he had seen drawings of female Pink- 
headed Ducks, he unfortunately did not specify whether these drawings were also in 
the Impey collection. Latham himself never visited India, so he was entirely dependent 
on written descriptions, drawings and, in some cases, skins that were brought back 
by others. Working from such material can cause even the most careful ornithologist 
to be misled, sometimes in a cumulative fashion! 

When describing the female, Latham (1824) mentioned a supposed difference in 
the shape of the wing coverts from those of the male; in both his preceding accounts 
he had referred to these coverts in the male as being curved downwards at the end. 
Latham's picture of the Pink-headed Duck in Synopsis (Fig. 2) draws particular 
attention to the wing coverts; he showed them as being large, darker than the rest of 
the plumage, and turning downwards. Plate 179 in his 1824 account, which is a 
version of the Synopsis illustration, emphasises these feathers even more. In reality, 
the feathers are not like this. 

Latham's difficulty in depicting these feathers correctly seems to have originated 
with the Impey painting. This shows the wing coverts as much bigger and more 



85. 
caryophyl- A. fufco-badia, roflro capite colloque fuprcmo caryophyllaceis, fpeculo 
lacea. ferrugineo, pedibus caeruleis. 

Pink-headed Duck, Lath. Syn. Sup. p. 276. 

Habitat in India 1 per paria incedens j facile manfuefcit. — 11 pol- 
ices longa. 

Rojlrum elongatum, apice potius adunco : caput et collum ad medium 
ufque caryophyllaceum, pennis curtis : bides rubra? : teFlrices alarum 
majores elongatse, incur vatae, ut in praecedente : pedes carruleo-grifci. 

Figure 3. Photograph of Latham' s original type description of the Pink-headed Duck in Index 
Ornithologicus, 1790. 

Translation of Latham's type description. 

85. carnation-pink. Anas dark chestnut brown, with beak, head and top part of neck carnation-pink, 

speculum rust-red, and feet dark blue. 

Pink-headed Duck of Latham's Synopsis, Supplement page 276. 

Habitat India; occurring in pairs; easily tamed. - 21 inches long. 

Beak elongated, with a rather hooked tip; head and upper half of the neck carnation-pink, with short 

feathers: irides red; greater wing coverts elongated and curved, as in the preceding account of the 

[male Western Duck or Garganey]: feet dark bluish-grey. 



Clemency Fisher & Janet Kear 248 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

prominent than they actually are. However, they are also drawn much higher on the 
body than in Latham's version, and they are not curved downwards. Errol Fuller 
(pers. comm.) points out that Bhawani Das was unlikely to have had the anatomical 
skills that modern bird artists take for granted, and that the painting's great charm 
and importance has little to do with sophisticated drawing technique. We have no 
real idea about the intentions of Bhawani Das. Was he trying to produce an absolutely 
truthful image, or one that was merely decorative? Other feathers are also over- 
embellished; for example, the pink feathers on the head are painted in an attractive 
but inventive mosaic pattern. 

On the evidence of Latham's drawings and description, it is likely that he had 
never handled a Pink-headed Duck dead or alive — nor observed its remarkable 
pink and chocolate plumage — but learned of it only from having seen Bhawani 
Das' painting. 

Recent attempts to find the Pink-headed Duck in its traditional marshland haunts 
of north-east India have been unsuccessful. The last individual probably died at 
Foxwarren in England in the late 1930s (Kear 1990). There are good numbers of 
cabinet skins and mounts of the Pink-headed Duck in museums around the world, 
which Salim Ali attempted to list in 1960. He realised that his listings were incomplete 
and appealed for further information. To this end we hope to publish a more complete 
list of museum holdings of specimens of Pink-headed Duck (including the six which 
are in the Liverpool Museum) and would appreciate any information readers might 
have. 

Acknowledgements 

We are most grateful to Malcolm Largen and Michael Walters for advice on nomenclature, to Errol 
Fuller and George Mclnnes for advice on plumage and to Lucy Wood and John Edmondson for help 
with translating Latham's original description of the Pink-headed Duck. Peter Olney kindly advised us 
on the Impey paintings. 

References 

Ali, S. 1960. The Pink-headed Duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea (Latham). Wildfowl 11: 55-60. 

Christies' London. 1998. Natural History. Auction, Tuesday, 19 th May 1998. Christies'. 

Delacour, J. 1956. The waterfowl of the world. Vol.2: 197-199. Country Life, London. 

Fooks, H.A. 1947. Ducks in India. Avicultural Magazine 53: 209-211. 

Kear, J. 1990. Man and wildfowl. Poyser, London. 

Latham, J. 1787. General synopsis of birds. Supplement part 1, plate 119 & pages 276-277. London. 

Latham, J. 1790. Index Ornithologicus 2: 866. London. 

Latham, J. 1824. General history of birds 10, plate 179 & pages 343-344. Winchester. 

Lugt, F. 1938. Repertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques. Vol.1: 1600-1825. Martinus Nijhoff, La 

Haye. 
Lugt, F. 1953. Repertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques. Vol.2: 1826-1860. Martinus Nijhoff, La 

Haye. 
Prestwich, A. A. 1974. The Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) in the wild and in captivity. 

Avicultural Magazine 80: 47-52. 

Address (Fisher & Kear): National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside, 127 Dale Street, Liverpool 
L69 3LA. 

€> British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Nigel Cleere 249 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

The identity of Marcgrave's 'Ibiiau' and its 

bearing on the nomenclature of the Scissor-tailed 

Nightjar Hydropsalis torquata (Caprimulgidae) 

by Nigel Cleere 

Received 27 July 2001 

The Tbiiau' and 'Guiraquerea' were the first caprimulgids to be described from 
South America (Marcgrave 1648) and were subsequently renamed Caprimulgus 
brasilianus and Caprimulgus torquatus by Gmelin (1789). Schneider (1938) 
determined that they represented the female and male of the same species, namely 
C. brasilianus Gmelin (1789), this name having page priority over C. torquatus 
Gmelin (1789). Teixeira (1992) however, suggested that the Tbiiau' was unidentifiable 
and that the name of the species should be based on the 'Guiraquerea'. He therefore 
accepted Caprimulgus (= Hydropsalis) torquatus as the valid name for the Scissor- 
tailed Nightjar and treated C. brasilianus as a species incertae sedis. Examination 
of Marcgrave's work reveals that the 'Guiraquerea' is clearly a male Scissor-tailed 
Nightjar, but the identity of the Tbiiau' seems worthy of further comment. 

The original watercolour of the Tbiiau' appeared as page 260 in the first volume 
of Count Moritz's Handbook, which later became Libri Picturati A36 (Schneider 
1938, Whitehead 1976). The bird is depicted on the branch of a tree stump and is 
fairly nondescript, although the head is small and rounded, there are no rictal bristles 
and the tail is slightly forked. The lack of rictal bristles is of special interest, since 
they are clearly illustrated on Marcgrave's other nightjars, including the 
'Guiraquerea'. 

In Marcgrave (1648), the watercolour was reproduced as a woodcut (middle 
figure) on page 195. As a result, the bird is even more nondescript, although the 
features of the head, tail and lack of rictal bristles are reproduced, and the tree stump 
is replaced by what appears to be a rock. The accompanying description is rather 
poor, but contains several points of interest, namely, that the bird is the size of a 
swallow, has wings which reach the end of the tail which is two inches long and has 
underparts which are barred black and white like a sparrowhawk. No mention is 
made of rictal bristles or a nuchal collar, although both are included in the description 
of the 'Guiraquerea'. 

I believe that the illustration and description of the Tbiiau' in Marcgrave (1648) 
could represent either the Least Nighthawk Chordeiles pusillus or the Band-tailed 
Nighthawk Nyctiprogne leucopyga, the latter a fairly widespread species in Brazil 
(Cleere 1998) even though it does not occur in the region visited by Marcgrave. I 
therefore agree with Teixeira (1992), that the Tbiiau' is best considered unidentifiable 
and the correct name for the Scissor-tailed Nightjar should be Hydropsalis torquata 
(Gmelin 1789). 



Nigel Cleere 250 Bull. B.O. C. 2002 122(4) 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank Effie Warr at the Natural History Museum, Tring and Linda Birch at 
the Alexander Library, Edward Grey Institute, Oxford, for their kind assistance in 
helping me to track down the relevant literature. I would also like to thank David 
Christie for all his help in preparing this note and Jose Fernando Pacheco for 
commenting on an earlier draft. 

References 

Cleere, N. 1998. Nightjars. A guide to nightjars and related nightbirds. Pica Press, Sussex. 

Gmelin, J.F. 1789. Systema Naturae 13 th Ed. Vol 1, Pt. 2. GE.Beer, Liepzig. 

Marcgrave, G. 1648. In Piso, G. & Marcgrave, G. Historia Naturalis Brasiliae. Lugdun Batavorum, 

Amsterdam. 
Schneider A. 1938. Die vogelbilder zur Historia Naturalis Brasiliae des Georg Marcgrave. J. Orn. 86 (1) 

:74- 106. 
Teixeira, D.M. 1992. As fontes do paraiso - Um ensaio sobre a Ornitologia no Brasil Holandes (1624 - 

1654). Rev. Nord. Biol. 7 (1/2) : 1 - 149. 
Whitehead, P. J. P. 1976. The original drawings for the Historia naturalis Brasiliae of Piso and Marcgrave 

(1648). /. Soc. Biblphy. Nat. Hist. 7 (4) : 409 - 422. 

Address : 2 Hawthorn House, Roundfields, Upper Bucklebury, Berks. RG7 6RQ, U.K. 
© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Species limits in the Brown Boobook 
Ninox scutulata complex 

by Ben King 

Received 13 June 2001, revision received 21 October 2002 

Most of the currently recognized subspecies of Brown Boobook or Brown Hawk- 
owl Ninox scutulata were originally described as separate species, but subsequent 
authors have followed Peters (1940) in maintaining them as members of a single 
species. Indeed, most of these taxa are quite similar morphologically. However, like 
Oba ( 1 988), but contra Konig et al. ( 1 999), I found that the territorial songs of some 
of the races differ so markedly as to call their conspecificity into question. Given 
that voice is the primary means of communication for nocturnal birds, selective 
pressure for intraspecific retention of stereotyped songs is likely to be strong, and 
nocturnal birds with different songs are therefore likely to represent different species. 
The aim of this paper is to examine the taxonomy of this group of owls in relation 
to the form of their songs. Tape recordings were obtained of the territorial songs of 
each of the 1 1 subspecies of Ninox scutulata recognised by Konig et al. (1999). The 
sources of these recordings are given in the Acknowledgements. Sonograms were 
made using Canary 12.4, the Cornell Bioacustics Workstation of the Bioacustics 
Research Program at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. 



Ben King 251 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Voice 

Comparison of these vocalizations showed three distinct songs, one common to a 
southern group comprising eight resident subspecies: N. s. hirsuta (Temminck) 1824, 
Sri Lanka and S. India; N. s. lugubris (Tickell) 1833, Pakistan, N. India, Nepal; N. s. 
obscura Hume 1873, Andaman and Nicobar Islands; N. s. burmanica Hume, 1876, 
Assam, S. China, SE Asia; N. s. scutulata (Raffles) 1822, Malaya, Sumatra; N. s. 
borneensis (Bonaparte) 1850, Borneo; N. s.javanensis Stresemann 1928, Java; N. s. 
palawanensis Ripley and Rabor 1962, Palawan. 

The second song type was given by the two northern subspecies: N. s. japonica 
(Temminck and Schlegel) 1844, breeds in Ussuriland, Korea and the main Japanese 
Islands to Central Sichuan (Cheng, 1987) and Fujian in China, winters in SE Asia, 
Philippines and Indonesia (except Irian Jay a); and N. s. totogo Momiyama 1931, 
resident (Brazil, 1991) Ryu Kyu Islands and Taiwan. 

The third song type was given by N. s. randi, Deignan 1951, of the Philippines 
(except Palawan). 

The song of the southern group (Fig. 1) is a hollow mellow double note whoo- 
wup, c. 0.4-0.5 sec. in duration, with a rising inflection and accent on the second 
syllable. The frequency of the first note is 0.4-0.7 KHz, while the second is mostly 
0.5-0.9 KHz, with no audible gap between the two notes. The double note is uttered 
in a continuous series with about 0.6-0.9 sec. between notes (Fig. 2). 

By contrast the song of the northern group (Fig. 1) consists of two (sometimes 
three) mellow, hollow whoop notes 0.1-0.25 sec. in duration on the same frequency 
(0.5-0.85 KHz), separated by a gap of 0.25-0.5 sec, expressed as a couplet 
(occasionally triplet). The couplets are uttered in a continuous series with about 0.4- 
0.9 sec. between couplets (Fig. 2). 

The song of N. s. randi (Fig. 1) is a hollow, mellow couplet similar to that of N. 
s. japonica, but the two notes are lower pitched (0.3-0.6 KHz), each note falling 
somewhat in pitch (rather that appearing slightly arched), and are more closely spaced 
(0.2-0.3 sec. apart). The couplets are uttered in a continuous series with about 0.3- 
0.6 sec. between couplets (Fig. 2). 

Fig. 3 is a wave form sonogram showing sound energy emanating from a central 
axis. The two notes of the double note of southern Ninox scutulata (represented here 
by burmanica and hirsuta) are clearly shown, as are the two widely separated single 
notes of the couplets of N. s. japonica, N. s. totogo and N. s. randi. 

Morphometries 

The birds with a song that defines them as the northern group differ from the southern 
group by their proportionately shorter tail (Table 1) and by their more pointed wing 
(Table 2). A scatter plot of wing and tail measurements of the specimens measured 
in this study (Fig. 4) shows that while subspecies that comprise the southern group 
tend to have a similar wing/tail ratio, migratory Japanese birds and Philippine N. s. 
randi are separable on this basis. 



Ben King 



252 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



Ninox scutulata 

(southern group) 



(Treesucon) 
Thailand 



Ninox scutulata 

(northern group) 

totogo 



Ninox scutulata randi 



a* • 



(NHK) 
Japan 



Mi 



(commercial CD) 
Taiwan 



M 



(Morris) 
Mindanao 



I k 



Ninox scutulata japonica 



k § 



(Kim) 
Korea 



* ft' 



(NHK) 
Japan 



A * 



(Kabaya) 
Japan 



I • 



(Robson) 
Sichuan, China 



# • 



(Alstrom) 
Sichuan, China 



burmanica I lugubris | /l/'rsufa 



,M* 



(Treesucon) ! (Connop) 
Thailand I Nepal 



Ninox scutulata (southern 
hirsuta obscura scutulata 



group) 

scutulata I borneensis javanensis palawanensis 



*# 



(Warakagoda) 
Sri Lanka [Andama n Isj Malaya 



#1 V 



Sumatra Borneo 



iJ 



1 ' 




0.5 


, , , , , 
1.0 


, I . . 

1.5 


"I" 
2.0 


i i | i i 
2.5 


i i | i 
3.0 


I , | , I 

3.5 
seconds 


i | , , 
4.0 


, , | , , 
4.5 


, i | , i 
5.0 


5.5 


, i | i , 
6.0 


i . | . i 

6.5 


, , | , 
7.0 



Figure 1 . Territorial songs of the eleven forms of the Ninox scutulata complex. The top row allows 
comparison of the songs of the three song types found in the complex. The southern group (see text - 
here represented by N. s. burmanica) has a double note, the second note higher in pitch. The songs of the 
northern pair (N. s. japonica and N. s. totogo) and N, s. randi are couplets, randi differing by giving 
lower-pitched notes which are downwardly inflected (rather than in a shallow arch) and by having a 
shorter interval between notes. N. s. japonica has a shorter interval between notes than N. s. totogo. Row 
two shows calls of N. s. japonica from various parts of its range showing their consistency. The bottom 
row shows samples of all eight subspecies of the southern group, showing their consistency. 



2.0 

1.0 



2.0 

1.0 



2.0 

1.0 H 



2.0 
1.0 



Ninox scutulata japonica Japan 



NHK 



Ninox s. totogo Taiwan 



commercial CD 



Ninox s. randi Mindanao 



Ninox s. borneensis Borneo 



2 3 

seconds 



Figure 2. Territorial songs of the Ninox scutulata complex, showing how the couplets of N. s japonica, 
N. s. totogo and N. s. randi, and the double notes of the southern group (see text - here represented by 
N. s. borneensis), are phrased into a continuous series. The couplets of N. s. totogo are farther apart than 
those of N. s. japonica while those of randi are closer. Similarly, the two notes of the couplets of N. j. 
totogo are farther apart than those of N. s. japonica, while closer in N. s. randi. The notes of N. s. randi 
fall in pitch, as opposed to the slightly arched notes of N. s. japonica. The two notes of the southern 
group are coalesced into a double note, with the second note higher-pitched. The time scale is stretched 
a little over 2x that of Fig. 1 . 



Ben King 



253 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



TABLE 1 

Comparison of length of culmen, wing and tail, and wing/tail ratios of the subspecies of the Ninox 

scutulata complex. Note the higher wing/tail ratio of N. s. japonica, N. s. totogo and N. s. randi 

compared to the eight southern races of N. scutulata, and the large size of N. s. randi. 

Measurements for N. s. javanensis from Stresemann (1928) and N. s. palawanensis 

from Ripley & Rabor (1962). S.d. = standard deviation. 





culmen (from skull) 


wing (flattened) 


tail 


wing/tail ratio 




mean (range), s.d. 


mean (range), s.d. 


mean (range), s.d. 


mean (range) 


N. s. japonica 


23.8(21.1-26.1) 


220.8(214-226.8) 


115.8(107.5-122.6) 


1.91 (1.75-2.03) 


11 specimens 


1.5 


4.6 


4.0 




N. s. totogo 


24.8(24.3-25.2) 


210.4(203.7-222.8) 


115.3(111.3-120.2) 


1.83 (1.73-1.99) 


1 specimens 


0.3 


6.7 


3.2 




N. s. randi 


26.8 (24.6-29.1) 


229.1(225.0-234.0) 


122.2(118.0-125.0) 


1.88(1.85-1.91) 


5 specimens 


1.9 


3.2 


2.8 




N. s. burmanica 


24.4(23.1-26.0) 


218.1(201.6-226.5) 


129.5(117.0-136.0) 


1.68 (1.63-1.72) 


10 specimens 


1.0 


7.5 


5.7 




N. s. lugubris 


24.2 (22.4-25.8) 


218.3(212.0-223.7) 


128.0(123.0-130.1) 


1.70(1.68-1.73) 


4 specimens 


1.4 


4.8 


3.3 




N. s. hirsuta 


22.9 (19.7-24.5) 


196.7(189.8-201.1) 


111.8(108.7-114.9) 


1.75 (1.71-1.82) 


6 specimens 


1.7 


4.6 


2.2 




N. s. obscura 


24.2(22.7-25.8) 


209.0(205.2-211.1) 


117.3(110.4-124.2) 


1.78(1.69-1.86) 


4 specimens 


1.3 


2.6 


5.8 




N. s. scutulata 


23.8(20.7-25.2) 


195.7(182.4-213.3) 


109.5(100.3-115.0) 


1.78(1.69-1.87) 


11 specimens 


1.4 


7.2 


4.5 




N. s. borneensis 


23.1(21.9-24.4) 


181.7(175.1-189.0) 


101.1(95.1-109.3) 


1.79 (1.69-1.91) 


9 specimens 


0.8 


5.0 


4.3 




N. s. javanensis 


— 


178-183 


— 


— 


N. s. palawanensis 


23.5 


195 


108 


— 



Resident N. s. randi of the Philippines is a large bird with a wing/tail ratio similar 
to N. s. japonica, but with a rounded wing like the southern group. N. s. randi is 
much larger than N. s. palawanensis, of Palawan. 

In the field, in its wintering range, non-vocalizing N. s. japonica is probably 
indistinguishable from resident forms of the southern group with which it overlaps 
and from N. s. randi. In the hand, japonica can be distinguished from the subspecies 



Ben King 



254 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



TABLE 2 

Comparison of wing formula of Ninox s. randi, N. s. japonica and N. s. totogo, and six of the eight 

remaining subspecies of Ninox scutulata (specimens of N. s. javanensis and N. s. palawanensis were 

unavailable for comparison). Note the more pointed wings of N. s. japonica and TV. s. totogo than both 

N. s. randi and the other N. scutulata ssp. The wings of resident N. s. totogo are nearly as pointed as 

migratory N. s. japonica. 





Longest 


Second longest 


Third longest 


Fourth longest 


Fifth longest 




primary 


primary — mean 
distance from tip 
(range) 


primary — mean 
distance from tip 
(range) 


primary — mean 
distance from tip 
(range) 


primary — mean 
distance from tip 
(range) 


N. s. randi 
3 specimens 


8=7 


7=8 
1.2(0.0-1.8) 


6 
8(6.1-10.0) 


9 

19.5(15.5-22.2) 


5 
33.3(32.3-34.9) 


N. s. totogo 
6 specimens 


8 (7 once) 


7 (8 once) 
1.6(0.6-3.0) 


9 (6 twice) 
12.9(8.6-17.2) 


6 (9 twice) 

17.7(15.3-19.3) 


5 
42.3(34.2-47.1) 


N. s. japonica 
11 specimens 


8 (7 once) 


7 (8 once) 
3.9 (0.6-9.9) 


9 (6 four times) 
15.6(13.2-20.6) 


6(9 four times) 
19.6(15.4-22.8) 


5 
46.1(40.6-50.5) 


N. s. burmanica 
1 specimens 


8 (7 twice) 


7 (8 twice) 
2.2(0.0-8.1) 


6 (9 once) 
6.9 (2.6-11.0) 


9 (6 once) 
20.0(13.7-26.8) 


5 
30.4(25.3-46.2) 


N. s. lugubris 
3 specimens 


8 (7 once) 


7 (8 once) 
2.0 (0.5-4.2) 


6 

6.9 (5.0-9.5) 


9 
19.2(14.6-22.0) 


5 
28.9(27.7-30.4) 


N. s. hirsuta 
5 specimens 


7 (8 once) 


8 (6 twice, 7 once) 
1.9 (1.3-2.9) 


6 (8 twice) 
6.3 (4.6-8.0) 


9 (5 twice) 
16.6(12.5-20.0) 


5(9 twice) 
24.4(20.7-28.4) 


N. s. obscura 
3 specimens 


7 


8 
1.8(0.3-3.2) 


6 

6.4(5.6-7.7) 


9 
14.5(13.0-15.9) 


5 
28.9(26.2-32.7) 


N. s. scutulata 
10 specimens 


7 (8 once) 


8 (6 twice, 7 once) 
1.6(0.5-2.4) 


6 (8 twice) 
5.3(2.7-11.2) 


9 (5 twice) 
16.7(11.2-22.3) 


5 (9 twice) 
23.3(15.7-41.1) 


N. s. borneensis 
8 specimens 


7 (8 twice) 


8 (6 twicej twice) 
1.5 (0.3-3.3) 


6 (8 twice) 
3.5(2.2-6.1) 


9 (5 thrice) 
14.2(11.4-17.1) 


5 (9 thrice) 
19.5(15.2-28.6) 



in the southern group by its higher wing/tail ratio and more pointed wing; and from 
N. s. randi by its somewhat shorter culmen and more pointed wing. 



Discussion 

The territorial song of the two northern subspecies is clearly and consistently distinct 
(Figs. 1 , 2 and 3) from those of all the southern resident subspecies of N. scutulata. 
I therefore propose that the northern forms should be regarded as a different species, 



Ben King 



255 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



t 
energy 




energy 



energy 



Ninox scutulata randi Mindanao 



Ninox s.japonica Honshu, Japan 



Ninox s. burmanica Thailand 

(Treesucon) 




ffr l»NN «' 



Ninox scutulata randi 



Talaut 



Ninox s. totogo 



Taiwan 
(commercial tape) 



totttJI^^witoii i<> n>iii w'ltii^ttMn^^Bl^iitii - -Jl^B ^Hfck**— — -^^1 Hut*** 



Ninox s. hirsuta 



S. India 



4mhhHH* 






*# '#4 »- 



0.5 



1.0 

seconds 



1.5 



2.0 



Figure 3. Wave form sonograms showing the bursts of energy associated with the two-noted territorial 
songs of the Ninox scutulata complex, clearly indicating the two widely spaced single notes of N. s. 
japonica, N s. totogo and N. s. randi, and the two closely spaced notes of the double note of the southern 
subspecies of N. scutulata (here represented by N. s. burmanica and TV. s. hirsuta). 





X 


N. scutulata 


(8 southern races) 


,x 






• 


N. s. totogo 




X* 

xx 




130- 





N. s. japonica 


xx x 
x*x 






4 


N. s. randi 














x x * 


4 


120- 








x # ° 4 










X* 










X yX • 

X *yX X V 


x'o o0 o 










> * o # o 




110- 




X 


o 








X 
X 


X X 






100- 


X 


x x 

X 








90- 


i 


X 


I I I I 


I I ! I 1 


1 



170 



180 



190 



210 



220 



230 



240 



200 
Wing Length (mm) 

Figure 4. Scatter plot of wing length against tail length of the eight subspecies (herein combined) of the 
southern group of N. scutulata compared to those of N. s. japonica, N. s. totogo and N. s. randi. The 
southern group of N. scutulata shows a clear linear pattern of wing/tail proportion throughout its range. 
while randi and most N. s. japonica cluster outside the southern group, and most N. s. totogo cluster 
within it. 



Ben King 256 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

N. japonica, from the southern subspecies of N. scutulata. The more pointed wing 
(Table 2), proportionately shorter tail (Table 1, Fig. 4), and the higher wing/tail ratio 
of N. japonica relative to that of all forms of N. scutulata provide additional support 
for the treatment of N. japonica as a distinct species. Interestingly, resident N. j. 
totogo of the northern group has a pointed wing similar to migratory N. j. japonica. 

The Philippine subspecies' territorial song, large size, proportionately short tail 
and high wing/tail ratio suggest a closer relationship to japonica than scutulata. 
However, the clearly different song indicates that it too is a separate species, N. 
randi. 

I recommend Northern Boobook as the English name for N. japonica, Brown 
Boobook for M scutulata, and Chocolate Boobook for N. randi. In my view, 
"boobook" is to be preferred over "hawk-owl" for all the small Ninox owls, as they 
do not look at all like hawks. While they lack conspicuous facial discs, they have 
large rounded heads, large forward looking eyes and short tails, making them owl- 
like indeed. Usage of the term boobook, instead of hawk-owl for the Ninox owls so 
named, also removes conflict with the English name for Surnia ulula, the Hawk 
Owl. 

While N. j. totogo is clearly close to N. j. japonica, it is apparently resident 
(rather than migratory), the notes in its territorial couplet are more widely spaced 
and its measurements are somewhat different. These differences suggest the 
possibility that it may be specifically distinct but further study is required. 

Peters (1940), Vaurie (1965) and Konig et al. (1999) showed the breeding range 
of N. j. japonica in China confined to northeastern or eastern China, while Cheng 
(1987) illustrated it extending to central Sichuan. In June 2002 I heard one c. 50 km 
north-west of Chengdu and Per Alstrom and Craig Robson (Fig. 1) obtained tape 
recordings from Emei Shan, all in central Sichuan. Further field work is needed to 
define more clearly the southern extent of the breeding range of A/, japonica and the 
northern extent of the breeding range of N. s. burmanica in southern China. 

On 2 September 1997, I tape-recorded N. randi (Fig. 1) on Karakelong Island 
(about midway between Mindanao and Halmahera) in the Talaut group of Indonesia. 
I also observed the bird in the beam of a powerful flashlight with lOx binoculars. Its 
appearance was that of N. randi and its territorial song identical to those recorded on 
Mindanao. This is the first record of this form for Indonesia. N. japonica has been 
recorded on Talaut (White & Bruce 1986) but its territorial song is different (Fig. 1), 
it apparently does not vocalize on its wintering grounds, and it is unlikely to be 
present until late September or October. 

While the territorial song of N. s. obscura is similar to those of the other subspecies 
of N. scutulata, its mostly blackish underparts indicate a need for further study. 

Acknowledgements 

Jeff Groth prepared the sonograms. John Fitzpatrick and Greg Budney, of the Macaulay Library of 
Natural Sounds at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, provided tape recording equipment and other 
assistance. Per Alstrom, Tim Fisher, Simon Harrap, Peter Morris, Craig Robson, Bas van Balen, and 



Ben King 257 Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Deepal Warakagoda provided tape recordings. The Thailand recording of N. s. burmanica was taken 
from a cassette self-published by Uthai Treesucon published in 1983 as "The forest night sounds'"; 
Nepal N. s. lugubris from a single cassette by Scott Connop titled "Birdsongs of Nepal", published by 
the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology in 1993; Korean N.j. japonica by Kim Hyun-tae from his website: 
<soback.kornet.netl~pintail>; N.j. japonica from a 3-cassette collection titled "Japanese birds in sound, 
100 well-known species" published in 1971 by NHK TV in Japan; N J. japonica by Tsuruhiko Kabaya 
from a 6-CD collection titled "The songs and calls of 420 birds in Japan" published in 2001 by 
Shogakukan, Tokyo; N. j. totogo from "Guide to natural sounds of Taiwan forests", published by Wind 
Records in Taipei. All the unattributed recordings were made by Ben King and will eventually be deposited 
at the Macaulay Library of Natural Sounds at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. Referee Pamela 
Rasmussen provided much useful critique. All measured specimens are housed at the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York. 

References: 

Brazil, M.A. 1991. The birds of Japan. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. 

Cheng, T.H. 1987. A synopsis of the avifauna of China. Science Press, Beijing. 

Peters, J.L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world. Vol. 4. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge. 

Kennedy, R.S., Gonzales, PC, Dickinson, E.C., Miranda, Jr., H.C. & Fisher, T.H. 2000. A guide to the 

birds of the Philippines. Oxford Univ Press, London. 
Konig, C, Weick, F. & Becking, J.-H. 1999. Owls: a guide to the owls of the world. Yale Univ. Press, 

New Haven. 
Oba, T 1988. Studies on vocalization of the Japanese Brown Hawk Owl. Ornithology in the Far East, 

Newsletter No. 12: 1-2. 
Ripley, S.D. & Rabor, D.S. 1962. New birds from Palawan and Culion Islands, Philippines. Postilla 

73:1-14. 
Stresemann, E. 1928. Ninox scutulata javanensis subsp. nov. Ornith. Monatsber 36:54. 
Vaurie, C. 1965. The birds of the Palearctic fauna: a systematic reference, non-passeriformes. Witherby, 

London. 
White, C.M.N. & Bruce, M.D. 1986. The birds ofWallacea (Sulawesi, the Moluccas & Lesser Sunda 

Islands, Indonesia). Check-list No. 7. British Ornithologists' Union, London. 

Address: Ben F. King, Ornithology Dept., American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 
79th St., New York, NY 10024, U.S. A 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



The grammatical gender of avian genera 

by Normand David & Michel Gosselin 

Received 19 August 2001 

In a recent article (David & Gosselin 2002), we have identified a number of 
inconsistencies in the current application of gender agreement rules to avian species- 
group names. In order to resolve the various issues it was indispensable for us to 
know the correct grammatical gender of most avian genera. It became obvious, at 
that point, that some of the inconsistencies that existed at the species level had their 
equivalent at the genus level. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 258 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

The problems generally stem from the fact that some 19th-century practices 
have not been comprehensively revised when the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature has, over the years (ICZN 1961, 1985, 1999), refined the ways of 
ascertaining the grammatical gender of generic names. Each section of the following 
text refers to a specific article of the ICZN Code (1999), and draws attention to the 
problematic genera. The Appendix lists the adjectival species-group names that must 
be modified in order to agree in gender with the genera in question, and also lists 
certain invariable words that might be confused with adjectival names. Unless stated 
otherwise, the authorship of each of the genera treated here is as given by Peters 
(1934-1986), and each citation has been verified in the original publication. 

Names formed from Latin or Greek words 

/) Latin words of fixed gender 

A name that is or ends in an ancient or mediaeval Latin word takes the gender given 
for that word in standard Latin dictionaries; if it is a compound word, the gender is 
given by the final component: in the case of a noun, the gender of that noun; in the 
case of any other component, such as a Latin suffix, the gender appropriate to that 
component (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1.1, Glossary: Latin). Latin definitions and 
grammatical genders are taken from Glare (1982), Internationale Thesaurus- 
Kommission (1900-1993), and Lewis & Short (1879). Examples of names that are 
Latin words of fixed gender include Satrapa [masculine], Grus [feminine], Falco 
[masculine], and Hirundo [feminine]. Therefore: 

Bleda Bonaparte, 1857, is the name of Attila's brother, and is thus masculine (as 
is Attila Lesson, 1830). 

Colonia Gray, 1827, is the feminine Latin noun colonia [colonist], and is thus 
feminine. Even if viewed as formed from the Spanish word "colon" (Jobling 1991), 
Colonia would also be feminine because it ends in a and has only the noun colonus 
as its originally included nominal species (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.2.4; see Section 10, 
below). 

Emblema Gould, 1842, is a neuter noun [= mosaic] in both Latin and Greek, and 
is thus neuter [as already noted by Sibley & Monroe (1990)]. 

Lagopus Brisson, 1760, is the feminine Latin noun lagopus [white grouse], and 
is thus feminine. Brisson himself consistently used feminine adjectives in combination 
with Lagopus. 

Milvago Spix, 1 824, is either the masculine noun milvus [kite] or the feminine 
noun milva [she-kite], to which was added the feminine Latin suffix ago [a tendency] 
(Ernout 1941, Glare 1982), and it is thus feminine (as is Gallinago Brisson, 1760). 

Nigrita Strickland in Fraser, 1843, is the masculine Latin noun Nigrita [an 
inhabitant of the shores of the Nigris River], and is thus masculine (as is Pseudonigrita 
Reichenow, 1903). Nigrita is a replacement name for Aethiops Strickland, 1841, a 
Latin word that has the same meaning and the same gender as Nigrita. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 259 Bull B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

2) Transliterated Greek words of fixed gender 

A name that is or ends in an ancient Greek word transliterated into Latin without 
other changes takes the gender given for that word in standard Greek dictionaries 
(ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1.2, Glossary: Greek). Greek definitions and grammatical 
genders are taken from Liddell & Scott (1996). Examples of Greek words 
transliterated into Latin include Leptopogon (from 7r(oycov [pogon: beard], masculine), 
Petrochelidon (from %e?a5cov [chelidon: swallow], feminine), and Crossoptilon (from 
7tTiA,ov [ptilon: feather], neuter). It must be noted that both the Latin letters "k" [as 
in Knipolegus] and "c" [as in Calidris] are considered as valid transliterations of the 
Greek letter k [kappa], while both the letters "u" [as in Trugon] and "y" [as in 
Geotrygon] are valid transliterations of the Greek letter v [upsilon] (ICZN 1999: 
Art. 11.2; Woods 1944: 10; Stearn 1966: 262; etc.); this practice conforms to the 
general usage in scientific nomenclature, and to numerous examples put forward by 
the ICZN (1999: e.g. Art. 30.1.3). Therefore: 

Aglaeactis Gould, 1848, ends in the feminine noun ocktk; [aktis: ray], and is thus 
feminine. 

Ampelion Tschudi, 1846, is the masculine noun ajme^icov [ampelion: a songbird], 
and is thus masculine. 

Cyclarhis Swainson, 1824, and Siphonorhis Sclater, 1861, end in the feminine 
noun piq [rhis: nose], and are thus feminine. 

Eriocnemis Reichenbach, 1849, ends in the feminine noun kvtijik; [knemis: 
legging], and is thus feminine (as is Hypocnemis Cabanis, 1847). 

Geotrygon Gosse, 1847, ends in the feminine noun TpDycov [trugon: dove], and 
is thus feminine. 

Heliactin Boie, 1831, ends in the feminine noun ocktw [aktin: ray], a nominative 
variant of ocktk; [aktis], and is thus feminine. 

Illadopsis Heine, 1860, and Siptornopsis Cory, 1919, end in the feminine noun 
o\|/k; [opsis: appearance], and are thus feminine (as are Chloropsis Jardine & Selby, 
1827, Thlypopsis Cabanis, 1851, etc.). 

Laniisoma Swainson, 1832, ends in the neuter noun acojLia [soma: body], and is 
thus neuter. 

Leucopternis Kaup, 1847, ends in the masculine noun 7rcepvt(; [pternis: a hawk], 
and is thus masculine. 

Macrodipteryx Swainson, 1837, Pseudocolopteryx Lillo, 1905, Spiziapteryx 
Kaup, 1852, and Stelgidopteryx Baird, 1858, end in the feminine noun Ttxepi)^ 
[pterux: wing], and are thus feminine (as are Archaeopteryx Meyer, 1861, and 
Brachypteryx Horsfield, 1822). 

Melozone Reichenbach, 1850, ends in the feminine noun ^covr| [zone: girdle], 
and is thus feminine. 

Metopothrix Sclater & Salvin, 1866, ends in the feminine noun Opi^ [thrix: 
hair], and is thus feminine (as is Leiothrix Swainson, 1832). 

Myiopagis Salvin & Goodman, 1888, ends in the feminine noun 7iayt(; [pagis: 
snare], and is thus feminine. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 260 Bull B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Neocrex Sclater & Salvin, 1868, ends in the feminine noun Kpe£, [krex: rail] and 
is thus feminine (as are Crex Bechstein, 1803, Gallicrex Blyth, 1852, and Megacrex 
D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879). 

Orthonyx Temminck, 1820, ends in the masculine noun ovu^ [onux: claw], and 
is thus masculine (as are Certhionyx Lesson, 1830, Dolichonyx Swainson, 1827, 
etc.). 

Pachycare Gould, 1876, ends in the neuter noun Kapr| [kare: head], a nominative 
variant of Kocpoc [kara], and is thus neuter. 

Paramythia De Vis, 1892, is the feminine noun 7iapaji\)0ta [paramuthia: 
encouragement], and is thus feminine. 

Philydor Spix, 1824, ends in the neuter noun t>5cop [udor: water], and is thus 
neuter. 

3) Greek words latinized with an ending indicative of a particular gender 

Names that are Greek words latinized with change of ending, or with a Latin or 
latinized suffix, take the gender normally appropriate to the changed ending or the 
Latin suffix (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1.3). It must be emphasized that the ICZN Code 
does not expressly mention the normally appropriate gender of latinized endings. 
The examples given under Art. 30.1.3 indicate that names that have the Latin us 
ending are masculine, while those that have the Latin a ending are feminine; it can 
be inferred that those with the um ending are neuter. This conforms to the prevalent 
gender of Latin nouns with such endings, and to the general usage in scientific 
nomenclature. Therefore: 

Philentoma Eyton, 1845, ends in the adjective evxojioq [entomos: cut in pieces] 
latinized with a feminine ending, and must thus be treated as feminine. If it is argued 
that Philentoma is neuter because entoma is also the transliterated neuter plural 
form of "entomos" [from toc eviojia (^oa): ta entoma (zoa): the cut (animals): the 
insects], it would follow that Philentoma would also be plural. A genus-group name, 
however, "must be, or be treated as, a noun in the nominative singular" (ICZN 1999: 
Art. 11.8), and in that form Philentoma can only be feminine. 

Todiramphus Lesson, 1827, ends in the noun paji^oq [ramphos: bill], latinized 
with a masculine ending, and is thus masculine. See Christidis & Boles (1994: 60- 
61) for the correct spelling of this name. Some recent authors have treated 
Todiramphus as distinct from Halcyon, yet none of them has made all of the required 
gender changes to the adjectival names. 

Tricholaema J. & E. Verreaux, 1855, ends in the noun taxijioq [laimos: throat], 
latinized with a feminine ending, and is thus feminine [as already noted by Short & 
Home (1987)]. 

4) Compound words ending in ops 

All compound names ending in ops are mandatorily masculine, regardless of their 
derivation or of their treatment by their authors (ICZN 1 999: Art. 30. 1 .4.3). In current 
avian literature, however, the following genera are not consistently treated as 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 26 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

masculine: Creurgops Sclater, 1858; Hymenops Lesson, 1828; Jacamerops Lesson, 
1 830; Lophozosterops Hartert, 1 896; Loxops Cabanis, 1 847; Prionops Vieillot, 1816; 
Speirops Reichenbach, 1852; and Zosterops Vigors & Horsfield, 1826. 

5) Compound words ending in the suffix ites, oides, ides, odes, or istes 

A compound genus-group name ending in the suffix ites, oides, ides, odes, or istes is 
to be treated as masculine unless its author, when establishing the name, stated that 
it had another gender or treated it as such by combining it with an adjectival species- 
group name in another gender form (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1.4.4). Therefore: 

Anthropoides Vieillot, 1816, Aramides Pucheran, 1845, Penelopides 
Reichenbach, 1 849, and Sypheotides Lesson, 1839, were not combined with species- 
group names when originally established, and are thus masculine. 

Butorides Blyth, 1852, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective javanica, and is thus feminine. 

Cinclodes Gray, 1 840, was first established in combination with the masculine 
adjective patagonicus, and is thus masculine. 

Pionites Heine, 1890, was first established in combination with the latinized 
masculine adjective melanocephalus, and is thus masculine. 

Piprites Cabanis, 1847, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective pileata, and is thus feminine. 

Saxicoloides Lesson, 1832, was first established in the combination Turdus 
(Saxicoloides) erythrurus, and is thus masculine. 

Turdoides Cretzschmar, 1827, was first established in combination with the 
latinized feminine adjective leucocephala, and is thus feminine. 

6) Latin words with a changed ending 

A name that is or ends in a Latin word of which the ending has been changed takes 
the gender appropriate to the new ending. If the ending is such as not to indicate a 
particular gender, the name is to be treated as masculine (ICZN 1999: Art. 30. 1.4.5). 
It must be emphasized again that the ICZN Code does not expressly mention the 
normally appropriate gender of Latin endings. The example given under Art. 30. 1 .4.5 
indicates that names that have the Latin a ending are feminine; it can be inferred that 
those with the us ending are masculine and those with the urn ending are neuter (see 
also Section 3, above). Therefore: 

Andigena Gould, 1851, ends in the Latin noun genus [offspring] with a changed 
ending indicative of the feminine gender, and is thus feminine. 

Garrulax Lesson, 1831, is the Latin adjective garrulus [garrulous] with a changed 
ending not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus masculine. 

Procnias Illiger, 1811, is the Latin noun Procne [a mythical character] with a 
changed ending not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus masculine. If Procnias 
is considered as modified from the comparable Greek noun npOKvr] [Prokne], it 
would also be masculine because it was not combined with a species-group name 
when originally established (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1.4.2). 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 262 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Tiaris Swainson, 1827, is the Latin (and Greek) noun tiaras or tiara [a Persian 
head-dress] with a changed ending not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus 
masculine. Moreover, it was originally established in combination with the masculine 
adjective pusillus. 

7) Words of common or variable gender 

A genus-group name that is or ends in a Latin or Greek word of common or variable 
gender (masculine or feminine) is to be treated as masculine unless its author, when 
establishing the name, stated that it is feminine or treated it as feminine in combination 
with an adjectival species-group name. It is important to note here that the gender of 
a name is indicated solely by an author's action in the work where the name is 
originally established (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1, 30.1.4.2, Glossary: establish). Thus: 

7a) Latin words of common or variable gender 

Most classical Latin nouns that end in the substantival suffix cola [dweller] are 
masculine, but a few are feminine as well as masculine [e.g. monticola, limicola 
(Glare 1982)]. Thus, generic names that end in cola and that happen to be classical 
Latin words of common or variable gender, or happen to be newly derived words, 
are not all mandatorily masculine contrary to what Clancey (1992: 221), Dowsett & 
Dowsett-Lemaire (1993: 359), and Sibley & Monroe (1990: 592) have concluded; 
they are feminine if originally established in combination with a feminine adjectival 
name (Godfrey 1965). For example, Arundinicola d'Orbigny, 1840, originally 
established in combination with the latinized adjective leucocephala, is feminine 
and currently treated as such. Therefore: 

Bambusicola Gould, 1863, was first established in combination with the noun 
phrase sonorivox, and is thus masculine. 

Chthonicola Gould, 1847, was not combined with a species-group name when 
originally established, and is thus masculine. Anthus minimus Vigors & Horsfield 
was simply listed as the type species, but Christidis & Boles (1994: 64-65) argued 
that Chthonicola is feminine because Gould, elsewhere and later, used the 
combination Chthonicola minima; however, this action does not meet the requirement 
("when establishing") of ICZN (1985: Art. 30 (a)(i), Glossary: establish; 1999: Art. 
30.1.4.2). 

Cisticola Kaup, 1829, was not combined with a species-group name when 
originally established, and is thus masculine. 

Graminicola Jerdon, 1 863, was first established in combination with bengalensis, 
an adjective not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus masculine. 

Hylacola Gould, 1843, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective cauta, and is thus feminine [as already noted by Christidis & Boles (1994: 
64)]. 

Muscisaxicola d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837, was first established in 
combination with words not indicative of a particular gender (mentalis, maculirostris, 
rufivertex, and striaticeps), and is thus masculine. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 263 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Pinicola Vieillot, 1807, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective rubra, and is thus feminine [as already noted by Godfrey (1965)]. 

Rupicola Brisson, 1760, was not combined with a species-group name when 
originally established, and is thus masculine. 

Saxicola Bechstein, 1802, was first established in combination with three nouns 
in apposition: the Latin noun phrase rubicola [dweller among brambles]; the Latin 
noun oenanthe [a bird]; and the Latin noun rubetra, used by Gazes as the translation 
of Aristotle's (3axt(; [batis: a bird] (Belon 1555; Jobling 1991). Saxicola is thus 
masculine. 

Schoenicola Blyth, 1844, was not combined with a species-group name when 
originally established, and is thus masculine. 

Dives Deppe, 1830, a Latin adjective [opulent] with identical masculine and 
feminine endings, was first established as a subgenus together with the type by 
tautonymy Icterus dives Deppe, 1830 (fide Peters 1968: 186), and is thus masculine 
[original not seen], 

7b) Greek words of common or variable gender 

The Greek adjectives 5pa)(i(o8r|(; [drumodes: wooded, woody], po8o7rr|%\)^ 
[rhodopechus: rosy-armed], xo^r|pr|(; [toxeres: armed with a bow] and xpr|pcov 
[treron: shy], and the Greek nouns %ev [chen: goose], opru^ [ortux: quail], naiq 
[pais: child], 7t£p5i^ [perdix: partridge] and tyvXaL, [phulax: guardian] are masculine 
as well as feminine (Liddell & Scott 1996). Therefore: 

Ammoperdix Gould, 1851, was first established in combination with the nouns 
heyi and bonhami, and is thus masculine. 

Caloperdix Blyth, 1861, was first established in combination with the masculine 
adjective ocellatus, and is thus masculine. 

Chen Boie, 1822, and the final components of Alopochen Stejneger in Kingsley, 
1885, Cyanochen Bonaparte, 1856, and Neochen Oberholser, 1918, are the 
transliterated Greek noun %ev [chen: goose]. Because each of these names was first 
established in combination with a feminine adjective (Chen hyperborea, Alopochen 
aegyptiaca, Cyanochen cyanoptera, Neochen jubata), all four are feminine. 

Cinnyris Cuvier, 1816, is the putative nominative singular [Ktwupiq] of the 
nominative plural KtvvuptSeq [kinnurides], defined by Liddell & Scott (1996) as 
meaning xa (LitKpa opviOapta [ta mikra ornitharia: the small birdlets]. Because the 
gender of the word is unknown, and because Cinnyris was not combined with a 
species-group name when originally established, it must be treated as masculine. 

Drymodes Gould, 1840, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective brunneopygia, and is thus feminine. Although the meaning given by Gould 
for Drymodes ("lover of woodland places") is not fully reflected by the word he 
chose, the name would still be feminine even if considered as a modified Greek 
word [as per Jobling (1991); see Section 7c, below], or considered as ending in the 
suffix -odes (see Section 5, above). 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 264 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Eutoxeres Reichenbach, 1849, Heliopais Sharpe, 1893, Melanoperdix Jerdon, 
1853, Hylophylax Ridgway, 1909, Schoeniophylax Ridgway, 1909, Phapitreron 
Bonaparte, 1854, and Treron Vieillot, 1816, were not combined with a species- 
group name when originally established, and are thus masculine. 

Lophortyx Bonaparte, 1838, was first established in combination with the 
feminine adjective californica, and is thus feminine. 

Oreortyx Baird, 1858, was first established in combination with the masculine 
adjective pictus, and is thus masculine. 

Rhodopechys Cabanis, 1851, was first established in combination with the 
masculine adjective sanguineus, and is thus masculine. 

The Greek noun opviq [ornis: bird] is and always has been masculine as well as 
feminine (Arndt & Gingrich 1957, Bailly 1950, Liddell & Scott 1996, etc.). 
Accordingly, names ending in "ornis" end in a word of common gender, and fall 
under Art. 30. 1.4.2 of ICZN (1999). The fact that Ichthy ornis was used as an example 
of Art. 30.1.2 (names that end in a Greek word of fixed gender) is obviously an 
oversight, of no real consequence here because examples "do not form part of the 
legislative text of the Code" (ICZN 1999: Art. 89.2). Generic names ending in "ornis" 
are masculine unless combined with a feminine adjectival name when originally 
established. As a matter of fact, Ichthy ornis Marsh, 1872, is masculine because it 
was first established in combination with dispar, an adjective not indicative of a 
particular gender. Anthornis Gray, 1840, and Torreornis Barbour & Peters, 1927, 
originally established in combination with feminine adjectives, are currently treated 
as feminine. Therefore: 

Basilornis Bonaparte, 1851, Chlorornis Reichenbach, 1850, Lophornis Lesson, 
1 829, Mesitornis Bonaparte, 1 855, Nyctyornis Jardine & Selby, 1 830, and Rhopornis 
Richmond, 1902, were not combined with a species-group name when originally 
established, and are thus masculine. 

Acanthornis Legge, 1 887, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective magna, and is thus feminine. 

Agapornis Selby, 1836, was first established in combination with the masculine 
adjective swinderianus, and is thus masculine. 

Agriornis Gould, 1839, was first established in combination with the latinized 
masculine adjectives leucurus and micropterus, and is thus masculine. 

Amaurornis Reichenbach, 1853, was first established in combination with the 
feminine adjective olivacea, and is thus feminine. 

Amblyornis Elliot, 1872, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective inornata, and is thus feminine. 

Carpornis Gray, 1 846, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjectives arcuata, cucullata, melanocephala, nigra, and rubrocristata, and is thus 
feminine. 

Casiornis Des Murs, 1856, was first established in combination with the noun 
typus, and is thus masculine. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 265 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Chaetornis Gray, 1848, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective striata, and is thus feminine. 

Cyornis Blyth, 1843, was first established in combination with words not 
indicative of a particular gender (banyumas, tickelliae, unicolor, and rubeculoides), 
and is thus masculine. 

Iridosornis Lesson, 1844, was first established in combination with the noun 
phrase rufivertex (fide Menegaux 1913), and is thus masculine. 

Lampornis Swainson, 1827, was first established in combination with the 
masculine adjective amethystinus, and is thus masculine. 

Machetornis Gray, 1841, was first established in combination with the feminine 
adjective rixosa, and is thus feminine. 

Rhyacornis Blandford, 1872, was first established in combination with the 
feminine adjective fuliginosa, and is thus feminine. 

Sayornis Bonaparte, 1854, was first established in combination with an adjective 
not indicative of a particular gender (nigricans, the type by monotypy), and is thus 
masculine [original not seen]. 

Schiffornis Bonaparte, 1854, was first established in combination with words 
not indicative of a particular gender (major and minor), and with the feminine 
adjective turdina, and is thus feminine. 

Tigriornis Sharpe, 1895, was first established in combination with the latinized 
feminine adjective leucolopha, and is thus feminine. 

Many generic names ending in es are Greek words formed from verb stems. 
Some are classical Greek nouns of fixed gender (e.g. the masculine Threnetes, 
9pr)vr|Tr|(;, from Gpr|V£CO [threneo: to lament]), while others are classical adjectives 
that have identical masculine and feminine endings (e.g. Oxylabes, o^vXaft^, from 
XocjaPavo) [lambano: to take]). Other generic names ending in es, however, are words 
that are newly derived from Greek verb stems; for example, Chersomanes and 
Thamnomanes, from jiaivojiat [mainomai: to rave], were created on the model of 
classical adjectives such as opviOojiccvriq [ornithomanes: mad for birds] and 
iAo|iavr|(; [hulomanes: mad for woods]. Such derived names are not Greek words 
of fixed gender transliterated into Latin without other changes (ICZN 1999: Art. 
30. 1 .2). They must thus be treated as words of common gender (Art. 30. 1 , 30. 1 .4.2). 
Chersomanes Cabanis, 1851, is thus feminine because it was first established in 
combination with feminine adjectives, while Thamnomanes Cabanis, 1847, is 
masculine because it was first established in combination with masculine adjectives. 
Therefore: 

Ammomanes Cabanis, 1851, derived from jLiatvojLtai [mainomai: to rave], was 
first established in combination with the noun deserti (in the text), and with the 
feminine adjective pallida (in a footnote), and is thus feminine. 

Augastes Gould, 1849, derived from oroya^CD [augazo: to appear bright], was 
first established in combination with "Lumachellus" [= Ornismya lumachella Lesson, 
1838] and with the masculine adjective scutatus, and is thus masculine. Note that 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 266 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Lesson's lumachella is an Italian word (Jobling 1991), and is thus indeclinable (ICZN 
1999: Art. 31.2.3). 

Cormobates Mathews, 1922, derived from patvco [baino: to walk], was first 
established in combination with the feminine adjectives leucophaea and superciliosa, 
and is thus feminine. 

Iridophanes Ridgway, 1901, derived from ^aivoo [phaino: to bring to light], 
was not combined with a species-group name when originally established, and is 
thus masculine. 

Lymnocryptes Kaup, 1829, derived from Kpimico [krupto: to hide], was not 
combined with a species-group name when originally established, and is thus 
masculine. 

7c) Greek words with a modified or latinized ending not indicative of a particular 
gender 

Several generic names are formed from Greek words, but with a changed ending. 
For example, Crateroscelis and Erythrogonys end respectively in the neuter nouns 
CKEkoq [skelos: leg] and 70VO [gonu: knee], with a changed ending. Such names 
are not Greek words of fixed gender transliterated into Latin without other changes 
(ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1.2). They must thus be treated as words of common gender 
(Art. 30.1.4.2) because ICZN (1999) does not otherwise consider the gender of 
modified Greek endings. It is to be be remembered here that a scientific name "must 
be, or be treated as, a noun in the nominative singular" (ICZN 1999: Art. 11.8). 

Even if viewed as latinized Greek words with a changed ending that, contrary to 
us y a, urn, is not indicative of a particular gender (Art. 30.1.3 Examples), names 
such as Crateroscelis and Erythrogonys would also have to be considered as words 
of common or variable gender (Art. 30.1.4.2). Crateroscelis Sharpe, 1883, is thus 
feminine because it was first established in combination with feminine adjectives, 
while Erythrogonys Gould, 1838, is masculine because it was first established in 
combination with masculine adjectives. Although these names are not arbitrary 
combinations of letters because they are clearly formed on the correct stems of 
Greek words (ICZN 1999: Art. 30. 1), but with a change of ending, treating them as 
arbitrary combinations of letters (Art. 11.3, 30.2) would not alter the following 
conclusions. Therefore: 

Acropternis Cabanis & Heine, 1859, from rcTEpvr) or 7cxepva [pterne or pterna: 
ankle], with a changed ending, was first established in combination with the noun 
phrase orthonyx, and is thus masculine. 

Actitis Illiger, 1811, from ocKTirnQ [aktites: coast dweller], with a changed ending, 
was not combined with a species-group name when originally established, and is 
thus masculine. 

Chionis Forster, 1788, from xtwv [chion: snow], with a changed ending, was 
not combined with a species-group name when originally established, and is thus 
masculine. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 267 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Climacteris Temminck, 1820, from K?U|LiaKTr|p [klimacter: rung of a ladder], 
with a changed ending, was not combined with a species-group name when originally 
established, and is thus masculine. 

Cissopis Vieillot, 1816, from co\}/ (genitive gotoc;) [ops, opos: face], but with a 
changed ending, was not combined with a species-group name when originally 
established, and is thus masculine. 

Corythopis Sundevall, 1836, from coif/ [ops: face] or oxj/tq [opsis: appearance], 
but with a changed ending, was apparently not combined with a species-group name 
when originally established, and is thus masculine [original not seen]. Note: we 
have failed to find Corythopis in a name combination quoted from Sundevall. 

Diglossopis Sclater, 1856, from co\|/ [ops: face] or oij/k; [opsis: appearance], but 
with a changed ending, was first established in combination with caerulescens, an 
adjective not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus masculine. 

Glaucis Boie, 1831, from yXoroKOc; [glaukos: gleaming], with a changed ending, 
was not combined with a species-group name when originally established, and is 
thus masculine. 

Heliolais Sharpe, 1903, from taxioc; [laios: a thrush] (Richmond 1909), but with 
a changed ending, was first established in combination with kemoensis, an adjective 
not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus masculine. Although the Greek 
nouns EKiXai^ [epilais] and vnoXaic, [hupolais] also designate a small passerine, 
there is no such word as "lais" ["Xaiq"] in ancient Greek. 

Urolais Alexander, 1903, from taxioc; [laios: a thrush] (Richmond 1909), but 
with a changed ending, was first established in combination with the noun mariae, 
and is thus masculine. See Heliolais, above. 

Pygoscelis Wagler, 1832, from a%EXoq [skelos: leg], with a changed ending, 
was not combined with a species-group name when originally established, and is 
thus masculine. 

Xanthotis Reichenbach, 1852, from ovc, (genitive cdtoc;) [ous, otos: ear], but 
with a changed ending, was first established in combination with flaviventris, an 
adjective not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus masculine. This name (as 
well as Melanotis Bonaparte, 1850, and Euptilotis Gould, 1858) should not be 
confused with names ending in the feminine Greek (and Latin) noun orcii; [otis: 
bustard] (Jobling 1991, Pritchard 1994). 

Callaeas Forster, 1778, from KOcMuxtov [kallaion: wattle], with a changed ending 
and with the inclusion of the latinized "ae" spelling, was not combined with a species- 
group name when originally established, and is thus masculine. 

Conopias Cabanis & Heine, 1859, from kcovcox]/ (genitive Kcovomoq) [konops, 
konopos: gnat], but with a changed ending, was first established in combination 
with the masculine adjective superciliosus, and is thus masculine. 

Lochmias Swainson, 1827, from ^oxjitoq [lochmios: of the coppice], with a 
changed ending, was not combined with a species-group name when originally 
established, and is thus masculine. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 268 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Microrhopias Sclater, 1862, from pco\|/ (genitive pernor) [rhops, rhopos: bush], 
but with a changed ending, was not combined with a species-group name when 
originally established, and is thus masculine. 

Anthreptes Swainson, 1832, from 0p£7rcr|p [threpter: feeder, rearer], but with a 
changed ending, was not combined with a species-group name when originally 
established, and is thus masculine. 

Ceryle Boie, 1828, from KT|p\)?U)(; [kerulos: a sea-bird], with a changed ending, 
was not combined with a species-group name when originally established, and is 
thus masculine. Chlowceryle Kaup, 1848, and Megaceryle Kaup, 1848, however, 
were established in combination with feminine adjectival names, and are feminine. 

Eremopterix Kaup, 1 836, from 7iT£pi)£ [pterux: wing], but with a changed ending, 
was not combined with a species-group name when originally established, and is 
thus masculine. Whereas the ending pteryx (as in Archaeopteryx, etc.; see Section 2, 
above) is the transliteration of 7iT8pD^ [pterux], the ending pterix is not, because the 
Latin "i" represents the Greek i [iota], not the Greek t> [upsilon: u or y] (ICZN 1985: 
Appendix B). 

Eudynamys Vigors & Horsfield, 1826, from 5t>vajii(; [dunamis: force], but with 
a changed ending, was first established in combination with words not indicative of 
a particular gender {orientalis and flindersii), and is thus masculine. Whereas dynamis 
(as in Microdynamis Salvadori, 1878) is the transliteration of 5\)vajitt; [dunamis], 
dynamys is not, because the Latin "y" represents the Greek u [upsilon: u], not the 
Greek t [iota: i] (ICZN 1985: Appendix B). 

There is no such word as "myias" or "muias" ["jimocq"] in classical Greek. Cabanis 
(1850), when he established Eumyias, stated that it was formed from jima [muia: 
fly], and Cabanis & Heine (1859), when they established Phyllomyias, noted that it 
was formed from "jimag (= muscicapaY '. In other words, myias is the Greek word 
(Lima [muia: fly] with a new ending to convey a new meaning [flycatcher]. For 
undisclosed reasons, Watson [in Peters (1986: 311, footnote)] stated that Rhinomyias 
is a feminine noun of Greek origin (but he nonetheless used it in combination with 
the masculine adjective subsolanus). In fact, names ending in myias are currently 
treated in a rather haphazard manner. Eumyias was first established in combination 
with indigo, a word not indicative of a particular gender, while Pyrrhomyias was 
first established in combination with the masculine adjective cinnamomeus, yet both 
are now generally treated as feminine; Rhinomyias is currently combined with one 
masculine and several feminine adjectives; Phaeomyias and Uromyias are currently 
treated as feminine, while Phyllomyias and Tolmomyias are treated as masculine. 

The word myias can only be viewed as the Greek noun jimoc [muia], with a new 
ending not indicative of a particular gender. Names that end in myias must thus be 
treated as words of common gender (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1, 30.1.3, 30.1.4.2). 
Therefore: 

Eumyias Cabanis, 1850, was first established in combination with indigo, a word 
not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus masculine. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 269 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Heteromyias Sharpe, 1879, was first established in combination with the noun 
phrase cinereifrons, and is thus masculine. 

Pyrrhomyias Cabanis & Heine, 1859, was first established in combination with 
the noun heinei and the masculine adjective cinnamomeus, and is thus masculine. 

Rhinomyias Sharpe, 1879, was first established in combination with the noun 
phrase ruficauda and the adjective pectoralis, not indicative of a particular gender, 
and is thus masculine. 

Names formed from words that are neither Latin nor Greek 

In addition to words originating from languages other than Latin and Greek, the 
present category includes modified classical words, such as Dacelo, from Alcedo 
(ICZN 1999: Art. 30.2.4 Examples). Therefore, classical words with a modified 
stem (as opposed to a modified ending) belong here. Unless stated otherwise, the 
etymology of the following names is as given by Jobling (1991). 

8) Nouns from modern European languages 

A name that reproduces exactly a noun having a gender in a modern European 
language takes the gender of that noun (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.2.1). For example, 
Remiz Jarocki, 1819, is masculine because it is the masculine Polish noun "remiz", 
while Fregata Lacepede, 1799, and Porzana Vieillot, 1816, are respectively the 
feminine Italian nouns "fregata" and "porzana". Therefore: 

Ara Lacepede, 1799, is the masculine French noun "ara", attested since 1558 
(Robert 1985), and is thus masculine. Even if only the Tupi Indian etymology is 
considered, Ara would also be masculine as it would then fall under Art. 30.2.3 
(ICZN 1999). Because Lacepede did not include species when he established the 
genus Ara (fide Daudin 1800, Desmarest 1826, Sherborn 1899), its gender would 
then be indicated by the name combinations of the first subsequently included nominal 
species (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.2.3, 67.2.2), and as Daudin (in Buffon 1802: 198-199) 
combined Ara with the masculine adjectives severus and ater (the only adjectives 
among the originally included nominal species), Ara would then be masculine. 

Tchagra Lesson, 1831, is the masculine French noun "tchagra", attested since 
1797 (Jobling 1991, Larousse 1866-1876), and is thus masculine. 

Turnix Bonnaterre, 1791, is the masculine French noun "turnix", attested since 
1770 (e.g. Robert 1985), and is thus masculine. Moreover, Turnix was first established 
in combination with the masculine adjective africanus. 

9) Names of which the gender was indicated by their combination with an adjectival 
name 

If the gender of a name was not expressly specified by its author, the name takes the 
gender indicated by its combination with one or more adjectival species-group names 
of the originally included nominal species (ICZN 1999: Art. 30.2.3, 67.2). For 
example, Jabiru Hellmayr, 1906, is feminine because it was established in 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 270 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

combination with the latinized feminine adjective mycteria, while Philippinia 
Hachisuka, 1941, is masculine because it was established in combination with the 
masculine adjective primigenius. Therefore: 

Aplonis Gould, 1836, an arbitrary combination of letters from anXooc, [aploos: 
simple] and opvi(; [ornis: bird] (Bruce & Mc Allan 1990), was first established in 
combination with the feminine adjectives/i/sca and marginata, and is thus feminine. 

Brachypteracias Lafresnaye, 1834, an arbitrary combination of letters from 
brachypterus and Coracias, was first established in combination with a word not 
indicative of a particular gender (pittoides), and with the latinized masculine adjective 
leptosomus, and is thus masculine. 

Chlorestes Reichenbach, 1854, an arbitrary combination of letters from x^copoq 
[chloros: green] and EaQr\q [esthes: dress], was first established in combination with 
several words not indicative of a particular gender, and with the feminine adjectives 
coerulea, prasina, and nitidissima, and is thus feminine. Whereas esthes (as in 
Amauresthes Reichenbach, 1862, and Lemuresthes Wolters, 1949) is the transliteration 
of eo9r|(; [esthes], estes is not, because the Latin "t" represents the Greek x [tau], not 
the Greek [theta: th] (ICZN 1985: Appendix B). Note, however, that£G6r|(; [esthes: 
dress], too, is a feminine noun. 

Foulehaio Reichenbach, 1852, from the Tongan native name "foulehaoi", was 
first established in combination with the masculine adjective musicus, and is thus 
masculine. 

Peneothello Mathews, 1920, an arbitrary combination of the Latin adverb pene 
[almost] and the name of a Shakespearian character (Othello), does not reproduce 
"exactly" a noun having a gender in a modern European language (ICZN 1999, Art. 
30.2.1). Mathews (1920) used the combination Peneothello sigillata in the index of 
his work, thus establishing the name as feminine. 

10) Names of which the gender was neither specified nor indicated 

If the gender of a name was neither expressly specified by its author, nor indicated 
by a combination with adjectival names of the originally included nominal species, 
the name is to be treated as masculine, except that, if it ends in a the gender is 
feminine, and if it ends in um, on, or u, the gender is neuter (ICZN 1 999: Art. 30.2.4). 
Therefore: 

Aratinga Spix, 1 824, formed from the Tupi Indian word "arucatinga", was first 
established in combination with several masculine Latin adjectives, including aureus 
and luteus, and with the feminine geographical adjective caixana. The gender is 
thus not clearly indicated by the author, and Aratinga must be treated as feminine 
because it ends in a. 

Certhiaxis Lesson, 1844, arbitrarily formed from Certhia and Synallaxis, was 
not combined by Lesson with the originally included nominal species (fide Menegaux 
1913), and is thus masculine. 

Chlidonias Rafinesque, 1822, arbitrarily formed from %8^i5cov [chelidon: 
swallow] or %eXt5oviO(; [chelidonios: swallow-like], is masculine whether or not it 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 27 1 Bull. B. O. C 2002 1 22(4) 

was originally combined with the noun phrase melanops, the type by monotypy 
[original not seen]. 

Delichon Horsfield & Moore, 1854, an anagram of Chelidon, was first established 
in combination with nipalensis, an adjective not indicative of a particular gender, 
and must thus be treated as neuter because it ends in on. It may be argued that 
masculine and feminine are the only options allowed by the adjective nipalensis, 
but in that case Delichon would be masculine, and certainly not feminine as currently 
treated. However, Articles 30.2.3 and 30.2.4 (ICZN 1999) are clear: "... the name 
takes the gender indicated by its combination with one or more adjectival species- 
group names ... (30.2.3). If no gender was ... indicated, the name is to be treated as 
masculine, except that, if the name ends in ...-on, ... the gender is neuter" (30.2.4). 

Gymnopithys Bonaparte, 1857, ending in a word of unknown origin [see Pithys, 
below], was first established in combination with an adjective not indicative of a 
particular gender (pectoralis, the type by monotypy), and is thus masculine [original 
not seen]. 

Heliothryx Boie, 1831, arbitrarily formed from rjXioq [helios: sun] and 9pi£ 
[thrix: hair], was not combined by Boie with the originally included nominal species, 
and is thus masculine. Whereas thrix (as in Leiothrix and Metopothrix; see Section 
2, above), is the transliterated noun 0pi£ [thrix], this is not the case for thryx because 
the Latin "y" represents the Greek x> [upsilon: u], not the Greek i [iota: i] (ICZN 
1985: Appendix B). 

Henicopernis Gray, 1859, formed on Pernis Cuvier, 1816, was first established 
in the combination Pernis {Henicopernis) longicauda, and is thus masculine. The 
name longicauda is a noun phrase, not a feminine adjective. It appears that Cuvier 
(1816) erred when he indicated that Pernis is formed from the Greek "pernis" or 
"pernes", "a bird of prey". Such words ["7iepviq" or "7C8pvr|q"] do not exist in 
Greek in the nominative singular. Pernis is rather an arbitrary combination of letters 
from the masculine noun nxzpviq [pternis: a hawk] (Liddell & Scott 1996). 

Ketupa Lesson, 1831, formed from the Malay word "ketupok", was first 
established in combination with words not indicative of a particular gender (javensis 
and leschenaultii), and is thus feminine because it ends in a. 

Lewinia Gray, 1855, formed from the name of J.W. Lewin, has the noun lewini 
as its only originally included nominal species, and is thus feminine because it ends 
in a. 

Mitu Lesson, 1831, from the Tupi Indian word "mitu", was not combined by 
Lesson with the originally included nominal species, and is thus neuter because it 
ends in u. 

Northiella Mathews, 1912, formed from the name of A.J. North, has the noun 
phrase haematogaster as its only originally included nominal species, and is thus 
feminine because it ends in a. 

Phylidonyris Lesson, 1831, arbitrarily formed from the French noun "phyledon" 
and the Greek noun KiwupK; [kinnuris], was not combined by Lesson with the 
originally included nominal species, and is thus masculine. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 272 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Pithys Vieillot, 1818, a word of unknown origin, was first established in 
combination with the noun phrase leucops, and is thus masculine. Even if viewed as 
an arbitrary combination of letters from Greek words such as FIdtk; [Putis: a nymph] 
or riuOtq [Puthis: daughter of Delphos (Grimal 1982)], Pithys would also be 
masculine. 

Ramphotrigon Gray, 1855, arbitrarily formed from paji^oq [ramphos: bill] and 
xpiycovoq [trigonos: triangular] or xpiycovov [trigonon: triangle, triangular], has 
"P/. ruficaudus" [= Platyrhynchus ruficauda Spix, 1825] as its only originally 
included nominal species, and is thus neuter because it ends in on. Note that 
"ruficaudus" is not an adjective, but an erroneously modified noun phrase. 

Seleucidis Lesson, 1835, arbitrarily formed from the French noun "seleucide", 
as specified by Lesson (1835), was first established in combination with the adjective 
acanthilis, not indicative of a particular gender, and is thus masculine. Even if viewed 
as originating from the Greek noun G8^£i)Ki(; [seleukis: a bird] or the Latin noun 
seleucis [a bird], but with a changed ending, Seleucidis would also be masculine 
(ICZN 1999: Art. 30.1.4.2, 30.1.4.5; see Section 7c, above). 

Touit Gray, 1855, formed from the Tupi Indian word "tuiete", has the noun hueti 
as its only originally included nominal species, and is thus masculine. 

Xolmis Boie, 1826, a word of unknown origin, was not combined by Boie with 
the originally included nominal species, and is thus masculine. 

Names of which the gender was specifically 
determined by the ICZN 

11) Names on the Official List of Generic Names 

As explained in ICZN's Direction 26 (Hemming 1955), a name placed on the Official 
List of Generic Names in Zoology is attributed a gender as part of the ICZN ruling. 
These gender indications do not necessarily conform to the present Code. For 
example, Aix would be masculine, while Threskiornis and Hydrobates would be 
feminine according to Art. 30.1.4.2 (ICZN 1999); however, these names have been 
ruled to be respectively feminine [Aix (Hemming 1955)] and masculine [Threskiornis 
and Hydrobates (ICZN 1992a, 1992b)], a move in accordance with the current usage. 
A name or nomenclatural act entered in an Official Index has the status attributed to 
it in the relevant ruling(s) (ICZN 1999: Art. 80.2, 80.7.1), and "no ruling given by 
the Commission in relation to a particular work, name, or nomenclatural act is to be 
set aside without the consent of the Commission" (ICZN 1999: Art. 80.9). Therefore: 

Coracias Linnaeus, 1758, the masculine Greek noun KOpocictoct; [korakias: 
chough], is masculine as ruled by ICZN's Opinion 404 (Hemming 1956a), as well 
as according to Art. 30.1.2 (ICZN 1999). 

Numida Linnaeus, 1766, the masculine Latin noun Numida [a Numidian], is 
masculine as ruled by ICZN's Direction 89 (Hemming 1958), as well as according 
to Art. 30.1.1 (ICZN 1999). 

Brotogeris Vigors, 1825, modified from the Greek adjective PpOToyriptx; 
fbrotogerus: human-voiced], was not combined with a species-group name when 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 273 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

originally established, and would be masculine according to ICZN's Articles 30.1, 
30.1.3, 30.1.4.2 (1999). However, Brotogeris is feminine as ruled by ICZN's Direction 
26 (Hemming 1955). 

Manucodia Boddaert, 1783, formed from Malay words, was originally established 
in combination with the latinized feminine adjective chalybea, and would be feminine 
according to ICZN's Articles 30.2, 30.2.3 (1999). However, Manucodia is masculine 
as ruled by ICZN's Direction 26 (Hemming 1955). 

Ptiloris Swainson, 1825, ends in the feminine Greek noun piq [ ris: nose], and 
would be feminine according to ICZN's Art. 30.1.2 (1999), as is Stachyris Hodgson, 
1844. However, Ptiloris is masculine as ruled by ICZN's Direction 26 (Hemming 
1955). 

Strigops Gray, 1845, a compound name ending in ops, originally established in 
combination with the latinized masculine adjective habroptilus, would be masculine 
according to ICZN's Art. 30. 1.4.3 (1999). However, Strigops is feminine as ruled by 
ICZN's Direction 26 (Hemming 1955). 

Helmitheros Rafinesque, 1819, is derived from the Greek verb 9r|pao) [therao: 
to hunt] (Coues 1903, Jobling 1991, Donovan & Ouellet 1993), on the model of the 
masculine and feminine Greek word ot>v6r|pO(; [suntheros: hunting with, 
fellowhuntress]. Helmitheros was originally established in combination with the 
masculine adjective migratorius, and would be masculine according to ICZN's 
Articles 30.1, 30.1.4.2 (1999). However, perhaps on the mistaken assumption that 
Helmitheros ended in the neuter Greek noun Gepoq [theros: summer], ICZN's Opinion 
412 ruled it to be neuter (Hemming 1956b: 207). 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to the following persons for generously providing us with copies of original publications: 
Richard Banks, U.S. National Museum of Natural History; Bertrand Bed'Hom, Museum national 
d'histoire naturelle, Paris; Murray Bruce, of Turramurra, Australia; Edward Dickinson, Trust for Oriental 
Ornithology, Eastbourne; Beat Wartmann, Zentralbibliothek Zurich; Alan Peterson, of Walla Walla, 
Washington; Effie Warr, Ornithology and Rothschild Libraries, Natural History Museum, Tring; and 
Joanna Wojcik, Instytut Systematyki i Ewolucji Zwierzat, Krakow. 

References: 

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Press. 
Bailly, A. 1950. Dictionnaire grec-franqais. Hachette, Paris. 
Belon, P. 1555. Histoire de la nature des oyseaux. Guillaume Cavelat, Paris. 
Bruce, M.D. & McAllan, I.A.W. 1990. Some problems in vertebrate nomenclature. II. Birds. Part I. 

Boll. Mus. reg. Sci. nat. Torino. 8 (2): 453-485. 
Buffon, G.L.L. 1799 [= 1802]. Histoire naturelle, Vol. 14. Quadruples. Didot, Paris. 
Cabanis, J. 1850-1851. Museum Heineanum, I. R. Frantz, Halberstadt. 
Cabanis, J. & Heine, F. 1859-1860. Museum Heineanum, II. R. Frantz, Halberstadt. 
Christidis, L. & Boles, W.E. 1994. The taxonomy and species of birds of Australia and its territories. 

RAOU Monograph 2. Royal Australasian Ornithol. Union, Melbourne. 
Clancey, P. A. 1992. Taxonomic comment on southeastern representatives of two wide-ranging African 

cisticolas. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 112: 218-225. 



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Coues, E. 1903. Key to North American birds. Dana Estes, Boston. 

Cuvier, G. 1816. Le regne animal. Deterville, Paris. 

Daudin, F.M. 1800. Traite elementaire et complet d'ornithologie. Paris. 

David, N. & Gosselin, M. 2002. Gender agreement of avian species names. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 122: 14- 

49. 
Desmarest, A.G 1826. Oeuvres du comte de Lacepede, Vol. 1. Ladrange & Verdiere, Paris. 
Donovan, L.G. & Ouellet, H. 1993. Dictionnaire etymologique des noms d'oiseaux du Canada. Guerin, 

Montreal. 
Dowsett, R.J. & Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1993. A contribution to the distribution and taxonomy ofAfrotropical 

and Malagasy birds. Tauraco Res. Rep. 5. Tauraco Press, Liege. 
Ernout, A. 1941. Les noms en ago, igo, ugo du latin. Revue de Philologie (III) 15: 85-111. 
Glare, P.G.W. 1982. Oxford Latin dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press. 
Godfrey, W.E. 1965. The gender of the fringillid genus Pinicola. Auk 82: 273. 
Grimal, P. 1982. Dictionnaire de la mythologie grecque et romaine. Presses Universitaires de France, 

Paris. 
Hemming, F. 1955. Direction 26. Determination of the gender to be attributed to the names of ninety- 
eight genera of birds placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology in the period up to the 

end of 1936. Opinions & Declarations rendered by the Internat. Comm. on Zool. Nomenclature 

1(C17): 259-272. 
Hemming, F 1956a. Opinion 404. Validation under the Plenary Powers of Pyrrhocorax [Tunstall], 1771, 

as the generic name for the Chough (Class Aves). Opinions & Declarations rendered by the Internat. 

Comm. on Zool. Nomenclature 13 (5): 87-106. 
Hemming, F 1956b. Opinion 412. Suppression under the Plenary Powers of the new names proposed 

by Linnaeus in the pamphlet entitled A Catalogue of the Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Insects ... contained 

in Edwards 's Natural History published in 1 776. Opinions & Declarations rendered by the Internat. 

Comm. on Zool. Nomenclature 13 (13): 203-232. 
Hemming, F. 1958. Direction 89. Determination of the gender to be attributed to the generic name 

Numida Linnaeus, 1764 (Class Aves). Opinions & Declarations rendered by the Internat. Comm. 

on Zool. Nomenclature 1(F3): 29-38. 
ICZN. 1961. International code of zoological nomenclature. Internat. Trust for Zool. Nomenclature, 

London. 
ICZN. 1985. International code of zoological nomenclature. 3rd edition. Internat. Trust for Zool. 

Nomenclature, London. 
ICZN. 1992a. Opinion 1674. THRESKIORNITHIDAE Poche, 1904 (Aves, Ciconiiformes): given 

precedence over PLATALEIDAE Bonaparte, 1838 and EUDOCIMIDAE Bonaparte, 1854. Bull. 

Zool. Nomenclature 49: 97-99. 
ICZN. 1992b. Opinion 1696. HYDROBATIDAE Mathews, 1912 (1865) (Aves, Procellariiformes): 

conserved. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 49: 250-251. 
ICZN. 1999. International code of zoological nomenclature. 4th edition. Internat. Trust for Zool. 

Nomenclature, London. 
Internationale Thesaurus-Kommission. 1900-1993. Thesaurus linguae latinae. B.G Teubner, Leipzig. 
Jobling, J. A. 1991. A dictionary of scientific bird names. Oxford Univ. Press. 
Larousse, P. 1866-1876. Grand dictionnaire universel. Larousse, Paris. 

Lesson, R.P 1835. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de paradis et des epimaques. Bertrand, Paris. 
Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. 1879. A Latin dictionary. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1991). 
Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. 1996. A Greek-English lexicon /with a revised supplement. Oxford Univ. 

Press. 
Mathews, GM. 1920. Birds of Australia, Vol. 8. H.F & G. Witherby, London. 
Menegaux, A. 1913. Articles d'ornithologie de R.-P. Lesson parus dans I'Echo du Monde Savant de 

1842 a 1845. Rev. francaise d'ornithologie, Paris. 
Peters, J.L. 1934. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 2. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1937. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 3. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 



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Peters, J.L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 4. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1945. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 5. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1948. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 6. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1951. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 7. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1960. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 9. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1962. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 15. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1964. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 10. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1967. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 12. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1968. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 14. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1970. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 13. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1979a. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 1. 2nd edition. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 

Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1979b. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 8. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Peters, J.L. 1986. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 11. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Pritchard, C.H. 1994. Comment on gender and declension of generic names. J. Mammalogy 75: 549- 

550. 
Richmond, C.W. 1909. Generic names applied to birds during the years 1901-1905, inclusive, with 

further additions to Waterhouse's "Index generum avium". Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 35: 583-655. 
Robert, P. 1985. Le Grand Robert de la langue frangaise. Robert, Paris. 
Sibley, C.G. & Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world. Yale Univ. 

Press, New Haven. 
Sherborn, CD. 1899. Lacepede's "Tableaux ... des Mammiferes et des Oiseaux," 1799. Natural Science 

15: 406-409. 
Short, L.L. & Home, J.F.M. 1987. The gender of the barbet genus Tricholaema Verreaux & Verreaux. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 107: 69. 
Stearn, W.T. 1966. Botanical Latin. Hafner, New York. 
Woods, R.S. 1944. The naturalist's lexicon. Abbey Garden Press, Pasadena. 

Addresses: Normand David, 1 193 1 Lavigne, Montreal, Quebec, H4J 1X9, Canada, ndavid@netrover.com; 
Michel Gosselin, Canadian Museum of Nature, P.O. Box 3443, Station D, Ottawa, Ontario, K1V 
6P4, Canada, mgosselin@mus-nature.ca 



© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Appendix 



Correct spelling of selected species-group names when combined with the genera treated herewith. 

F: feminine; M: masculine; N: neuter; (figures in parentheses refer to sections in text); (inv.): 

invariable nouns and noun phrases that could be confused with adjectival names; see also David & 

Gosselin (2002) for the gender agreement of species-group names. 

Genus name Correct spelling of selected species-group names 

Acanthornis, F (7b): magna. 

Acropternis, M (7c): infuscatus. 

Actitis, M (7c): macularius. 

Agapornis, M (7b): ablectaneus, canus, catumbella (inv.), nanus, personatus, pullarius, 

swinderianus, taranta (inv.). 
Aglaeactis, F (2): caumatonota, pamela (inv.), parvula, ruficauda (inv.). 

Agriornis, M (7b): andecola (inv.), albicauda (inv.), intermedius, leucurus, lividus, maritimus, 

micropterus, montanus, murinus, solitarius. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 



276 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



Alopochen, F (7b): 
Amaurornis, F (7b): 

Amblyornis, F (7b): 
Ammomanes, F (7b): 

Ammoperdix, M (7b): 
Ampelion, M (2): 
Andigena, F (6): 

Anthreptes, M (7c): 

Anthwpoides, M (5): 
Ap/oms, F (9): 
Ara, M (8): 

Ar amides, M (5): 

Aratinga, F (10): 



Augastes, M (7b): 
Bambusicola, M (7a): 
Basilornis, M (7b): 
BWfl,M(l): 
Brachypteracias, M (9): 
Brotogeris, F (1 1): 

Butorides, F (5): 

Callaeas, M (7c): 
Caloperdix, M (7b): 
Carpornis, F (7b): 
Casiornis, M (7b): 
Certhiaxis, M(10): 



Ceryle, M (7c): 

Chaetorni.s, F (7b): 
C/ie/i, F (7b): 



aegyptiaca. 

flavirostra (inv.), inepta, isabellina, javanica, leucomelana, midnicobarica, 

moluccana, olivacea, pallida, phoenicur us (inv.), ruficrissa (inv.), ultima. 

germana, inornata, nubicola (inv.). 

burra, cinctura (inv.)*, darica, erythrochroa (inv.), iranica, isabellina, 

mya (inv.), phoenicura, saturata, testacea. 

intermedius, peraticus. 

rubrocristatus, rufaxilla (inv.). 

cucullata, hypoglauca, spilorhynchus (inv.)** [contra David & Gosselin 

2002] 

rhodolaemus, tephrolaemus [not rhodolaema, tephrolaema as in Peters 

(1967), etc.]. 

paradiseus. 

pachyrampha [not pachyramphus as in Peters 1962), etc.]. 

ambiguus, ararauna (inv.), bolivianus, cyanopterus, chloropterus, 

manilatus, maracana (inv.), mexicanus, severus. 

cajanea (inv.), calopterus, mexicanus, pacificus, saracura (inv.), 

ypecaha (inv.). 

acuticaudata, aeruginosa, alticola (inv.), aurea, auricapillus (inv.), 

caixana, chloroptera, frontata, griseipecta (inv.), guarouba (inv.), 

haemorrhous (inv.)**, holochlora, jandaya (inv.), leucophthalma, mitrata, 

nana, neoxena, propinqua, strenua, surinama, xanthogenia. 

lumachella (inv.), scutatus. 

thoracicus. 

galeatus, mirandus. 

canicapillus (inv.), eximius, notatus, syndactylus. 

leptosomus, squamiger. 

chrysosema (inv.), chrysoptera, cyanoptera, pyrrhoptera, tirica (inv.), 

tuipara (inv.), versicolurus (inv.)*. 

actophila, albolimbata, atricapilla (inv.), carcinophila, cinerea, javanica, 

macrorhyncha, spodiogaster (inv.), striata. 

cinereus. 

ocellatus, oculeus, sumatranus. 

cucullata, melanocephala. 

fuscus, rufus. 

albicapilla (inv.), albigula (inv.), cinnamomeus, cisandinus, curtatus, 

demissus, dissitus,furcatus, goyanus, gutturatus, hypostictus, marabinus, 

mustelinus, obsoletus, pallidus, peruvianus, pyrrhophius, russeolus, 

semicinereus, subcristatus, sulphurifer, valencianus, vulpecula (inv.), 

vulpinus. 

caurinus, giganteus, guttulatus, leucomelanurus, maximus, pallidus, 

stellatus, syriacus, torquatus. 

striata. 

atlantica, canagica. 



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277 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



Chionis, M (7c): albus. 

Chlidonias, M (7c): hybrida (inv.), indicus, javanicus, leucopterus, niger. 

Chlorestes, F (9): notata, obsoleta. 

Chlowrnis, M (7b): bolivianus, celatus, dilutus. 

Chthonicola, M (7a): sagittatus. 

Cinclodes, M (5): columbianus, patagonicus [not columbiana, patagonica, as in Peters 

(1951), etc.]. 

Cinnyris, M (7b): aeger, afer, alter, andamanicus, arestus, asiaticus, aurora (inv.), bifasciatus, 

buvuma (inv.), chalceus, chalybeus, chloropygius, coccinigastrus, cupreus, 
erythrocercus, exquisitus, fasciatus, flavigastra (inv.), frenatus, fuscus, 
habessinicus, hindustanicus, inclusus, infrenatus, intermedius, lotenius, 
lucidipectus (inv.), melanogastrus, microrhynchus, minullus, mohelicus, 
notatus, ornatus, orphogaster (inv.), osea (inv.), polyclystus, proselius, 
pulchellus, regius, souimanga (inv.), strophium (inv.), suahelicus, superbus, 
talatala (inv.), usambaricus, venustus. 

Cissopis, M (7c): leverianus. 

Cisticola, M (7a): ambiguus, amphilectus, angusticauda (inv.), anonymus, arcanus, argenteus, 

aridulus, arundicola (inv.), awemba (inv.), bodessa (inv.), brachypterus, 
galiginus, cherina (inv.), chiniana (inv.), cinereolus, cinnamomeus, 
cisticola (inv.), dexter, diminutus, distinctus, dumicola (inv.), egregius, 
elusus, emendatus, equicaudatus, eremicus, erythrocephalus, eximius, 
ferrugineus, fulvicapilla (inv.), fuscicapilla (inv.), griseus, guinea (inv.), 
haematocephala (inv.)**, haesitatus, hypoxanthus, inexpectatus, 
isabellinus, isodactylus, katanga (inv.), lineocapilla (inv.), loanda (inv.), 
luapula (inv.), lufira (inv.), maculatus, malaya (inv.), marginatus, 
mashona (inv.), mbeya (inv.), melanurus, modestus, mongalla (inv.), 
monticola (inv.), namaqua (inv.), namba (inv.), nanus, neuroticus, 
nigrostriatus, niloticus, nyasa (inv.), nyika (inv.), omalurus, oreophilus, 
perennius, perplexus, perpullus, petrophilus, polionotus, procerus, 
pyrrhomitra (inv.), restrictus, robustus, rufilatus, ruficapilla (inv.), rusticus, 
rufus, scotopterus, semifasciatus, semirufus, suahelicus, 
subruficapilla (inv.), sylvia (inv.), taciturnus, tenebricosus, tonga (inv.), 
ukamba (inv.), validus, venustulus, victoria (inv.), wambera (inv.), 
winneba (inv.). 

Climacteris, M (7c): inexpectatus, leucophaeus, melanotus, melanurus, olinda (inv.), 

picumnus (inv.), rufus, superciliosus. 

Colonia, F (1): colonus {mv.),fuscicapillus (inv.), leuconota, poecilonota. 

Conopias, M (7c): albovittatus, distinctus, inornatus, parvus, trivirgatus. 

Coracias, M (11): abyssinicus, caudatus, cyanogaster (inv.), garrulus, indicus, mosambicus, 

noevius, spatulatus. 

Cormobates, F (7b): inexpectata, intermedia, leucophaea. 

Corythopis, M (7c): subtorquatus, torquatus. 

Creurgops, M (4): dentatus. 

Cyanochen, F (7b): cyanoptera. 

Cyclarhis, F (2): cantica, flavipectus (inv.), ochrocephala, parva, saturata. 



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Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



Cyornis, M (7b): 



Delichon, N(10): 

Diglossopis, M (7c): 

D/v<?s, M (7a): 
Drymodes, F (7b): 
Emblema, N (1): 
Eremopterix, M (7c): 
Eriocnemis, F (2): 

Eudynamys, M (7c): 

Eumyias, M (7c): 
Eutoxeres, M (7b): 
Foulehaio, M (9): 
Garrulax, M (6): 
Geotrygon, F (2): 
Glaucis, M (7c): 
Graminicola, M (7a): 
Gymnopithys, M (10): 

Heliactin, F (2): 
Heliolais, M (7c) 
Heliopais, M (7b): 
Heliothryx, M (10): 
Helmitheros, N (11): 
Henicopernis, M (10): 
Heteromyias, M (7c): 
Hylacola, F (7a): 
Hylophylax, M (7b): 



Hymenops, M (4): 

Illadopsis, F (2): 



Iridophanes, M (7b): 
Iridosornis, M (7b): 
Jacamerops, M (4): 
A^Mpa, F(10): 



caerulatus, coeruleatus, concretus, cyaneus, dialilaemus, djampeanus, 

hainanus, hyacinthinus, Indochina (inv.), lamprus, lepidulus, ligus, omissus, 

peromissus, rufigastra (inv.), superbus, turcosus. 

cashmiriense, dasypus (inv.), lagopodum, meridionale, nigrimentale, 

nipalense, urbicum. 

cyaneus, glaucus, indigoticus, medius, obscurus, pallidus, saturatus, 

tryanthinus. 

atroviolaceus. 

brunneopygia, pallida. 

bellum, guttatum, interpositum, oculatum, pictum. 

khama (inv.), griseus, leucopareia (inv.), melanocephalus, signatus. 

catharina (inv.), mosquera (inv.), sapphiropygia, smaragdinipectus (inv.), 

vestita. 

corvinus, cyanocephalus, malayanus, melanorhynchus, minimus, picatus, 

scolopaceus, sub cyanocephalus. 

albicaudatus, ruficrissa (inv.), sordidus, thalassinus. 

aquila (inv.), heterurus, mundus. 

carunculatus. 

erythwlaemus [not erythrolaema as in Peters (1964), etc.]. 

leucometopia [not leucometopius as in Peters (1937), etc.]. 

aeneus, columbianus, hirsutus. 

sinicus, striatus. 

castaneus, lunulatus, maculatus, pallidigula (inv.), pallidus, peruanus, 

rufigula (inv.). 

bilophus (inv.)*, cornuta. 

erythropterus, jodopterus, rhodopterus. 

personatus. 

auriculatus, auritus, phainolaemus. 

vermivorum. 

fraterculus (inv.), infuscatus, longicauda (inv.), minimus. 

atricapilla (inv.). 

cauta, pyrrhopygia. 

consobrinus, inexpectatus, lepidonotus, naevius, nigrigula (inv.), obscurus, 

ochraceus, peruvianus, poecilinotus, punctulatus, subochraceus, 

vidua (inv.). 

andinus, perspicillatus. 

abyssinica, albipectus (inv.), dilutior, extrema, gularis, iboensis, kivuensis, 

loima (inv.), moloneyana, monachus (inv.), poensis, puguensis, 

pyrrhoptera, rufipennis. 

aureinucha (inv.), pulcherrimus. 

bolivianus, ignicapillus (inv.), porphyrocephalus. 

aureus. 

piscivora. 



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Lagopus, F (1): 



Lampornis, M (7b): 
Laniisoma, N (2): 
Leucopternis, M (2): 
Lewinia, F (10): 
Lochmias, M (7c): 
Lophornis, M (7b): 

Lophortyx, F (7b): 

Lophozosterops, M (4): 
Loxops, M (4): 
Lymnocryptes, M (7b): 
Machetornis, F (7b): 
Macrodipteryx, F (2): 
Manucodia, M (11): 
Melanoperdix M (7b): 
Melozone, F (2): 
Mesitornis, M (7b): 
Metopothrix, F (2): 
Microrhopias, M (7c): 
Milvago, F (1): 
Mta,N(10): 
Muscisaxicola, M (7a): 

Myiopagis, F (2): 
Neochen, F (7b): 
Neocrex, F (2): 
Nigrita, M (1): 

Northiella, F(10): 
Numida, M (11): 

Nyctyornis, M (7b): 
Oreortyx, M (7b): 
Orthonyx, M (2): 
Pachycare, N (2): 
Paramythia, F (2): 
Penelopides, M (5): 
Peneothello, F (9): 

Phapitreron, M (7b): 



a/ba, capta, helvetica, hibernica, hyperborea, japonica, lapopus (inv.), 
leucoptera, leucura, macrorhyncha, muta, pyrenaica, rossica, saturata, 
scotica, transbaicalica, ungavus (inv.), variegata. 
calolaemus [not calolaema as in Peters (1945), etc.]. 

lacernulatus, plumbeus, polionotus, schistaceus, semiplumbeus. 

brachipus (inv.), capta, insulsa, mirifica. 

castanonotus, nematura (inv.)**, obscuratus, sororius. 

brachylophus, chalybeus, magnificus, ornatus, pavoninus, punctigula (inv.), 

stictolophus. 

achrustera, californica, decolorata, fulvipectus (inv.), impedita, orecta, 

plumbea, sana. 

analogus, elongatus, hartertianus, javanicus, stachyrinus, subcristatus. 

coccineus, ochraceus, rufus. 

minimus. 

rixosa. 

vexillarius (inv.). 

alter, ater, subalter, chalybatus, purpureoviolaceus. 

niger. 

biarcuata, rubricata. 

variegatus. 

aurantiaca. 

albicauda (inv.), consobrinus, microstictus, virgatus. 

chimachima (inv.), cordata. 

tomentosum, tuberosum. 

albilora (inv.), alpinus, argentina (inv.), capistratus, cinereus, columbianus, 

flavinucha (inv.), griseus, maclovianus. 

subcinerea [not subcinereus as in Peters (1979b), etc.]. 

jubata. 

colombiana [not columbiana as in David & Gosselin (2002), etc.]. 

candidus, canicapillus (inv.), diabolicus, fusconotus (inv.)*, schistaceus, 

sparsimguttatus. 

haematogaster (inv.), haematorrhous (inv.)**. 

coronatus, galeatus, intermedius, maximus, mitratus, papillosus. 

amictus, brevicaudatus. 

eremophilus, pictus, plumifer. 

victorianus. 

flavogriseum, subaurantium, subpallidum. 

alpina, brevicauda (inv.), montium (inv.), olivacea. 

basilanicus, exarhatus, subniger. 

atricapilla (inv.), bimaculata, cryptoleuca, cyanus (inv.), maxima, 

quadrimaculata, sigillata, subcyanea, vicaria. 

amethystinus, maculipectus (inv.). 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 



280 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



Philentoma, F (3): 
Philydor, N (2): 



Phylidonyris, M(10): 

Pinicola, F (7a): 

Pionites, M (5): 
Piprites, F (5): 
P/f/*ys, M(10): 
Prionops, M (4): 

Procnias, M (6): 
Pseudocolopteryx, F (2): 
Ptiloris, M (11): 
Pygoscelis, M (7c): 
Pyrrhomyias, M (7c): 
Ramphotrigon, N (10): 

Rhinomyias, M (7c): 



Rhodopechys, M (7b): 
Rhopornis, M (7b): 
Rhyacornis, F (7b): 
Rupicola, M (7a): 
Saxicola, M (7a): 



Saxicoloides, M (5): 
Sayornis, M (7b): 
Schiffornis, F (7b): 

Schoenicola, M (7a): 
Schoeniophylax, M (7b) 
Se/eMeiV/iA\M(10): 



caesia, dubia, pyrhoptera, velata. 

acritum, amaurote, anxium, assimile, atricapillus (inv.), bolivianum, 

chapadense, cognitum, colligatum, columbianum, cuchiverus (inv.), 

diluviale, dimidiatum, erythrocercum, erythronotum, erythropterum, 

flavipectus (inv.), fuscipenne, fuscum, guttulatum, lineatum, lyra (inv.), 

mentale, montanum, ochrogaster (inv.), oleagineum, pallidum, perijanum, 

panerythrum, ruficaudatum, ruficrissa (inv.), rufosuperciliatum, rufum, 

simile, striaticolle, striatum, strigillatum, striolatum, subalare, subfulvum, 

subulatum, temporale, venezuelanum, virgatum. 

braba (inv.), caudatus, halmaturinus, indistinctus, inomatus, niger, 

pyrrhopterus, undulatus. 

californica, eschatosa, flammula (inv.), leucura, montana, pacata, 

subhimachala. 

leucogaster (inv.), melanocephalus, pallidus, xanthomerius, xanthurus. 

boliviana, perijana, pileata. 

brevibarba (inv.), castaneus, peruvianus. 

angolicus, concinnatus, cristatus, gabela (inv.), graculinus, intermedius, 

melanopterus, plumatus, poliocephalus, poliolophus. 

albus, carnobarba (inv.), tricarunculatus. 

dinelliana. 

magnificus, paradiseus. 

antarcticus, papua (inv.), taeniatus. 

cinnamomeus, pyrrhopterus. 

bolivianum, fuscicauda (inv.), megacephalum, pectorale, ruficauda (inv.), 

venezuelense. 

additus, brunneatus, colonus (inv.), isola (inv.), nicobaricus, olivaceus, 

perolivaceus, ruficauda (inv.), ruficrissa (inv.), subsolanus, 

zamboanga (inv.). 

alienus, amantum (inv.), githagineus, mongolicus, obsoletus, sanguineus. 

ardesiacus. 

fuliginosa. 

peruvianus, rupicola (inv.), sanguinolentus, saturatus. 

albofasciatus, albonotatus, altivagus, armenicus, atratus, bifasciatus, 

burmanicus, caprata (inv.), cognatus, ferreus, fruticola (inv.), indicus, 

leucurus, luctuosus, macrorhynchus, maurus, moptanus, pallidigula (inv.), 

promiscuus, pyrrhonotus, rubetra (inv.), rubicola (inv.), sibilla (inv.), 

torquatus, variegatus. 

erythrurus, fulicatus, intermedius, leucopterus. 

amnicola (inv.), aquaticus, pallidus, saya (inv.), semiater. 

aenea, amazona, dumicola (inv.), intermedia, olivacea, stenorhyncha, 

turdina. 

platyurus. 

phryganophilus. 

melanoleucus. 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 



281 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



Siphonorhis, F (2): 
Siptornopsis, F (2): 
Speirops, M (4): 
Spiziapteryx, F (2): 
Stelgidopteryx, F (2): 
Strigops, F (1 1): 
Sypheotides, M (5): 
Tchagra, M (8): 



Tiaris, M (6): 

Tigriornis, F (7b): 
Todiramphus, M (3): 



7bM/f,M(10): 
7rera«, M (7b): 



Tricholaema, F (3): 
Turdoides, F (5): 

7wrm"jt, M (8): 



Urolais, M (7c): 
Xanthotis, M (7c): 
Xo/m/s, M(10): 

Zosterops, M (4): 



brunneus, leucophoeus, melanocephalus. 

circumcincta. 

cacabata, psammochroa. 

habroptila. 

indicus. 

armenus, cathemagmenus, confusus, cruentus, cucullatus, habessinicus, 

mandanus, minutus, mozambicus, nothus, pallidas, remotus, rufofuscus, 

senegalus, tchagra (inv.). 

canorus, fuliginosus,fumosus, haplochroma (inv.), intermedins, obscurus, 

olivaceus, omissus, pacificus, pauper (inv.), pusillus, ravidus. 

leucolopha. 

abyssinicus, albicilla (inv.), albonotatus, amoenus, anachoreta (inv.), 

australasia (inv.), azelus, brachyurus, chloropterus, cinnamominus, 

colonus (inv.), dammerianus, enigma (inv.), eximius, incinctus, interpositus, 

laubmannianus, leucopygius, mala (inv.), marinus, melanodera (inv.), 

nigrocyaneus, obscurus, ornatus, pilbara (inv.), pyrrhopygius, regina (inv.), 

sacer, sanctus, saurophagus, sordidus, stictolaemus, torresianus, tutus, 

veneratus, vicina (inv.). 

batavicus, dilectissimus, melanonotus, purpuratus, stictopterus, surdus. 

ada (inv.), adinus, apicauda (inv.), aromaticus, bicinctus, brevicera (inv.), 

calvus, chlorigaster (inv.), chloropterus, curvirostra (inv.), erimacrus, 

filipinus, glaucus, griseicapilla (inv.), griseicauda (inv.), hainanus, 

haliplous, hy pothap sinus, jav anus, laotinus, medioximus, mesochlous, 

miza (inv.), modestus, nasica (inv.), oblitus, oxyurus, parvus, pegus, 

permagnus, phoenicopterus, pompadora (inv.), psittaceus, pulverulentus, 

purpureus, smicrus, sororius, sphenurus, waalia (inv.), xenius, zaleptus. 

diademata, flavipunctata, frontata, hirsuta, lacrymosa, leucomelas (inv.), 

massaica, melanocephala. 

atra, clamosa, caudata, cinerea, fulva, griseosquamata, hyperythra, 

hypoleuca, hyposticta, keniana, lacuum (inv.), leucocephala, leucopygia, 

limbata, malabarica, maroccana, platycirca, plebejus (inv.), querula, 

rubiginosa, sindiana, sonivia, squamulata, stictilaema, striata, subrufa, 

taprobanus (inv.), tenebrosa. 

baweanus, castanotus, fasciatus, floresianus, furvus, hottentottus, 

lepuranus, lucianus, maculosus, melanogaster (inv.), melanotus, nanus, 

ocellatus, rostratus, rufilatus, saturatus, sumbanus, sylvaticus, varius. 

Cinderella (inv.), epichlorus. 

filiger, macleayanus, polygrammus. 

cinereus, coronatus, dominicanus, niveus, pepoaza (inv.), rubetra (inv.), 

velatus. 

abyssinicus, anomalus, atricapilla (inv.), basilanicus, borbonicus, 

brevicauda (inv.), chlorocephalus, chrysolaemus, cinereus, citrinella (inv.), 

conspicillatus, delicatulus, egregius, erythropleurus, eurycricotus, exiguus, 



Normand David & Michel Gosselin 282 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

ficedulinus, flavissimus, flavus, floridanus, fuscicapilla (inv.), gregarius, 
griseonota (inv.)*, griseotinctus, hainanus, halmaturinus, hypoxanthus, 
inornatus, intermedius, japonicus, kasaicus, luteus, luzonicus, 
maderaspatanus, majusculus, mauritianus, melanurus, minutus, modestus, 
montanus, nicobaricus, oblitus, olivaceus, obstinatus, oreophilus, pallidus, 
palpebrosus, perplexus, poliogastrus, rennellianus, semiflavus, silvanus, 
socotranus, splendidus, stenocricotus, strenuus, surdus, tephropleurus, 
tematanus, tetiparius, ultimus, unicus, vellalavella (inv.), viridicatus, 
xanthochroa (inv.). 

* This name is not a latinized Greek adjective, but a noun phrase formed by a Latin adjective and a 

latinized Greek noun. 
** This name is not a latinized Greek adjective, but a noun phrase formed by two latinized Greek 

nouns. 



The New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar 
Aegotheles savesi rediscovered? 

by Joe A. Tobias & Jonathan M. M. Ekstrom 

Received 19 August 2001 

In April 1880 a strange bird was caught after it flew through the open window of a 
house in the village of Tongue, at the foot of Mount Koghi in southern New Caledonia; 
the specimen was passed by M. Saves to E. L. Layard who described it as Aegotheles 
savesi (Layard & Layard 1881). The only other tangible evidence of the New 
Caledonian Owlet-nightjar are some fossilised bones discovered in Quaternary cave 
deposits c.65 km northwest of Noumea, near Boulouparis (Balouet & Olson 1989), 
and a 1913 specimen held in Rome that went unnoticed until 1999 (C. Violani & C. 
M. Fisher in lift. 1999). Despite considerable attention focused on the forests of 
New Caledonia (Mayr 1941, 1945, Warner 1947, Delacour 1966, Stokes 1980, 
Letocart 1995, Maruia/CI 1998), no new records of the owlet-nightjar emerged, 
apart from a handful of unsubstantiated reports from the 1930s- 1960s, three from 
southern New Caledonia and one from the Loyalty islands (Macmillan 1939, Ekstrom 
et al. 2000, in press). The species has thus long been presumed extinct by many 
authorities (e.g. King 1981). Given the mystery surrounding its status, ecology and 
taxonomy (Olson et al. 1987), its apparent rediscovery is of great interest. 

We had conducted almost five months intensive fieldwork in New Caledonia 
when, at 1840 h on 5 November 1998, an unfamiliar bird looking like a large 
Aegotheles sp. flew across a disused logging road in the Riviere Ni valley on the 
western flank of the Massif de Kouakoue, Province Sud. By this time, the relatively 
depauperate avifauna of the islands was totally familiar to us, and thus the sudden 
appearance at dusk of an oddly shaped species came as a surprise, especially after so 
many weeks of striving and failing to encounter any night birds, apart from Barn 



Joe A. Tobias & Jonathan M. M. Ekstrom 283 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Owls Tyto alba. The sighting occurred in riverine humid forest on moderate slopes 
at c. 1,000 m; a description of habitat in the immediate area is given by Ekstrom et 
al. (2000). After initial views, it was seen for several seconds in flight within the 
open canopy of large riverine trees where it soon disappeared, and was not seen 
perching. It then made brief sallies between perches on three more occasions. The 
bird appeared c.30 cm long with broad but quite short and rounded wings, and an 
ample tail; although largely silhouetted, it seemed uniformly very dark and definitely 
lacked pale patches in the wing. We were immediately confident that we had relocated 
Aegotheles savesi, the first indication of its continued survival for many decades. 
The distinctive shape and flight action distinguished it from the only possible 
confusion species, the endemic race of White-throated Nightjar Eurostopodus 
mystacalis exul (only known from a single specimen and probably a distinct species: 
Cleere 1998, S. Olson in litt. 1999). 

As we can provide no photographic or tape-recorded evidence of our sighting, 
the identification deserves detailed comment. The frequent sallying behaviour 
observed during the short observation period is, as far as is known, not normal for 
Aegotheles. Those few members of this genus for which foraging details are available 
usually rest motionless on branches and occasionally sally out or hover-glean (Beehler 
et al. 1986, Cleere 1998, Holyoak 1999), although prolonged and frequent hawking 
over distances of < 30 m has previously been recorded in the Australian Owlet- 
nightjar A. cristatus (Holyoak 1999). Substantial differences in morphology imply 
that the New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar adopts different foraging strategies to its 
relatives (Olson et al. 1987). While longer legs and shorter wings suggest a less 
aerial and more terrestial lifestyle, the foraging behaviour of the species is difficult 
to predict and presumably varies according to environmental factors such as food 
type and availability. Moreover, while savesi is apparently morphologically 
intermediate between Aegotheles and Megaegotheles novaehollandiae, an extinct 
and perhaps largely terrestrial taxon from New Zealand (Olson et al. 1987), the 
record of a bird in flight is not surprising given that the first specimen of savesi flew 
through a window. 

Very few nocturnal birds occur on New Caledonia, a circumstance that facilitates 
the identification of those that are heard or observed. The only forest owl is the Barn 
Owl, a species very easily eliminated because of its size, colour and behaviour. 
Little is known of the habitat preferences and behaviour of the endemic owlet-nightjar 
and nightjar. Although it is more usual to observe true nightjars in flight rather than 
owlet-nightjars, there were obvious and striking differences that allowed immediate 
elimination of E. m. exul. The wing-beats were regular and fluttery, with the wings 
always held horizontally or slightly down-turned during occasional short glides. 
The shape and flight action suggested an outsized Australian Owlet-nightjar (although 
less fluttery), the only other species in the family with which the authors are familiar. 
It did not have the light buoyant flight of most nightjars, nor did it hold its wings in 
the v-shape so characteristic of many nightjar genera, including Eurostopodus, a 
group with which the observers are also familiar, having seen four of its constituent 



Joe A. Tobias & Jonathan M. M. Ekstrom 284 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

TABLE 1 

A comparison between wing formulae (mm from tip) of New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar A. savesi and 

White-throated Nightjar E. m. mystacalis. 



Species 


PI 


P2 


P3 


P4 


P5 


P6 


P7 


P8 


P9 


P10 


A. savesi 


-47 


-25 


-11 


-2 





-3 


-8 


-17 


-25 


-34 


E. m. mystacalis 


-4 





-6 


-49 


-79 


-104 


-115 


-122 


-133 


- 



species (including mystacalis) on numerous occasions. Most distinctively, the wings 
were conspicuously rounded. A glance at the wing formulas in Table 1 (comparing 
wing-tip shapes of the type specimen of A. savesi with a typical E. m. mystacalis) 
reveals that the former has very blunt and paddle-shaped wings, corresponding exactly 
to our observations, while the latter has highly tapered wings (unfortunately it was 
not possible to directly compare savesi with E. m. exul, but the wing shape of the 
latter is similar to E. m. mystacalis: N. Cleere in litt. 1998). Finally, the fact that it 
always flew or perched below the level of the upper canopy again points to the 
identification as an owlet-nightjar. Therefore, while all other birds occurring in New 
Caledonia can be swiftly eliminated, the features comfortably match those of an 
owlet-nightjar. We conclude that the bird involved was certainly neither an owl, nor 
a nightjar, and unless some similar species remains to be discovered in New 
Caledonia, it must have been Aegotheles savesi. 

The bird was not seen or heard again, despite six hours of further searching in 
the same night, and five days and six nights of searching by several fieldworkers 
when we returned a week later. Although the lack of further records suggests that 
the individual observed did not hold a permanent territory in the immediate area, 
owlet-nightjars regularly shift roost-sites and are, in any case, notoriously difficult 
to observe in the field (Brigham & Geiser 1997, Holyoak 1999). Our single 
observation raises hopes that a population of this species can be conserved in New 
Caledonia, although its status, distribution and ecology remain unknown. 

Acknowledgements 

We thank the Direction des Ressources Naturelles (DRN) and the Direction du Developpement Rural et 
de la Peche (DDRP) in New Caledonia for permission to carry out this research, and for excellent 
logistical and financial support throughout the survey. The work was supported by grants from the 
Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux (LPO) and the BP Conservation Programme (a full list is presented 
by Ekstrom et al. 2000). We also thank Gary Allport, David Butler, Isabelle Faisant, Delphine Franko, 
Isabel Isherwood, Ronan Kirsch, Yves Letocart, Bernard Suprin, Sophie Veran, Jake Willis and Charly 
Zongo for sharing their skills and experience with us in the field. Clem Fisher kindly allowed access to 
the type specimen of Aegotheles savesi, and Nigel Cleere provided useful comments on the first 
manuscript. 

References: 

Balouet, J. C. & Olson, S. L. 1989. Fossil birds from late Quaternary deposits in New Caledonia. 
Smithsonian Contrih. Zool. 469: 1-7. 



Joe A. Tobias & Jonathan M. M. Ekstrom 285 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Brigham, R. M. & Geiser, F. (1997) Breeding biology of Australian owlet-nightjars Aegotheles cristatus 

in Eucalypt woodland. Emu 97: 316-321. 
Cleere, N. (1998) Nightjars. A guide to nightjars and related nightbirds. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK. 
Delacour, J. (1966) Guide des oiseaux de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et de ses dependences. Editions 

Delachaux et Niestle, Neuchatel. 
Ekstrom, J. M. M., Jones, J. P. G, Willis, J. & Isherwood, I. (2000) The humid forests of New Caledonia: 

biological research and conservation recommendations for the vertebrate fauna of Grande Terre. 

CSB Conservation Publications, Cambridge, U.K. 
Ekstrom, J. M. M., Jones, J. P. G, Willis, J., Tobias, J. A., Dutson, G, Barre, N. (in press) New information 

on the distribution, status and conservation of terrestrial bird species on Grande Terre, New Caledonia. 

Emu. 
Holyoak, D. T (1999) Family Aegothelidae. Pp. 252-265 in Handbook of the birds of the world, Volume 

5 (del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
King, W. B. (1981) Red Data Book, 2. Aves. Second edition. IUCN, Morges, Switzerland. 
Layard, E. L. & Layard, E. L. C. ( 1 88 1 ) Notes on the avifauna of New Caledonia and the New Hebrides. 

With remarks by the Rev. Canon Tristram. Ibis 5 (4th series) (17): 132-139. 
Letocart, Y. (1995) Statut des oiseaux de foret dans le bassin de la Nodela. Unpublished report, Service 

de l'Environment et de la Gestion des Pares et Reserves de la Province Sud. 
Maruia/CI (1998) Conserving biodiversity in province Nord, New Caledonia. Conservation International, 

Washington, U.S.A., and Maruia Society, New Zealand. 
Mayr, E. (1941) Birds of the Whitney Expedition: a new nightjar from New Caledonia. American Museum 

Novites 47: 1152. 
Mayr, E. (1945) Birds of the southwest Pacific. MacMillan, New York. 
Olson, S. L., Balouet, C, Fisher, C. T. (1987) The owlet-nightjar of New Caledonia, Aegotheles savesi, 

with comments on the systematics of the Aegothelidae. Le Gerfaut 11 : 341-352. 
Stokes, T (1980) Notes on the landbirds of New Caledonia. Emu 80: 81-86. 
Warner, D. W. (1947) The ornithology of New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. Unpublished PhD 

thesis, Cornell. 

Addresses : J.T. 131 Catharine Street, Cambridge CB1 3AP, UK; 14 Beehive Road, Crookesmore. 
Sheffield S 10 1EP 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

New distributional bird records from 

Serrania de San Lucas and adjacent 

Central Cordillera of Colombia 

by Paul Salaman, Thomas M. Donegan & 
Andres M. Cuervo 

Received 21 August 2001 

Serrania de San Lucas in northern Colombia has been one of the greatest 
ornithological enigmas in the Americas. One brief 1947 bird collection in the foothills 
was our only knowledge of the birds of this isolated mountain range. Political 
instability for over 40 years deterred further investigation until expeditions conducted 
by the Colombian Evaluation of Biodiversity in the Andes (EBA) Project team (the 



Paul Salaman et al. 286 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

authors comprising the ornithologists in the Project) were conducted to develop 
rapid conservation assessments of the mountain range in 1999 and 2001. Additional 
surveys were also conducted in the adjacent Central Cordillera. Whilst the highlands 
of Serrania de San Lucas from 1,500-2,700 m continue to remain unknown, we 
report the first ornithological records from the premontane zone to 1,400 m. Of 199 
species recorded in three weeks between 1 ,000- 1 ,400 m in San Lucas, 70% of species 
were new to the highlands, 65 species represented significant range extensions 
(including perhaps three undescribed subspecies), and noteworthy altitude extensions 
were noted for 40 species. A further 13 species recorded on the adjacent Central 
Cordillera also represented range extensions. 

The Northern Andes diverge into three main long mountain ranges in Colombia 
(Western, Central and Eastern Cordilleras), which are separated by deep interandean 
valleys of the Magdalena and Cauca rivers. The Central Cordillera is a 750 km-long 
mountain range extending northwards from approximately 1° 30' N and is the highest 
(average 3,000 m) of Colombia's three Andean ranges, as well as the oldest, having 
attained elevations of over 2,000 m by the Miocene period (Hernandez-Camacho et 
al. 1992). At the northeastern extreme of the Central Cordillera, a wide foothill 
plateau (average c. 500 m asl) is dissected by the Rio Nechi watershed, isolating the 
Serrania de San Lucas from the rest of the range. Serrania de San Lucas is a 200 km 
long mountain range, rising from sea level to 2,700 m asl, in Dptos Antioquia and 
Bolivar, Northern Colombia (Fig. 1). At the 1,000 m asl contour, the Serrania de San 
Lucas is isolated by over 75 km from the Central Cordillera and by 65 km from the 
Eastern Cordillera by the Rio Magdalena valley. The massif is principally of igneous 
origins with metamorphic intrusions rich in gold deposits. It runs parallel to the Rio 
Magdalena on its eastern flank and with Rio Nechi and Rio Cauca on its western 
and northern flanks respectively. 

From the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries bird collectors began to explore 
the northern part of Central Cordillera of Colombia, especially around Medellin, 
Colombia's second largest city (summarised in Cuervo et al. 2001). Consequently, 
avifaunal knowledge of the Central Cordillera is relatively good compared to other 
regions of Colombia, e.g. the eastern slope of the Andes. However, remarkably it 
has revealed two new species for science in recent years (see Graves 1997, Cuervo 
et al. 2001). Several life-zones on this Cordillera and the Serrania de San Lucas, on 
the northeastern humid premontane slopes (1,200-2,000 m), remained remarkably 
little-known until surveys carried out by the Colombian EBA team. 

Melbourne A. Carriker, Jr. briefly surveyed the tropical foothill elevations (300- 
1,000 m) near the town of Santa Rosa in Serrania de San Lucas and surrounding 
lowlands near Simiti for a total of 17 days in April-May 1947 (Paynter 1997). No 
other ornithological surveys have been conducted above 1,000 m (up to 2,600 m) in 
Serrania de San Lucas. Only a small number of specimens were taken in the 1947 
expedition but, even in this survey, four threatened bird species were found: Blue- 
knobbed Curassow Crax alberti, Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia 
castaneiventris, White-mantled Barbet Capito hypoleucus and Recurve-billed 



Paul Salaman et al. 287 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Bushbird Clytoctantes alixii. Hilty & Brown (1986) mapped 58 bird species above 
1,000 m on Serrania de San Lucas. Of these, all bar 13 typically higher-elevation 
species recorded by Carriker are widespread throughout Colombia and assumed to 
occur (e.g. Black Vulture Coragyps atratus). 

Exceptionally harsh physical relief and environmental conditions (dense swamps 
and high malaria prevalence) have deterred human access until the latter half of the 
20 th century. Until relatively recently, the isolated Serrania was a wilderness area of 
forest, known only as an important strategic area for the Ejercito de Liberacion 
Nacional (ELN) guerrilla. However, massive gold deposit discoveries in the 1990s 
and an expansion of illicit coca production drastically changed the San Lucas 
landscape. Being biologically unknown and with mounting threats, the justification 
for fieldwork in the Serrania was compelling. Our principal aim was to conduct 
ornithological surveys across Serrania de San Lucas and adjacent slopes of the Central 
Cordillera, in order to compile bird inventories along the altitudinal gradient, where 
no ornithological information previously existed. 

Abbreviations 

f = specimen collected; CORANTIOQUIA = Corporation Autonoma Regional del 
Centro de Antioquia; Dpto = Departamento (sub-political region); EB A = Evaluation 
of Biodiversity in the Andes Project; ICN-MHN = Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, 
Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Mpo = Municipio 
(Municipality); MNH = Mist-Net Hours per meterage (1 metre of net per hour = 1); 
Taxonomy and nomenclature largely follow Ridgely & Tudor (1989, 1994) and 
Salaman et al (2001). Species sequence follows Hilty & Brown (1986). 

Fieldwork and study sites 

Research methods involved mist-netting, sound-recording and direct observation 
along transects at each site with the objectives of: (a) rapidly collecting standardised 
and replicable data; (b) documenting species compositions and biological variation; 
and (c) evaluating conservation priorities across the region. A summary of the location, 
fieldwork effort and summarised results for each study site is presented in Table 1 . 

Serrania de San Lucas: further details of study sites are described in Salaman 
& Donegan (2001). Sites were studied by all the authors unless otherwise stated. 

San Pablo (5 6, 9-12 March 2001), Mpo San Pablo, Dpto Bolivar (100-250 m). 
Aquatic habitats, open country and secondary growth were surveyed largely by 
observations and with a small number of mist-nets, within several km of the town in 
the following areas: Canabraval, San Pablo, Bajo Taracue (all secondary growth 
near San Pablo town), the Rio Magdalena between Puerto Wilches and San Pablo 
and Cienaga Canaletal (a large natural lake c. 1 .5 km diameter with secondary growth 
and adjacent woodland dominated by bamboo). Studied by TMD and Javier Bustos. 

La Punta (15-20 March 2001 ), southeast slope of the Rio San Pedro Frio valley, 
Mpo Santa Rosa del Sur, Dpto Bolivar ( 1 ,000-1 ,400 m). The valley slope is transected 



Paul Salaman et al. 288 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

by a road (from Santa Rosa) descending 3 km from El Reten at 1,400 m to the small 
hamlet of La Punta (c. 10 houses at 1,300 m), from where a mule trail descends 2 km 
to the Quebrada La Romera and Rio San Pedro Frio (1,000 m). The steep valley 
slope has extensive patches of secondary growth and some heavily disturbed remnant 
forest patches. Owing to anti-personnel land-mined forest trails, observations were 
restricted to forest borders, the road and mule trail both below (15-17 March) and 
above (17-20 March) La Punta. 

La Teta Resort (22 March-3 April 2001), northwest slope of the San Pedro Frio 
valley, Mpo Santa Rosa del Sur, Dpto Bolivar ( 1 ,300 m). Following the river crossing, 
the mule trail from La Punta at La Punta ascends to San Pedro Frio, a miners' 
commune on the lower slopes of La Teta peak. La Teta is the highest mountain in the 
Serrania de San Lucas (c. 2,700 m). Above the stream, c. 2 km northwest of La 
Punta, the trail passes a small (c. 20 ha) fragment of forest and secondary growth in 
a stream valley, bordered by pasture and overgrown scrub. 

Apollo 13 (3-8 August 1999), Finca La Esperanza, Vereda Malena-Rio Bagre, 
Mpo Segovia, Dpto Antioquia (300 m). Lowland humid forest (c. 2,500 mm rainfall/ 
year) located c. 8 km southeast of the gold-mining commune of Puerto Lopez. A 
lowland forest patch (c. 1,500 m x 500 m), straddling three ridges about a low peak 
(base camp), formed the basis of our transect. The forest core was slightly disturbed 
with several trees with large diameter at breast height (>10 m), canopy height c. 35 
m, high subcanopy and understorey to c. 5 m. The understorey was sparsely vegetated, 
although characterised by dense Heliconia spp. thickets and spiny palm clusters, 
whilst there was a low abundance and diversity of epiphytes. 

Northeastern Cordillera Central: the 750 km-long main Central Cordillera 
terminates at 7°N with foothill ridges descending northwards to 7°30'N into the 
tropical lowlands of the Nechi and lower Cauca valleys. Two sites on the western 
flank of the Rio Porce were studied: one in the most northerly highland area of the 
northeastern slope (La Forzosa) and another 35 km north on the edge of the lowlands 
(Alto de los Tarros). 

Alto de los Tarros (20-24 August 1999), Reserva Regional Bajo Cauca-Nechi, 
Vereda La Tirana, Mpo Anon, Dpto Antioquia (800-850 m). This site lay within an 
extensive fragment of foothill humid forest (c. 45,000 ha). A little-used trail along a 
high ridge through primary forest in the Rio Anon watershed was used as a transect. 
The forest physionomy is similar to Apollo 1 3, but virtually undisturbed, with lower 
vegetation strata (canopy c. 30 m), more broken canopy by treefalls on steep slopes, 
higher epiphyte abundance and notably more woody stem plants in the understorey. 
Studied by the authors, Jose Manuel Ochoa and Juan Lazaro Toro. 

La Forzosa (26-29 August 1999), Reserva Natural La Forzosa (c. 450 ha), the 
Quebrada Chaquiral and La Soledad watershed c. 6 km south of Anon, Vereda Roble 
Arriba, Mpo Anon, Dpto Antioquia (1,550 m). Primary premontane humid forest 
(c. 3,000 mm rainfall/year). A 300 m transect ascended a ridge through dense 
understorey, while observations were also conducted along the Quebrada La Soledad. 
Upper slope and ridgetop forest was stunted and gnarled with a canopy height from 



Paul Salaman et al. 289 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122.(4) 

5-8 m, and epiphytes abundant, especially mosses, lichens and bromeliads. Vegetation 
on the lower slopes and valleys were typical of forest at 1,500 m, with a canopy to 
15-20 m and a moderately dense understorey composed of woody stem bushes and 
sparse herbaceous cover, with a moderate abundance of arboreal epiphytes. The La 
Forzosa reserve has been subject to fairly intensive surveys since 1999 led by AMC 
and also with the Bird Study Group Universidad de Antioquia (M. Castano, C. 
Delgado, J. C. Luna, S. Galeano, A. Palacio, P. Lopera, A. Patifio, Jose Manuel 
Ochoa, A. Vasco and others) up to 1,820 m asl (Cuervo et al. 1999). 

Species accounts 

Species accounts; we provide a brief description of each species' distribution and 
status in Colombia from Hilty & Brown (1986), with additional recent information. 
Specific localities not mentioned above are given latitude and longitude co-ordinates 
when first mentioned. We follow this with our own information at each site and then 
summarise the significance of our records. The number of birds captured for each 
species is given in parentheses, e.g. La Punta (16) means that 16 birds were caught 
at Study Site 2 (La Punta). Sound recordings by PS and AMC have been deposited 
at the National Sound Archive (Wildlife Section, British Library). All mist-netted 
birds were weighed and measured and were photographed from various angles. 
Photographs have been catalogued with VIREO (Philadelphia) and all specimens 
(f ) have been deposited and catalogued at ICN-MHN. Noteworthy distributional 
records, based on Hilty & Brown (1986) unless otherwise stated, are presented in 
four categories: (i) 37 significant range extensions (>100 km or first records for the 
region); (ii) 31 100 km northwards range extensions from the Central Cordillera to 
Serrania de San Lucas of species typically distributed above 1,000 m; (iii) six range 
extensions northwards to the north of the Central Cordillera; (iv) a brief list of 17 
other important records of species with poorly-known distributions in the region; 
(v) 40 noteworthy altitude extensions. 

(i) Thirty-seven significant range extensions 

The following species present noteworthy range extensions (> c. 100 km) or 
biogeographical records, based on distribution information in Hilty & Brown (1986) 
and recent publications. Less significant range extensions are not published here but 
a checklist of all species recorded in Serrania de San Lucas (virtually all of which 
present range extensions of tens of km with many new departmental records) is 
presented in Salaman & Donegan (2001). 

LEAST GREBE Podiceps dominicus 

Previously known from the Cauca valley and the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Two 
individuals were observed near La Forzosa in small lakes created from gold mining 
excavations at Madreseca c. 6 km north of Anon on 19 August 1999. This record 
represents the first record for the Central Cordillera. 



Paul Salaman et al. 



290 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 




Aito los Tarros A 



! ,'j Pu»rto M»f quit* 
0Hy»H*ir«ni ., 

La Teta Resort A ^«V^~X 

46:.__j ""-'"' ) ■'Slmlti \SB Ouiyitifr, 

b e---; L jj w" A R 

' ■ c . 



San Pablo*? 



, Has Chomi P* 



, 



C0RDILLlERA/C£NTR(4L \\ 

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Figure 1 . Map of the central-northern Colombia, showing Serranfa de San Lucas and 
the Study Sites throughout the region (San Pablo; La Punta; La Teta Resort; 
Apollo 13; Alto los Tarros; La Forzosa). 





Figure 3. Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus; 
individuals from Serranfa de San Lucas represent an 
undescribed subspecies. 



Figure 2. Sharpbill Oxyruncus cristatus at La Teta Resort; 
new for Colombia. 



Paul Salaman et al. 291 Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

GREAT BLUE HERON Ardea herodias 

An immature observed at San Pablo on 5, 7 & 9 March 2001 on an island in the Rio 
Magdalena off Puerto Wilches (cf. 800-1,000 observations of Cocoi Heron A. cocoi 
at this site). Winters throughout the Cauca valley and Caribbean lowlands, but 
previously unknown from the mid-Magdalena valley. This record probably relates 
to a straggler. 

LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE Cathartes burrovianus 
Several observations made at San Pablo and Apollo 13. Also one individual recorded 
on Cienaga Sahaya, southern Dpto Cesar (8°42'N, 73°47') by TMD on 14 January 
2002. Known from one locality in the interior Caribbean lowlands along the Rio 
Magdalena (160 km range extension to Apollo 1 3) and reported by Stiles & Bohorquez 
(2000) in Puerto Boyaca and Puerto Romero. Probably widely distributed across the 
humid forest lowlands west of Serrania de San Lucas. 

WHITE-TAILED KITE Elanus leucurus 

Observed several times along the Rio Nechi near El Bagre (7°36'N, 74°47'W), 30 
km northwest of Apollo 13. Previously unknown from the Caribbean lowland interior. 
Suspected to have increased its range 170 km northwest from the mid-Magdalena 
valley or Caribbean coastal fringe with forest clearance. 

PLUMBEOUS HAWK Leucopternis plumbea 

An adult captured at Apollo 13(1) had a distinctive olive crown - a previously 
undescribed feature, but it is unclear if this represents an aberrant plumage or perhaps 
a geographical characteristic. This little-known and Near-Threatened species presents 
a 90 km easterly range extension from the northern foothills of the Western Cordillera. 

WHITE HAWK Leucopternis albicollis 

Observed flying over Apollo 13 and La Forzosa. These records present a 90 km 
easterly range extension from the northern foothills of the Western Cordillera and 
link with recent records 150 km SE on the western slope of the Eastern Cordillera at 
La Grilla in Serrania de Quinchas, Dpto Boyaca (Stiles et al 1999). 

GREAT BLACK HAWK Buteogallus urubitinga 

One observed at San Pablo soaring low over the northern edge of Cienaga Canaletal 
and several observed at Cienaga Sahaya, Dpto Cesar by TMD et al. in January 2002. 
Previously known from the Caribbean coastal region and previously unknown from 
the Magdalena valley. 

BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE Spizastur melanoleucus 
One observed in flight and perched in a small forest patch at La Teta Resort. This 
little known raptor is patchily distributed across Colombia with only a handful of 
records. The closest geographical records are 250 km distant on the western slope of 
Serrania de Perija, Eastern Cordillera. 



Paul Salaman et al. 292 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

BARRED FOREST-FALCON Micrastur ruficollis 

The song and call were heard frequently and tape-recorded at dawn at La Teta Resort, 
Apollo 13 and La Forzosa. Previously known from the northern foothills of the 
Western Cordillera (140 km SW of La Teta Resort) and from the western slope of 
the Eastern Cordillera at La Grilla, Serrania de Quinchas, Dpto Boyaca (Stiles et al. 
1999) and Dpto Santander (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

WATTLED GUAN Aburria aburri 

Up to seven males heard calling at night and twilight periods in a variety of forest 
patches, including disturbed secondary growth in La Punta and La Teta Resort (see 
Donegan et al. 2001 for detailed observations of this species in Serrania de San 
Lucas). Also frequently heard at La Forzosa. The intense period of vocalizing activity 
in San Lucas probably corresponds to the commencement of the breeding season 
during the wet season of April-June. Previously known in the Central Cordillera to 
90 km south of La Forzosa. These records present a northerly range extension of 
220 km to Serrania de San Lucas. The species is regarded as a Very High Conservation 
Priority by the Cracid Specialist Group (Brooks & Strahl 2000), thus new sites of 
such healthy populations are potentially of great importance for conservation. 

LIMPKIN Aramus guarauna 

One observed on the south side of Cienaga Canaletal (San Pablo) on 12 March 
2001, and several observed by TMD, Elkin Briceno and Blanca Huertas at Cienaga 
Sahaya, Dpto Cesar during January 2002. Known from scattered records across 
Colombia, although with only two mid-Magdalena valley localities, c. 320 km to 
the south of San Pablo (including recent records in Puerto Romero (Stiles & 
Bohorquez 2000)). 

COMMON GROUND-DOVE Columbina passerina 

A small number of individuals were observed in open country near Apollo 13. 
Geographically close records are known from throughout the Magdalena valley, but 
the closest records in the Cauca valley are c. 450 km to the south at its headwaters. 
A 50 km NW range extension into the Rio Nechi and lower Rio Cauca valley is 
probably due to expansion in range with deforestation from the Magdalena valley. 

GROOVE-BILLED ANI Crotophaga sulcirostris 

Observed in secondary growth near Apollo 13. Previously known north and east of 

Serrania de San Lucas but unrecorded west of the range. 

RIDGEWAY'S PYGMY-OWL Glaucidium (brasilianum) ridgwayi 
An individual considered to be of this taxon was observed and tape-recorded in the 
subcanopy at Alto de los Tarros on 23 August 1999, but not collected. This species 
was previously known from 250 km northwards in northern Colombia. 

RED- WINGED PARROTLET Touit dilectissima 

Small flocks were heard and observed occasionally at La Forzosa, where they fed 

on Clusia spp. fruits. Also recorded on the eastern slope of the Central Cordillera at 



Paul Salaman et al. 293 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Quebrada El Viao, Cocorna, Dpto Antioquia (6°3'N, 75°10'W). Previously thought 
to be restricted to the Choco region west of the Andes with a disjunct population in 
Serrania de Perija and northern Eastern Cordillera. The seemingly resident population 
at La Forzosa represents a significant link between the two populations within a gap 
of 500 km and first record for the Central Cordillera. 

GREY-RUMPED SWIFT Chaetura cinereiventris 

Flocks, usually consisting of c. 20 individuals, were observed in the lowlands on 
both flanks of Serrania de San Lucas at San Pablo and Apollo 13. Patchily distributed 
in the western lowlands of Colombia. Records at San Pablo represent the first records 
for the Magdalena valley, although considered possibly to be present in the region 
by Hilty& Brown (1986). 

ASHY-TAILED SWIFT Chaetura andrei 

Six individuals were observed at very close quarters at dusk on 28-30 March 2001 
above La Teta Resort (1,400 m) flocking with Band-rumped Swift Chaetura 
spinicauda and Chapman's Swift Chaetura chapmani, permitting excellent views 
of the diagnostic all-grey tail, notably longer than that of C. brachyura. Previously 
known west of the Andes in Colombia from only three localities near Sierra Nevada 
de Santa Marta (230 km north of La Teta Resort). This represents the first record for 
the Colombian Andes. 

LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT Panyptila cayennensis 
A pair observed at La Punta on 15 March 2001. Little known in Colombia with only 
one previous Central Cordillera record in Caldas (Hilty & Brown 1986) and recently 
(250 km south of La Punta) in the mid-Magdalena Valley (Stiles et al. 1999). 

WHITE-TIPPED SICKLEBILL Eutoxeres aquila 

Captured at Alto de los Tarros (4) and La Forzosa (1). Previously known from the 
northern slope of the Western Cordillera and the upper Magdalena valley north to 
Dpto Caldas and Cundinamarca. These records provide a link in the 250 km gap 
between the Pacific and Magdalena populations. 

RUFOUS-CRESTED COQUETTE Lophornis delattrei 

Pairs and individuals observed on various occasions feeding in the canopy of 
flowering trees in secondary growth at La Punta and La Teta Resort. A rare and 
inconspicuous species previously recorded in the Central Cordillera on both slopes 
of the Magdalena valley in Tolima. These records represent a 330 km northwards 
range extension. 

GREEN THORNTAIL Popelairia conversii 

Individuals observed at La Punta were often associated with L. delattrei feeding 
high in flowering trees. Previously known only from the Pacific slope of the Western 
Cordillera and recently for the first time in the Magdalena valley at La Victoria, 
Dpto Caldas (Stiles et al. 1999) and La Grilla in Serrania de las Quinchas, Dpto 
Boyaca (5°49'N 74°19'W; 1,500 m) (Stiles & Bohorquez 2000). Sightings at La 



Paul Salaman et al. 294 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Punta represent the most northerly records and suggest a link between the Pacific 
population (380 km WSW) and Magdalena valley (260 km S). 

WESTERN EMERALD Chlowstilbon melanorhynchus 

Common on both lowland flanks of Serrania de San Lucas at San Pablo and Apollo 
13 and in the highlands with captures at La Punta (2, femalef ), La Teta Resort (6), 
and La Forzosa (If). Previously known from the western slope of the Western 
Cordillera, one locality on the east slope of the Central Andes in Dpto Tolima, and 
several localities on the western slope of the Central Andes (Stiles 1996), but 
unrecorded in Serrania de San Lucas or elsewhere in the northern Central Andes. 

WESTERN [STRIPED] WOODHAUNTER Hyloctistes (subulatus) virgatus 
Caught at Alto de los Tarros (1), and La Forzosa (3, 2f) where it was recorded to 
1,700 m in June 2000 (AMC). Additional records from the northern end of Central 
Cordillera at Salazar c. 10 km northeast of Amalfi, Mpo Amalfi, Dpto Antioquia (c. 
6°58'N, 75°02'W, 1,600 m) in July 2001 (2, It; AMC). Known from the Pacific 
slope and the cordobae subspecies from the northern slope of the Western Cordillera. 
These records represent the first for the Central Cordillera. 

RUDDY FOLIAGE-GLEANER Automolus rubiginosus 

Caught at La Punta (1). Extends the species' range eastwards from the western slope 

of Serrania de San Lucas and probably relates to the sasaimae subspecies. 

PARKER'S ANTBIRD Cercomacra parked 

Commonly seen and captured at La Forzosa (10, 3 f) and tape-recorded recently at 
Salazar (2t) in September 2000 and July 2001 (AMC). Individuals were heard, but 
not seen or captured, at La Teta Resort and Apollo 13. This recently-described species 
(Graves 1997) is little-known in life. Although it is fairly common in areas we have 
surveyed in the Central Andes, it is known from just a few localities. It is notable 
that vocalizations are distinct from C. tyrannina, the most closely related species, as 
will be detailed in future publications. 

IMMACULATE ANTBIRD Myrmeciza immaculata 

Common at La Teta Resort and La Punta (5, femalef). The nominate ssp. was 
previously known east of the Rio Magdalena to Dpto Caldas and western Colombia 
(Pacific slope and upper rio Cauca valley; ssp. macrorhyncha). The female collected 
differs very slightly in colouration from skins consulted at ICN, being duller brown 
than skins labelled berlepschii {macrorhyncha) but lighter brown than nominate 
ssp. immaculata. However, it is not yet possible to tell whether this is due to clinal 
variation, foxing, or represents an undescribed subspecies. 

CHESTNUT-CROWNED GNATEATER Conopophaga castaneiceps 
One female captured at La Punta ( 1 ). Also caught at La Forzosa (3; 2t), and a female 
observed at Salazar in September 2000 (AMC). Small disjunct populations are 
scattered across the Andes, with populations on the northern foothills of the Western 



Paul Salaman et al. 295 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

and Central Cordillera. These represent first records for Serranfa de San Lucas and 
northeast Central Cordillera. 

SHARPBILL Oxyruncus cristatus 

One individual was captured and photographed (Fig. 2) at La Teta Resort (1) on 25 
March 2001. This is the first confirmation of the monotypic family Oxyruncidae for 
Colombia, and represents a 340 km range extension from Cerro Tacarcuna {tacarunae 
ssp.) on the Panamanian border and >250 km from western Venezuela (phelpsi ssp.). 

RUFOUS-BROWED TYRANNULET Phylloscartes superciliaris 
This species has infrequently been observed at La Forzosa since March 1999 (Cuervo 
et al. 1999), often in association with a mixed species foraging flock. Previously 
known 235 km SE of La Forzosa at Virolin (6°7'N, 73°12'W), Dpto Santander, 
Eastern Cordillera (recent sighting in March 1997 [PS]), and a specimen suspected 
from the Panamanian border at Cerro Tacarcuna, 270 km NW of La Forzosa. This 
sighting represents the first record for the Central Cordillera. 

MARBLE-FACED BRISTLE-TYRANT Phylloscartes ophthalmicus 

Captured and seen at La Punta (1), La Forzosa (2) and at Salazar (AMC). Previously 

known in the Central Cordillera only north to c. 5°N, 350 km south of La Punta. 

TROPICAL PEWEE Contopus cinereus 

Common at La Punta and La Teta Resort (4). Previously known from the Eastern 
Cordillera, but unrecorded in the Central Cordillera until recently, with recent 
observations from Rio Claro refuge, Dpto Antioquia (6°H'N, 74°58'W, 300 m), on 
the eastern slope of the Central Cordillera (PS & AMC). A specimen was collected 
at Chaparral, El Limon, Dpto Tolima (3°40'N, 75°30'W) (F. Gary Stiles in litt.). 
These sightings represent the first records for the Central Cordillera and Serranfa de 
San Lucas. 

CATTLE TYRANT Machetornis rixosus 

Common with livestock and on dirt tracks near Apollo 13, extending the species, 
wide lowland range to the west of Serranfa de San Lucas. Additionally, a pair was 
observed with cattle at Roncesvalles (4°3'N, 75°36' W), western Dpto Tolima in the 
Central Cordillera at 2,600 m by PS et al, representing the first record for the 
highlands of Central Cordillera, a 400 km southerly range extension from Apollo 
13, and a 1,800 m altitude extension. The species' range has undoubtedly expanded 
with deforestation as evidenced by recent records in the Eastern Cordillera (Stiles et 
al 1999), where the species is also reported to 2,600 m (Stiles et al. 2000). 

SPOTTED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH Catharus dryas 

One captured and collected at La Punta (1 1) on 1 8 March 2001 at 1 ,350 m. Previously 
known only from the Andean East slope and one recent specimen on the western 
slope of the Eastern Cordillera in Dpto. Boyaca (Stiles etal. 1999). Our specimen is 
the first record for the Central Cordillera. 



Paul Salaman et al. 296 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

PALE- VENTED THRUSH Turdus obsoletus 

Captured at La Teta Resort (1) and at Salazar (If) in July 2001 (AMC). Previously 
known from arid areas in the upper Cauca and Magdalena valleys and recently from 
the western slope of the Eastern Cordillera in Dpto Boyaca although subspecies was 
not determined (Stiles et al. 1998). These records represent a 350 km northwards 
range extension to Serrania de San Lucas and first records for the Central Cordillera. 

RUFOUS-NAPED GREENLET Hylophilus semibrunneus 
Fairly common at La Punta (If), La Teta Resort, La Forzosa, and at Salazar (AMC) 
mostly in the midstorey to subcanopy in association with mixed species foraging 
flocks. Known from three localities in the Central Cordillera, the northernmost in 
Dpto Caldas, 250 km south of La Punta-3. 

TAWNY-CROWNED GREENLET Hylophilus ochraceiceps 
Captured at Alto de los Tarros (3, If). Previously known from the Pacific lowlands 
to the northern slope of the Western Cordillera. This record is an 80 km eastwards 
extension and first record for the Central Cordillera. 

THREE-STRIPED WARBLER Basileuterus tristriatus 

Commonly observed in the understorey to subcanopy in association with multi- 
species foraging flocks at La Punta (4, 2f ) and La Teta Resort, representing a 140 
km range extension from the Central Cordillera. Individuals in Serrania de San Lucas 
differ from auricularis subspecies of the three Colombian Cordilleras, with brighter 
and more extensive yellow underparts reminiscent of Santa Marta Warbler B. 
basilicus, and representing an undescribed subspecies (Fig. 3). 

(ii) Thirty-one range extensions from the Central Cordillera to 
Serrania de San Lucas 

The following species, predominantly distributed above 1 ,000 m asl, present range 
extensions of 140 km from the northern slope of the Central Cordillera to Serrania 
de San Lucas, based on distribution data in Hilty & Brown (1986). All of the following 
species were recorded for the first time in Serrania de San Lucas, having bridged the 
70 km gap between the two ranges and extending a further 70 km across the Serrania 
to La Punta and La Teta Resort. 

EARED DOVE Zenaida auriculata (San Pablo, La Teta Resort, and Apollo 13) 

WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT Streptoprocne zonaris (c. 50 individuals, recorded 
at La Punta (2f ) and La Teta Resort, roosted each evening underneath an enormous 
rock above a waterfall at La Punta). 

ANDEAN EMERALD Amazilia franciae (La Punta (2), La Teta Resort (If); also a 
range extension to the north of the Central Cordillera at Alto de los Tarros (1), 
and La Forzosa (If)) 



Paul Salaman et al. 297 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

GREEN-CROWNED BRILLIANT Heliodoxa jacula (La Punta (It), La Teta 
Resort (4), also new records at La Forzosa (5, If), and at Salazar in July 2001 
(AMC)). 

COLLARED TROGON Trogon collaris (La Teta Resort (1); also at La Forzosa 

(D) 
RED-HEADED BARBET Eubucco bourcierrii (La Punta; also La Forzosa) 

CRIMSON-RUMPED TOUCANET Aulacorhynchus haematopygus (La Punta, 
La Teta Resort (1); also La Forzosa (1)) 

GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER Piculus rubiginosus (La Punta) 

LINEATED FOLIAGE-GLEANER Syndactila subalaris (La Punta (If) and also 
at La Forzosa (juvenilef)) 

BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER Philydor rufus (La Punta (1) and La 
Teta Resort (1)) 

STREAKED XENOPS Xenops rutilans (one observed at La Teta Resort) 

BAR-CRESTED ANTSHRIKE Thamnophilus multistriatus (observed at San 
Pablo) 

TAPACULO SP. Scytalopus (femoralis) sp. (suspected to be a species of this group 
heard singing at La Teta Resort) 

WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN Pipra pipra (San Pablo, La Punta (4), La Teta 
Resort; also La Forzosa (14)) 

GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET Zimmerius viridiflavus (La Punta, La Teta 
Resort (5); also Alto de los Tarros) 

LESSER ELAENIA Elaenia chiriquensis (La Punta and La Teta Resort (1)) 

YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER Tolmomyias assimilis (La Teta Resort 
(D) 

SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT Lophotriccus pileatus (La Punta (4), La 
Teta Resort; also La Forzosa) 

BRAN-COLOURED FLYCATCHER Myiophobus fasciatus (La Punta and La Teta 
Resort (1)) 

BLACK PHOEBE Sayornis nigricans (La Punta) 

GOLDEN-CROWNED FLYCATCHER Myiodynastes chrysocephahis (La Punta) 

SLATE-THROATED GNATCATCHER Polioptila schistaceigida (La Teta Resort; 
also Alto de los Tarros) 

SLATE-THROATED WHITESTART Myioborus miniatus (La Teta Resort (1) 
and Apollo 13(5, If)) 



Paul Salaman et al. 298 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

TROPICAL PARULA Parula pitiayumi (La Punta) 

BLUE-HOODED EUPHONIA Euphonia musica (La Teta Resort) 

ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA Euphonia xanthogaster (La Teta Resort (1), 
also Alto de los Tarros and La Forzosa (3)) 

BLUE-NECKED TANAGER Tangara cyanicollis (La Punta and La Teta Resort 

(2)) 

CHESTNUT-CAPPED BRUSH-FINCH Buarremon brunneinucha (La Punta (5, 
If) and La Teta Resort) 

BLACK-HEADED BRUSH-FINCH Buarremon atricapillus (La Punta at 
1,000 m) 

DULL-COLOURED GRASSQUIT Tiaris obscura (very common at La Punta and 
La Teta Resort (16)). 

(iii) Six range extensions to the northeastern slope of the Central Cordillera; 

six species present small range extensions of 50 to 100 km to the northeastern slope 
of the Central Cordillera: 

CHESTNUT WOOD-QUAIL Odontophorus hyperythrus (Observed and tape- 
recorded at La Forzosa, although unrecorded in Serrania de San Lucas where 
Marbled Wood-Quail O. gujanensis and Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail O. erythrops 
were both present between 1 ,000 and 1 ,400 m elevation at La Punta and La Teta 
Resort). 

CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWIFT Streptoprocne rutilla (La Forzosa) 

BROWN-BILLED SCYTHEBILL Campylorhamphus pusillus (La Forzosa (1)) 

GOLDEN-WINGED MANAKIN Masius chrysopterus (La Forzosa (2)) 

BARRED BECARD Pachyramphus versicolor (a pair observed at Alto de los Tarros) 

YELLOW-THROATED BUSH-TANAGER Chlorospingus flavigularis 
(frequently seen and captured at La Forzosa (5, If)) 

(iv) Seventeen new locations for species with poorly-known distributions in 
northern Colombia; the following species are of particular interest as although 
known from records fairly close to our study sites (i.e. <100 km), they are known 
from only a handful of scattered records in northern Colombia: 

FASCIATED TIGER-HERON Tigrisoma fasciatum (seen once in aquatic habitat 
at Apollo 13) 

BLUE-KNOBBED CURASSOW Crax alberti (seen in captivity at Apollo 13; 
reported from local people at San Pablo and Alto de los Tarros) 



Paul Salaman et al. 299 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

LARGE-BILLED TERN Phaetusa simplex (common on Rio Magdalena at San 
Pablo south to Barrancabermeja at least) 

PLAIN-BREASTED GROUND-DOVE Columbina minuta (in secondary growth 
at Apollo 13) 

VIOLACEOUS QUAIL-DOVE Geotrygon violacea (in forest at Apollo 13) 

CHAPMAN'S SWIFT Chaetura chapmani (flocks in evening at La Punta and La 
Teta Resort) 

SHORT-TAILED SWIFT Chaetura brachyura (common at La Punta and La Teta 
Resort) 

LONG-TAILED WOODCREEPER Deconychura longicauda (several observed 
and heard calling at La Punta) 

VERMILION FLYCATCHER (Apollo 13) Pyrocephalus rubinus and PIRATIC 

FLYCATCHER Legatus leucophaius (San Pablo, La Punta, Apollo 13) have 
presumably fairly recently colonised the region with deforestation. 

BLUE COTINGA Cotinga natterrerii (Small flocks of 2-10 birds observed feeding 
on canopy fruits at La Punta, La Teta Resort and Alto de los Tarros.) 

YELLOW-BROWED SHRIKE- VIREO Vireolanius eximus (individuals observed 
in the canopy at La Punta) 

SLATE-COLOURED SEEDEATER Sporophila schistacea (fairly common at San 
Pablo, also common as a cage bird in region and a female collected at Apollo 
13(H)). 

Additionally, BARN OWL Tyto alba was reliably reported as present by several 
local people around San Pablo, and would represent an important new record, if 
confirmed. 

(v) Forty noteworthy altitude extensions; the maximum or minimum elevation 
for each species, based on data in Hilty & Brown (1986), is followed by the new 
altitude extension and the study site in parentheses. Elevations in parentheses after 
the Hilty & Brown elevation are from Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) which, although 
not specific to Colombia, contains the most recently published synopsis of species' 
elevational limits in the northern Andean region. Such values are not quoted where 
equal or where the species is not present in Ecuador. 

WHITE HAWK Leucopternis albicollis from 1,400 [1,100] m to 1,550 m (La 
Forzosa). 

BLACK HAWK-EAGLE Spizaetus tyrannus from 500 [1,000] m to 1,800 m (La 
Punta- 1,400 m, La Teta Resort- 1,200 m, La Forzosa- 1,800 m). 

RED-THROATED CARACARA Daptrius americanus from 1 ,400 [800] m to 1 ,800 
m (La Forzosa). 



Paul Salaman et al. 300 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

MARBLED WOOD-QUAIL Odontophorus gujanensis from 1,200 [900] m to 1,400 
m (La Punta). 

RUFOUS-FRONTED WOOD-QUAIL Odontophorus erythrops from 1,100 
[1,600] m to 1,400 m (La Punta and La Teta Resort). 

SHORT-TAILED SWIFT Chaetura brachyura from 800 [700] m to 1,300 m (La 
Teta Resort). 

WESTERN EMERALD Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus from 1,000 m to 1,400 m 
(La Punta). 

BLACK-THROATED TROGON Trogon rufus from 1,100 [700] m to 1,400 m 
(La Punta). 

BARRED PUFFBIRD Nystalus radiatus from 900 [ 1 ,000] m to 1 ,200 m (La Punta 
and La Teta Resort). 

WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD Notharchus macrorhynchus from 500 [400] m to 
700 m (Alto de los Tarros). 

COLLARED ARA£ARI Pteroglossus torquatus from 800 m to 1 ,400 m (La Punta 
and La Teta Resort). 

OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER Sittasomus griseicapillus from 1,000 [mostly 
below 1,100, although known from 1,700 - 2,000 m in south Ecuador] to 1,800 
m by AMC (La Punta (3), La Teta Resort (1), La Forzosa 1,800 m (4)). 

NORTHERN BARRED WOODCREEPER Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae from 
900 [800] m to 1,200 m (La Punta and La Teta Resort). 

WESTERN WOODHAUNTER Hyloctistes virgatus from 900 [1,100] m to 1,700 
m (La Forzosa (2, If). 

SLATY- WINGED FOLIAGE-GLEANER Philydorfuscipennis from 1,200 [600] 
m to 1,400 m (La Punta (3) and La Teta Resort (1). 

BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER Philydor rufus from 900 [600] m down 
to 700 m (Alto de los Tarros (If)). 

BUFF-THROATED FOLIAGE-GLEANER Automolus ochrolaemus from 1,200 
[800] m to 1,400 m (Alto de los Tarros (3, If)). 

STREAKED XENOPS Xenops rutilans from 1,500 m down to 1,200 m (La Teta 
Resort) (although note this is a lowland species (to sea level) in western Ecuador). 

FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE Cymbilaimus lineatus from 900 [1,000] m to 1,400 m 
(La Punta). 

BAR-CRESTED ANTSHRIKE Thamnophilus multistriatus from 900 m (250 m 
on Pacific slope) down to 250 m (San Pablo). 

WESTERN SLATY ANTSHRIKE Thamnophilus atrinucha from 500 [1,100] m 
to 1,500 m (Apollo 13, Alto de los Tarros (1), and La Forzosa). 



Paul Salaman et al. 301 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

GOLDEN-HEADED MANAKIN Pipra erythrocephala from 500 [600] m to 1,200 
m (La Teta Resort (1), Apollo 13 (82, 5f), Alto de los Tarros (58)) (note this 
species was recently captured at 1,400 m in the eastern Cordillera (Salaman et 
al in press) and 1,300 m at Serrania de las Quinchas in the Magdalena valley 
(F.G. Stiles in lift.). 

WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN Pipra pipra from 600 [500] m down to 100 m 
(San Pablo). 

BLUE COTINGA Cotinga nattererii from 1,000 [300] m to 1,400 m (La Punta). 

YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER Tolmomyias assimilis from 800 [500] 
m to 1,200 m (La Teta Resort (1)). 

TROPICAL PE WEE Contopus cinereus from 1,000 m [wanders higher] to 1,400 
m (La Punta and La Teta Resort (4)). 

RUFOUS MOURNER Rhytipterna holerythra from 1,000 [700] m to 1,400 m (La 
Teta Resort (1), Apollo 13(1 i"), and Serrania de las Quinchas in the Magdalena 
valley (F.G. Stiles in lift.)). 

PALE-EDGED FLYCATCHER Myiarchus cephalotes from 1 ,500 [ 1 ,000] m down 
to 700 m (Alto de los Tarros). 

SOCIAL FLYCATCHER Myiozetetes similis from 900 m (1,200 m on Andean 
East slope) to 1,400 m (La Punta). 

WHITE-BREASTED WOOD- WREN Henicorhina leucosticta from 1,000 m to 
1,400 m (La Punta (If)). 

SOUTHERN NIGHTINGALE WREN Microcerculus marginatus from 1,200 
[700] m to 1,400 m (La Punta (1)). 

SLATE-THROATED GNATCATCHER Polioptila schistaceigula from 1,000 
[750] m to 1,200 m (La Teta Resort). 

CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDOLA Psarocolius wagleri from 1,000 [700] 
m to 1,300 m (La Teta Resort). 

ORANGE-CROWNED ORIOLE Icterus auricapillus from 800 m to 1,200 m (La 
Teta Resort (1)). 

BLUE-HOODED EUPHONIA Euphonia musica from 1,400 m down to 1,200 m 
(La Teta Resort). 

SOOTY ANT-TANAGER Habia gutturalis from 1,100 m to 1,400 m (La Punta 

(4)). 

LARGE-BILLED SEEDFINCH Oryzoborus crassirostris from 1,000 [700] m to 
1,400 m (La Punta (1) and La Teta Resort (21)). 



Paul Salaman et al. 302 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Discussion 

A total of 449 bird species were recorded in 37 days at the six study sites, including 
374 species recorded across Serrania de San Lucas. Of 199 species recorded at the 
two subtropical study sites (La Punta & La Teta Resort) in Serrania de San Lucas, 
70% represent range extensions above 1,000 m (based on Hilty & Brown 1986), of 
which 65 species are significant new records detailed in this article. Full details of 
the birds recorded during fieldwork, including a checklist for study sites and accounts 
of 1 1 threatened and near-threatened species recorded (e.g. White-mantled Barbet 
Capito hypoleucus), is being published elsewhere. 

The premontane avifauna properties of San Lucas (La Punta & La Teta Resort) 
are influenced by two principal ecoregions: 
i) approximately one third of the avifauna are highland species that originate from 

the Central Cordillera, of which the majority reported here are significant range 

extensions, 
ii) the highest proportion of avifauna in the premontane zone of the eastern slope is 

influenced by foothill and lowland species from the northern Colombian plain, 

and account for the extraordinary number (34 of 40) of altitude extensions, also 

suggesting that many higher elevation species remain to be recorded or may be 

missing, 
iii) several notable easterly range extensions crossing the Rio Cauca from the humid 

Pacific and northern slopes of the Western Cordillera (Apollo 13 & Alto de los 

Tarros). 

Range extensions in the Central Cordillera are largely influenced by northwards 
extension of lower montane species up the Cordillera to previously little known and 
isolated highland areas (La Forzosa). 

We will continue surveys at higher elevations of Serrania de San Lucas where 
the avifauna undoubtedly will be more "unique", with anticipated high levels of 
endemism at the subspecies and species level and stronger biological affiliations to 
the High Andes. However, as security problems continue to mount in the region, 
additional fieldwork remains extremely complicated, so we feel that it is important 
to place our observations to date on record at this time. We also hope that these new 
data will help draw attention to the importance of Serrania de San Lucas and direct 
conservation efforts to this critically important and enigmatic region of Colombia. 

Acknowledgements 

The EBA Project team is grateful to CORANTIOQUIA and ICN-MHN for assisting and providing 
scientific permission for collecting. We are very grateful for advice and assistance from the following: 
Walter H. Weber, Juan Lazaro Toro, Jose Manuel Ochoa, F. Gary Stiles, Carlos Gonzales, Javier Bustos, 
M. Gonzalo Andrade, Luis Angel Ramirez, and the Mayors and UMATAMs (Farmers' and Miners' 
Municipal Unions) of Anon, Amalfi, San Pablo, Puerto Lopez, El Bagre and Santa Rosa del Sur. Most 
of all many thanks to the people of Serrania de San Lucas, in particular the people of El Bagre, Puerto 
Lopez, Puerto Wilches, San Pablo, Bajo Taracue, Canabraval, Canaletal, Vallecito, Patio Bonito, Santa 
Rosa and La Punta for their interest and assistance with the project. The EBA expeditions were only 
made possible by generous financial support by British Ornithologists' Union, Royal Geographic Society, 
Cambridge Expeditions Fund, Percy Sladen Memorial Fund, Kilverstone Wildlife Trust, World Pheasant 



Paul Salaman et al. 303 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Association and many others, accredited in the EBA website (www.proaxis.com/~salaman). The 
manuscript has been greatly improved from discussions and comments by F. Gary Stiles and Chris 
Feare. 

References: 

Cuervo, A.M., Ochoa, J.M., Delgado, C.A. & Palacio, J. A. 1999. Evaluacion de la avifauna y de la 

mastofauna del proyecto de reserva regional La Forzosa, Municipio de Anorf, Departamento de 

Antioquia. Informe final. CORANTIOQUIA. 
Cuervo, A. M., Salaman, R G. W., Donegan, T. M. & Ochoa, J. M. 2001. Anew species of Piha (Cotingidae: 

Lipaugus) from the Cordillera Central of Colombia. Ibis 143: 353-368. 
Donegan, T.M. & Salaman, RG.W. (eds.). 1999. Colombian EBA Project Report http://www.pwaxis.com/ 

~ salaman/ eba99. html 
Donegan, T. M., Salaman, P. & Cuervo, A. M. 2001 Wattled Guan Aburria aburri in Serrania de San 

Lucas. BolCSG 13: 11-14. 
Graves, G.R. 1997. Colorimetric and morphometric gradients in Colombia populations of Dusky Antbird 

(Cercomacra tyrannina), with a description of a new species Cercomacra parked. \n Remsen, J.V. 

Jr. (ed.). Studies in Neotropical Ornithology Honoring Ted Parker. Omit. Monographs No. 48. 

A.O.U., Lawrence, USA. 
Hernandez-Camacho, J., Walschburger, T., Ortiz, R. & Hurtado A. 1992b. Origen y distribucion de la 

biota Suramericana y Colombiana. In Halffter, G. (ed.). La diversidad biologica de Iberoamerica. 

Acta Zool. Mex. (Especial Vol.): 153-170. Xalapa. 
Hilty, S. L. & Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 

New Jersey. 
Paynter, R.A., Jr. 1997. Ornithological gazetteer of Colombia. 2 nd edition. Museum of Comparative 

Zoology, Cambridge, USA. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America, Vol. 1, the Oscine Passerines. Oxford 

Univ. Press, Oxford. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America, Vol 2. The suboscine passerines. Oxford 

Univ. Press, Oxford. 
Salaman, P., Cuadros, T., Jaramillo, J.G. & Weber, W. H. 2001. Checklist of the birds of Colombia. 

Sociedad Antioquena de Ornitologia, Medellin, Colombia. 
Salaman, P. & Donegan, T. 2001. Colombian EBA Project report No. 3: Serrania de San Lucas, http:// 

www.proaxis. com/~salaman/eba. html 
Stiles, F.G 1996. A new species of Emerald hummingbird (Trochilidae, Chlorostilbon) from the Sierra 

de Chiribiquete, Southeastern Colombia, with a review of the C. mellisugus complex. Wilson Bull. 

108: 1-27 
Stiles, F. G, Rosselli, L. & Bohorquez, C.I. 1999. New and noteworthy records of birds from the middle 

Magdalena valley of Colombia. Bull Brit. Orn. Club 119: 113-128 
Stiles, F.G, & Bohorquez, C.I. 2000. Evaluando el estado de la biodiversidad: el caso de la avifauna de 

la Serrania de las Quinchas, Boyaca, Colombia. Caldasia 22: 61-92. 
Stiles, F.G, Bohorquez, C.I., Cadena, CD., de la Zerda, S., Hernandez, M., Rosselli, L., Kelsey, M., 

Valencia, I.D., Knapp, D. 2000. Aves de la Sabana de Bogota, guia de campo. Asociacion Bogotana 

de Ornitologia, Bogota, 
van Velzen, H.P. 1 992. Priorities for conservation of the biodiversity of the Colombian Andes. Novedades 

Colombianas, nueva epoca N° 4 (Especial). 

Addresses: Paul Salaman*, Bird Group, Dept of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Akeman St., 
Tring, Herts HP23 6AP, U.K. Email: salaman@ognorhynchus.com; Thomas M. Donegan, Christ's 
College, Cambridge CB2 3BU; Andres M. Cuervo, Instituto de Biologfa, Universidad de Antioquia. 
Apartado Aereo 1226, Medellin, Colombia. Corresponding author. Email: 
salaman@ognorhynchus.com 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 304 Bull B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Pneumaticity of the dorsal foramen and dorsal 

sulcus of the sternum in Australasian 

Passeriformes 

by Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 

Received 18 September 2001 

The Passeriformes comprise almost 60% of the 9,000-10,000 recent species of birds 
(Bock & Farrand 1980, Sibley & Monroe 1990). Songbirds are more widely 
distributed than any other avian order but aspects of their intra-ordinal classification 
remain unsettled. Avian systematics have been revitalized in recent years with the 
increased use of molecular and biochemical techniques (e.g. Christidis & Schodde 
1991, Sibley & Ahlquist 1985, 1990). In particular, the classification of the 
Passeriformes has undergone substantial reorganization (e.g. Sibley & Ahlquist 1985, 
1990, Helm-Bychowski & Cracraft 1993; Barker et al. 2002; Ericson et al. 2002). 
Members of the Passeriformes share a strikingly similar osteological morphology 
and the identification of subordinal taxa is purportedly extremely difficult, if not 
impossible, because of this similarity (Olson 1985). Few characters of the post- 
cranial skeleton have been studied in any depth; the best known is the pneumotricipital 
fossa of the humerus (Bock 1962). Here, an osteological character of the sternum is 
surveyed and the distribution of its character states examined in light of proposed 
relationships within the Australasian Passeriformes. 

Methods 

This study focuses on the dorsal pneumatic foramen and dorsal sulcus of the sternum 
(termed by Baumel & Witmer (1993) as foramen pneumaticum and sulcus medianus 
sterni, respectively). The sulcus runs anteroposteriorly (craniocaudally) along the 
midline of the dorsal (visceral) surface of the sternum. The pneumatic foramen lies 
at the anterior (cranial) end of the sulcus. It may be absent (Fig. la). When present, 
there may be considerable variation in its appearance, from a single and distinct 
foramen (Fig. lb) to a group of foramina varying in size (Fig. lc-e). Smaller foramina 
may occur around the dorsal foramen area or extend posteriorly from the main dorsal 
foramen area along the dorsal sulcus, approaching the posterior margin of the sternum 
(Fig. ld-e). These are all scored as 'present'. 

For the purposes of the following discussion, taxonomic divisions of the 
Passeriformes above the family level, and their sequence, follow Sibley & Monroe 
(1990). The sequence and delimitation of Australian families are after Christidis & 
Boles (1994), as are the names of genera and species. For New Guinea and New 
Zealand taxa, names follow Beehler & Finch ( 1 985) and OSNZ ( 1 990), respectively. 

Sterna were examined from the avian skeleton collections of the Australian 
Museum, Sydney; Australian National Wildlife Collection, CSIRO Division of 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 



305 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra; Museum Victoria, Melbourne; South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide; Queensland Museum, Brisbane; Queen Victoria Museum, 
Launceston; and Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington. For 
most species, 1-3 specimens were examined. Greater numbers of Australasian robins 
(Petroicidae) were available because they had been borrowed for another project. In 
total, 795 specimens of 268 species of Passeriformes were examined. Representatives 
of the Piciformes and Coraciiformes were also examined as possible outgroups to 
determine which character state might be ancestral. 

Results 

The taxa, number of specimens examined and observed character states are given in 
Table 1 . In representatives of three families of the Piciformes, there was a particular 
form of the present character state with no distinct pneumatic dorsal foramen; 
however, small foramina occurred along the caudal half of the dorsal sulcus. This 
was scored as present. In five families of the Coraciiformes, the pneumatic dorsal 
foramen and foramina were present in all but a single cerylid kingfisher and one of 
four alcedinid kingfishers. 

Only three families of suboscines (Suborder Tyranni) were examined, the 
Australian Pittidae, New Zealand Acanthisittidae and non-Australasian Tyrannidae, 
representing the three infraorders recognised by Sibley & Monroe (1990). Other 
than one individual of Pitta, all specimens of Pittidae and Tyrannidae were scored 
as 'present'; foramina were absent in three specimens of Acanthisittidae. 

In the Suborder Passeri (oscines), in most superfamilies one or both character 
states can be found, although these show pronounced segregation between families. 





Figure 1 : Character states of the dorsal pneumatic foramen and dorsal sulcus of the sternum of 
Passeriformes. A. Dorsal foramen and accompanying foramina absent (Passeridae: Passer domesticus). 
B-E. Dorsal foramen present, showing extreme and intermediate states of accompanying foramina 
surrounding the foramen and extending caudally along the dorsal sulcus: B. Pittidae: Pitta versicolor: 
C. Menuridae: Menura novaehollandiae; D. Meliphagidae: Phylidonyris nigra; E. Pachycephalidae: 
Pachycephala simplex, df = dorsal foramen, ds = dorsal sulcus. 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 306 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Within the Parvorder Corvida, the Superfamily Menuroidea has the present state in 
all specimens of the lyrebirds (Menuridae) and bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchidae), but 
the absent state in all treecreepers (Climacteridae). A similar disparity is found in 
the Meliphagoidea. The fairy-wrens (Maluridae) and pardalotes and acanthizid 
warblers (Pardalotidae) invariably lack any dorsal foramina whereas, other than a 
few individuals, all honeyeaters and chats (Meliphagidae) have the present character 
state. 

The greatest amount of variation within any Superfamily occurred in the 
Corvoidea. The presence of a pneumatic dorsal foramen and in some cases a 
pneumatic dorsal sulcus is most consistently seen in this Superfamily (there were 
odd individuals lacking this state). This pneumaticity is absent in the logrunners 
(Orthonychidae), Australo-Papuan babblers (Pomatostomidae) and sittellas 
(Neosittidae). There were differences between genera in the whipbirds and quail- 
thrushes (Eupetidae = Cinclosomatidae), whistlers and shrike-thrushes 
(Pachycephalidae), mudnest builders (Corcoracidae) and New Zealand wattlebirds 
(Callaeatidae). There was considerable variation both within and between species 
of the Australasian robins (Petroicidae) and cuckoo-shrikes (Campephagidae). 

Variation was minor within the Parvorder Passerida. In the three superfamilies 
Muscicapoidea, Sylvioidea and Fringilloidea, a sternal foramen was absent, with 
few exceptions, most of which (6 of 10) were restricted to just three families 
(Alaudidae, Pycnonotidae, Passeridae). 

Discussion 

Both the Coraciiformes and Piciformes have sterna with pneumatic foramina. While 
the Coraciiformes exhibit the general corvoid condition, the condition of this character 
in the Piciformes differs from that of any of the Passeriformes by lacking a distinct 
anterior dorsal foramen or foramina. Recent molecular studies have cast doubts on 
the traditional association of these orders with the Passeriformes (e.g. Sibley & 
Ahlquist 1990, Mindell et al. 1997). It is not currently possible to assess the polarity 
of the character states. Because it is not known which state is derived, this character 
cannot be used for decisions about relationships at this time. Nonetheless, some 
comments can be made about the distribution of these states in light of findings of 
other authors. 

The position of the Acanthisittidae relative to the remainder of the Passeriformes 
is not settled. Although placed within the Tyranni by Sibley & Monroe (1990), the 
marked segregation of character states between this family and the other infraorders 
of suboscines is consistent with the more trenchant differences found by Ericson et 
al. (2002), who placed this family as the sister-group to all other Passeriformes. 

As with the pneumotricipital fossa, members of suborders, parvorders, 
superfamilies and families are generally characterized by a particular state, but there 
are exceptions. The presence of the sternal pneumatic fossa is the largely predominant 
state in two infraorders of the suboscines and the subfamilies Corvinae and Dicrurinae 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 307 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

TABLE 1 

Distribution of character states (absent or present) of dorsal pneumatic foramina in Australasian 

Passeriformes together with selected Piciformes and Coraciiformes. Sequence and nomenclature of 

families generally follows Christidis & Boles (1994), with higher taxonomic divisions following 

Sibley & Monroe (1990); genera and species are arranged alphabetically within families or 

subfamilies. The figures following each species' name indicate the number of specimens that 

exhibited each character state for each taxon (absent/present). 

Order Piciformes (0/13) 

Picidae (0/11): Colaptes auratus (0/8); Dendrocopos major (0/1); Melanerpes 

erythrocephalus (0/1); Picus viridis (0/1) 
Lybiidae (0/1): Tricholaema diademata (0/1) 
Ramphastidae (0/1): Ramphastos toco (0/1) 
Order Coraciiformes (2/33) 

Coraciidae (0/4): Euystomus orientalis (0/4) 

Alcedinidae (1/6): Alcedo atthis (0/2); A. azurea (1/4) 

Halcyonidae (0/21): Dacelo leachii (0/1); D. novaeguineae (0/7); Tanysiptera sylvia (0/1); 

Todirhamphus macleayii (0/4); T. sanctus (0/6); Syma torotoro (0/1); S. megarhyncha (0/1) 
Cerylidae (1/0): Megaceryle alcyon (1/0) 
Meropidae (0/2): Merops ornatus (0/2) 
Order Passeriformes (336/474) 
Suborder Tyranni (4/11) 
Infraorder Acanthisittides (3/0) 

Acanthisittidae (0/3): Acanthisitta chloris (1/0); X. gilvivenris (1/0); Xenicus longipes (1/0) 
Infraorder Eurylaimides (1/7) 

Pittidae (1/7): Pitta erythrogaster (1/0); P. versicolor (0/7) 
Infraorder Tyrannides (0/4) 

Tyrannidae (0/4): Contopus sordidulus (0/1); Empidonax difficilis (0/1); Tyrannus tyrannus 
(0/1), T. verticalis (0/1) 
Suborder Passeres (332/463) 
Parvorder Corvida (219/453) 
Superfamily Menuroidea (13/5) 
Menuridae (0/5): Menura alberti (0/1); M. novaehollandiae (0/4) 

Climacteridae (13/0): Climacteris erythrops (1/0); C. melanura (1/0); C. picumnus (6/0); 
Cormobates leucophaeus (4/0); C. placens (1/0) 
Superfamily Meliphagoidea (102/126) 
Maluridae (21/0): Amytornis dorotheae (3/0); A. woodwardi (2/0); Malurus cyaneus (7/0); 

M. cyanocephala (1/0); M. lamberti (6/0); Stipiturus malachurus (2/0) 
Pardalotidae: Pardalotinae (7/0): Pardalotus punctatus (1/0); P. striatus (6/0); 
Pardalotidae: Dasyornithinae (3/0): Dasyornis brachypterus (3/0) 
Pardalotidae: Acanthizinae (66/0): Acanthiza apicalis (2/0); A. chrysorrhoa (2/0); A. 
lineata (6/0); A. nana (2/0); A. pusilla (6/0); A. reguloides (1/0); A. uropygialis (5/0); 
Aphelocephala leucopsis (2/0); Chthonicola sagittata (5/0); Crateroscelis robusta (1/0); 
Gerygone chloronotus (1/0); G.fusca (4/0); G. levigaster (1/0); G. magnirostris ( 1/0); G 
mouki (2/0); G. olivacea (2/0); G palpebrosa (1/0); Hylacola cauta (1/0); H. pyrrhopygia 
(2/0); Origma solitaria (2/0); Pycnoptilus floccosus (1/0); Pyrrholaemus brunneus (1/0); 
Sericornis citreogularis (3/0); S. frontalis (5/0); 5. magnirostris (6/0); Smicrornis 
brevirostris (1/0) 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 308 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Meliphagidae: Meliphaginae (5/122): Acanthagenys rufogularis (0/4); Acanthorhynchus 
tenuirostris (1/4); Anthochaera carunculata (0/4); A. chrysoptera (0/2); A. c. lunulata (0/1); 
Anthomis melanura (1/1); Certhionyx niger (0/1); C. pectoralis (0/2); C. variegatus (0/1); 
Conopophila albogularis (0/1); C. rufogularis (0/1); C. whitei (0/1); Entomyzon cyanotis 
(0/3); Grantiella picta (0/1); Lichenostomus chrysops (1/3); L. cratitius (0/2); L.frenatus 
(0/2); Eflavescens (0/3); L. hindwoodi (1/2); L. keartlandi (0/2); L. tewco/is (0/2); L. 
ornatus (0/2); L. penicillatus (0/10); L. plumulus (0/1); L. unicolor (0/1); L. virescens (0/1); 
Lichmera indistincta (0/2); Manorina flavigula (0/1); M. melanocephala (0/6); M. 
melanophrys (0/3); Melidectes torquatus (0/1); Melilestes megarhyncha (0/1); Meliphaga 
gracilis (0/1); M. lewinii (0/2); M. notata (0/2); Melipotes fumigatus (0/1); Melithreptus 
brevirostris (0/2); M. gularis laetior (0/1); M. lunatus (0/2); Myzomela ery throe ephala (0/ 
1); M. obscura (0/3); M. sanguinolenta (0/2); Notiomystis cincta (1/0); Oedistoma 
iliolophus (0/1); Philemon argenticeps (0/1); P. buceroides (0/3); P. citreogularis (0/3); P. 
corniculatus (0/4); P. diemenensis (0/1); Phylidonyris albifrons (0/1); P. melanops (0/1); P. 
n/gra (0/1); P. novaehollandies (0/2); Plectorhyncha lanceolata (0/1); Prosthemadera 
novae seelandiae (0/2); Ptiliprora guisei (0/1); Ramsay ornis fasciatus (0/1); P. modestus (0/ 
1); Trichodere cockerelli (0/1); Xanthomyza phrygia (0/7); Xanthotis flaviv enter (0/1) 

Meliphagidae: Epthianurinae (0/4): Ashbyia lovensis (0/2); Epthianura albifrons (0/1); P. 
tricolor (Oil); 
Superfamily Corvoidea (104/322) 

Petroicidae (65/131): Amalocichla incerta (2/0); Drymodes brunneopygia (1/17); D. 
superciliaris (0/1); Eopsaltria australis (10/12); P. georgiana (0/5); P. griseogularis (1/3); 
P. pulverulenta (0/2); Heteromyias albispecularis (1/1); //. cinereifrons (0/1); Melanodryas 
cucullata (1/13); M. vi'ffafa (1/2); Microeca fascinans (1/8); M.flavigaster (0/4); M. 
flavovirescens (0/3); M. papuana (0/3); Monachella muelleriana (0/1); Pachycephalopsis 
polisoma (0/3); Peneothello cyanus (0/5); P. sigillatus (0/1); Petroica australis (0/5); P. 
goodenovii (4/17); P. macrocephala (0/2); P. multicolor (11/4); P. phoenicea (14/1); P. 
rodinogaster (2/1); P. rosea (9/1); Poecilodryas albonotata (0/3); P. placens (0/1); P. 
superciliosa (0/3); P. 5. cerviniventris (0/2); Tregellasia leucops (3/3); P. capito (4/3) 

Orthonychidae (5/0): Orthonyx spaldingii (1/0); O. temminckii (4/0) 

Pomatostomidae (8/0): Pomatostomus halli (1/0); P. ruficeps (2/0); P. superciliosus (2/0); P. 
temporalis (3/0); 

Eupetidae (2/2): Cinclosoma punctatum (0/2); Psophodes cristatus (1/0); P. olivaceus (1/0) 

Neosittidae (5/0): Daphoenositta chrysoptera (5/0) 

Pachycephalidae (4/33): Colluricincla harmonica (1/5); C. megarhyncha (0/3); C. 
woodwardi (0/3); Falcunculus frontatus (0/2); Mohoua albicilla (1/0), M. novaeseelandiae 
(1/0), M. ochrocephala (1/0); Pachycephala inornata (0/1); P. lanioides (0/1); P. olivacea 
(0/3); P. pectoralis (0/7); P. rufiventris (0/4); P. simplex (0/2); Pitohui nigrescens (0/1); 
Rhagologus leucostigma (0/1) 

incertae cedis (0/3): Turnagra capensis (0/3) 

Dicruridae: Monarchinae (1/20): Arses telescophthalmus (0/1); Clytorhynchus 
pachycephaloides (0/1); Machaerirhynchus flaviventer (1/0); Monarcha leucotis (0/1); M. 
melanopsis (0/4); M. trivirgatus (0/4); Myiagra alecto (0/3); M. cyanoleuca (0/1); M. 
inquieta (0/2); M. /. «ana (0/2); M. rubecula (0/1) 

Dicruridae: Rhipidurinae (0/33): Rhipidura fuliginosa (0/10); Rhipidura leucophrys (0/10); 
P. rufifrons (0/10); P. r. tfryas (0/2); P. rufiventris (0/1) 

Dicruridae: Grallininae (0/6): Grallina bruijni (0/1); G. cyanoleuca (0/5) 

Dicruridae: Dicrurinae (0/2): Dicrurus bracteatus (0/2) 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 309 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Campephagidae (4/7): Coracina lineata (1/0); C. novaehollandiae (3/0); C. papuensis (0/ 

2); C. tenuirostris (0/1); Lalage leucomela (0/2); L. sueurii (0/2) 
Oriolidae (0/11): Oriolus sagittatus (0/3); O . flavocinctus (0/2); Sphecotheres viridis (0/6) 
Artamidae: Artaminae (0/14): Artamus cyanopterus (0/3); A. leucorhynchus (0/2); A. minor 

(0/2); A. personatus (0/3); A. superciliosus (0/4) 
Artamidae: Cracticinae (0/14): Cracticus nigrogularis (0/2); C. torquatus (0/2); 

Gymnorhina tibicen (0/2); Strepera graculina (0/8) 
Artamidae: Peltopsinae (0/1): Peltops montanus (0/1) 
Paradisaeidae (2/7): Cicinnurus regius (0/1); Epimachus meyeri (0/1); Lophorhina superba 

(0/1); Manucodia comrii (2/0); M. keraudrenii (0/1); Parotia lawesi (0/1); Ptiloris 

magnificus (0/1); P. victoriae (0/1) 
Corvidae (0/9): Corvws bennetti (0/5); C. coronoides (0/2); C. mg//on (0/1); C. om* (0/1) 
Corcoracidae (2/6): Corcorax melanorhamphos (2/0); Struthidea cinerea (0/6) 
Ptilonorhynchidae (0/22): Ailuroedus crassirostris (0/3); A. melanotis (0/1); Amblyornis 

subalaris (0/1); Chlamydera cerviniventris (0/1); C. maculata (0/3); C nuchalis (0/1); 

Prionodura newtoniana (0/1); Ptilonorhynchus violaceus (0/4); Scenopoeetes dentirostris 

(0/1); Sericulus chrysocephalus (0/6) 
Callaeatidae (6/1): Callaeas cinerea (4/0); Philesturnus carunculatus (2/0); Heterolocha 

acutirostris (0/1) 
Parvorder Passerida (113/10) 
Superfamily Fringilloidea (55/6) 
Alaudidae (0/3): Alauda arvensis (0/2); Mirafra javanica (0/1) 
Motacillidae (2/1): Anthus novaeseelandiae (0/1); Motacilla alba (2/0) 
Passeridae: Passerinae (4/0): Passer domesticus (4/0) 
Passeridae: Estrildinae (28/1): Emblema pictum (1/0); Erythrura gouldiae (1/0); £". trichroa 

(2/0); Heteromunia pectoralis (1/0); Lonchura castaneothorax (0/1); L. oryzivora (1/0); 

Neochmia phaeton (1/0); /V. ruficauda (3/0); AT. temporalis (2/0); Poephila acuticauda (3/ 

0); P. cmcta (3/0); P. personata (2/0); Stagonopleura bella (2/0); 5. gwftata (2/0); 

Taeniopygia bichenovii (2/0); 7\ guttata (2/0) 
Fringillidae (6/1): Carduelis carduelis (3/0); C. frwfw (3/0); Fringilla coelebs (0/1) 
Emberizinae (2/0): Emberiza calandra (1/0); £. citrinella (1/0) 
Nectarinidae (1/0): Nectarinia jugularis (1/0) 
Dicaeidae (4/0): Dicaeum hirundinaceum (1/0); Melanocharis niger (1/0); Oreocharis arfaki 

(1/0); Rhamphomantis crassirostris (1/0) 
Superfamily Sylvioidea (33/2) 

Hirundinidae (11/0): Hirundo ariel (4/0); //. neoxena (6/0); //. nigricans (1/0) 

Pycnonotidae (0/2): Pycnonotus jocosus (0/2) 

Sylviidae (13/0): Acrocephalus stentoreus (1/0); Cincloramphus cruralis (2/0); C mathewsi 

(3/0); Cisticola exilis (2/0); Eremiornis carteri (2/0); Megalurus gramineus (1/0); M. 

(Bowdleria) punctata (1/0); M. timoriensis (2/0) 
Zosteropidae (9/0): Zosterops lateralis (6/0); Z. /wte«s (2/0); Z. strenuus (1/0) 
Superfamily Muscicapoidea (25/2) 

Muscicapidae (13/0): Turdus merula (2/0); T. philomelos (2/0); 7\ poliocephalus (3/0); 

Zoothera lunulata (6/0); 
Sturnidae (12/2): Acridotheres tristis (2/0); Aplonis cantaroides (1/0); A.fusca (4/0); A. 

metallica (0/2); Sturnus vulgaris (5/0) 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 3 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

of the Corvidae sensu Sibley & Ahlquist (1990) and Sibley & Monroe (1990). In 
this, it parallels the distribution of a single pneumotricipital fossa in these groups. 
This contrasts with the Passerida, in which the predominant states are the absence of 
a sternal pneumatic fossa and the presence of a double pneumotricipital fossa. 

This segregation of character states between the Corvida and Passerida is marked, 
but not absolute, and there are some intriguing discrepancies, particularly in the 
former group. In the Menuroidea, the treecreepers are conspicuous by lacking the 
sternal fossa. The placement of these birds in this superfamily has been problematic, 
and Sibley & Ahlquist (1990), who proposed it, nonetheless expressed doubts about 
this action. Within the Meliphagoidea, there is a distinct division between the 
Pardalotidae (including the Acanthizinae) and Maluridae on one hand, and the 
Meliphagidae on the other. The presence of pneumatic foramina in the chats 
(Epthianura, Ashbyia) supports their association with the honeyeaters rather than 
the acanthizid warblers (Christidis et al. 1993). 

There is no obvious pattern in the distribution of character states within the 
Corvoidea, other than the apparent correlation between this character and the 
pneumotricipital fossa, mentioned above. The placement of the Mohoua in the 
Pachycephalidae (Keast 1977, Sibley & Ahlquist 1987) has been challenged (Olson 
1990a). The absence of sternal pneumatisation in the three species of Mohoua 
contrasts with the presence state in all but one of the other pachycephalid specimens 
examined. The taxonomic placement of Turnagra remains unresolved (e.g. Christidis 
et al. 1996). Because this genus shares the presence of pneumatic foramina with the 
families with which it has been associated (Ptilonorhynchidae/Paradisaeidae, e.g. 
Olson et al. 1983, Christidis et al. 1996, Pachycephalidae, e.g. Mayr 1967), this 
character adds no support for either alternative. 

The Passerida exhibit a greater uniformity than the Corvoidea, with the character 
state 'absent' being found in all but a few of the sampled taxa. These species are 
unequivocally placed in the Passerida by molecular studies. The bulbuls also differ 
from the 'normal' condition of the Passerida by having a single pneumotricipital 
fossa (Olson 1990b). (It is notable that the waxwings, Bombycillidae, whose 
placement in the Passerida has never been questioned, also have a single 
pneumotricipital fossa (Bock 1962) and prominent pneumatic foramen of the sternum 
(pers. obs.)). 

It is possible that, because most of the sample sizes are small, these may not 
accurately reflect the amount of variation within a species. In the robins (Petroicidae), 
for which sample sizes were considerably larger, the occurrence in a species of both 
character states was more widespread. This could be a property of this family, 
however, as they also have a range of intermediate states in the pneumotricipital 
fossa (pers. obs.). 

The range of variation encompassed by the state 'present' is quite broad (Fig lb- 
e), and it is likely that it will be possible to subdivide it into two or more states. 
Although the expression of this character may be related to age, no obvious 
relationship was discerned between the maturity of the bird (as indicated by degree 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 3 1 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

of cranial pneumatisation) and the character state. In specimens of Eastern Yellow 
Robin Eopsaltria australis, the character states were about evenly distributed between 
birds with unpneumatised and fully pneumatised skulls. 

This character invites further study. At present, it must be considered just one 
character that can be used in concert with others, but is by itself an insufficient basis 
on which to make taxonomic decisions. It may be usefully re-evaluated in light of 
more recent modifications of passerine phylogeny (e.g. Barker et ah 2002; Ericson 
et al. 2002). 

Acknowledgements 

We thank the ornithology staff of the Australian National Wildlife Collection, Museum Victoria, South 
Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Queen Victoria Museum for the loan of specimens 
examined in this study. 

References: 

Barker, F.K., Barrowclough, G.F. & Groth, J.G. 2002. A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds: 

taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data. Proc. R. 

Soc. London B 269: 295-308. 
Baumel, J.J. & Witmer, L.M. 1993. Osteologia. In: Baumel, J.J., King, A.S., Breazile, J.E., Evans, H.E. 

& Vanden Berge, C. (Eds.) Handbook of avian anatomy. Publ. Nuttall Ornith. CI. 23: 45-132. 
Beehler, B.M. & Finch, B.W. 1985. Species-checklist of the birds of New Guinea. Australasian 

Ornithological Monograph 1. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union , Melbourne. 
Bock, W.J. 1962. The pneumatic fossa of the humerus in the Passeres. Auk 79: 425-443. 
Bock, W.J. & Farrand, J., Jr. 1980. The number of species and genera of recent birds: a contribution to 

comparative systematics. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2703: 1-29. 
Christidis, L. & Boles, W.E. 1994. Taxonomy and species of birds of Australia and its territories. RAOU 

Monograph 2. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne. 
Christidis, L., Leeton, P.R. & Westerman, M. 1996. Were bowerbirds part of the New Zealand fauna? 

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 3898-3901. 
Christidis, L. & Schodde, R. 1991. Relationships of Australo-Papuan songbirds - protein evidence. Ibis 

133: 277-285. 
Christidis, L., Schodde, R. & Robinson, N.A. 1993. Affinities of the aberrant Australo-Papuan honeyeaters, 

Toxorhamphus, Oedistoma, Timeliopsis and Epthianura: protein evidence. Aust. J. Zool. 41: 423- 

432. 
Ericson, P.G.P., Christidis, L., Cooper, A., Irestedt, M., Jackson, J., Johansson, U.S. & Norman, J. A. 

2002. A Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic New 

Zealand wrens. Proc. R. Soc. London B 269: 235 - 241. 
Helm-Bychowski, K.M. & Cracraft, J. 1993. Recovering phylogenetic signal from DNA sequences: 

relationships within the corvine assemblage (Class Aves) as inferred from complete sequences of 

mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-/? gene. Mol. Biol. Evol. 10: 1196-1214. 
Keast, J. A. 1977. The relationships of Finschia and Mohoua (Family Muscicapidae). Notornis 14: 50- 

58. 
Mayr, E. 1967. Genus incertae sedis. Genus Turnagra Lesson. P. 52 in: Paynter, R.A., Jr. (Ed.). Check- 
list of birds of the world, Vol. 12. Mus. Comparative Zoology, Cambridge (MA). 
Mindell, D.P., Sorenson, M.D., Huddleston, C.J., Miranda, H., Knight, A., Sawchuk, S.J. & Yuri, T. 

1997. Phylogenetic relationships among and within select avian orders based on mitochondrial 

DNA. Pp. 213-247 in: Mindell, D. P. (Ed.) Avian molecular evolution and systematics. Academic 

Press, New York. 
Olson, S. L. 1985. The fossil record of birds. Pp. 79-238 in: Farner, D. S. King, J. R. & Parkes, K. C. 

(Eds.) Avian biology. Vol. HI. Academic Press, New York. 



Graham R. Fulton & Walter E. Boles 3 1 2 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Olson, S.L. 1990a. Comments on the osteology and systematics of the New Zealand passerines of the 

genus Mohoua. Notomis 37: 157-160. 
Olson, S.L. 1990b. Preliminary systematic notes on some Old World passerines. Riv. Ital. Omit. 59: 

183-195. 
Olson, S.L., Parkes, K.C., Clench, M.H. & Borecky, S.R. 1983. The affinities of the New Zealand 

passerine genus Turnagra. Notomis 30: 319-336. 
OSNZ (Ornithological Society of New Zealand Inc.). 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand and 

the Ross Dependency, Antarctica. 3rd ed. Random Century and OSNZ, Auckland. 
Sibley, C.G. & Ahlquist, J.E, Jr. 1985. The phylogeny and classification of the Australo-Papuan passerine 

birds. Emu 85: 1-14. 
Sibley, C.G. & Ahlquist, J.E., Jr. 1987. The relationships of four species of New Zealand passerine birds. 

Emu 87: 63-66. 
Sibley, C.G & Ahlquist, J.E., Jr. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds. A study in molecular 

evolution. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven & London. 
Sibley, C.G. & Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world. Yale Univ. 

Press, New Haven & London. 

Address: GRF School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia; 
grahamf2001 @yahoo. com.au. WEB Ornithology Section, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW 2010 
and School of Biological Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia; 
walterb@austmus.gov.au. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



A newly discovered paralectotype of 
Pteroptochos megapodius Kittlitz, 1830 

by E D. Steinheimer 

Received 14 December 2001 

In 1834, John Edward Gray (1800-1875) of the British Museum, now The Natural 
History Museum (BMNH), started an extended exchange with Eduard Riippell (1794- 
1884) from Frankfurt am Main receiving at least 20 of Riippell's Abyssinian types 
(Riippell 1835-40, 1845) (Steinheimer, in press). 

Among the BMNH Riippell specimens is also a single bird from Chile, a 
Moustached Turca Pteroptochos megapodius (BMNH reg. no. 1842.8.16.27), which 
was the first of this species to reach the BMNH. No entry for this specimen was 
found in the old BMNH Vellum catalogues, where many of Riippell's birds were 
listed, showing that the specimen had been received as part of a later exchange 
between 1837 and 1842 (Knox & Walters 1992). 

As Riippell never went to Chile, this early Chilean specimen in Riippell's museum 
at Frankfurt probably came from Baron Friedrich Heinrich von Kittlitz (1799-1874), 
whose Chilean collection (March-April 1 827) went partly to Frankfurt (Steinbacher 
1954), but also to Berlin and St. Petersburg. This specimen is unlikely to have been 
part of the collection of another German, Eduard Friedrich Poppig (1798-1868), 



E D. Steinheimer 3 1 3 Bull B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

who collected in South America during 1 827- 1 832 (Morawetz & Roser 1 998), since 
no Poppig specimens have been found at Frankfurt (Gerald Mayr, in lift. 2001). 
Except for another Kittlitz specimen, all other Ptewptochos megapodius at Frankfurt 
museum were collected later than the 1850s. The BMNH specimen must therefore 
be one of the unknown number of former syntypes, now paralectotype by designation 
of Chrostowski 1921, of Ptewptochos megapodius Kittlitz, 1830, and the only 
recorded skin of this collector at the BMNH. The specimen is a study skin, i.e. it was 
never mounted, with the following data: "Chili, Dr. RiippelF [exact locality: 
Valparaiso], and it fits very well with Kittlitz's (1830) description (pp. 182-183), 
measurements and illustration (plate IV). Other specimens are at Frankfurt 
(paralectotype SMF 16726, Chili, 28 March 1827, Steinbacher 1954) and St. 
Petersburg Museum (4 paralectotypes, 1 lectotype labelled "No. 28[a] Ptewptochos 
Megapodius Kittl. Chili v. Kittlitz", Chrostowski 1921). 

In addition to this skin, The Natural History Museum holds further skeletal 
material from Kittlitz's collection. In 1850, the BMNH obtained 38 skeletons of 
Chilean birds (BMNH 1850.11.14.1-38; not 81 Chilean skeletons as listed in Sharpe 
1906; the other skeletons are from other localities), including Ptewptochos 
megapodius, from Johann Georg Wilhelm Brandt (1794-1856), relative of Prof. Dr. 
Johann Friedrich von Brandt (1802-1879) of the Imperial Museum, St. Petersburg 
(Sharpe 1906, Gebhardt 1964, 1970). Most of Kittlitz's material was given to the St. 
Petersburg Museum and these very early skeletons of Chilean birds were again 
probably collected by Kittlitz; thus the skeleton of Ptewptochos megapodius derives 
from the same series as the type specimens. 

Acknowledgements 

Many thanks to Effie Warr and Alison Harding for their help and access to The Natural History Museum 
library. Jiirgen Fiebig (Naturkunde-Museum Berlin), Siegfried Eck (Naturkunde-Museum Dresden) and 
Gerald Mayr (Senckenberg-Museum Frankfurt) helped in obtaining data on Kittlitz/Poppig specimens. 
The Natural History Museum, Tring, allowed me to use their collections and data-bases. Special thanks 
to Roald Potapov (Zoological Museum, St. Petersburg), who triggered my interest in the BMNH holdings 
of Brandt's specimens, which led to the subsequent discovery of skeletons by Kittlitz. Ernst Bauernfeind 
supported my research with data on Poppig. Michael Walters, Robert Prys-Jones and David Snow 
commented on earlier drafts. 

References 

Chrostowski, T. 1921. Sur les types d'oiseaux neotropicaux du Musee Zoologique de l'Academie des 

Sciences de Petrograde. Ann. Zool. Musei Polonici, Hist. Nat. 1 : 9-30. 
Gebhardt, L. 1964. Die Ornithologen Mitteleuropas. Bruhlscher Verlag, Giessen. 
Gebhardt, L. 1970. Die Ornithologen Mitteleuropas. Band 2. J. Om. Ill: 1-233. 
Knox, A. G. & Walters, M. P. 1992. Under the skin: the bird collections of the Natural History Museum. 

Bull. Brit. Om. CI. Suppl. 112A: 169-190. 
Kittlitz, F. H. 1830. Uber einige Vogel von Chili [...]. Mem. pres. Acad. imp. Sci. St Petersbourg 1 : 1 73- 

194. 
Morawetz, W. & Roser M. 1998. Eduard Friedrich Poeppig 1798-1868 - Gelehrter und Naturforscher 

in Sudamerika. Universitat Leipzig, Leipzig. 
Ruppell, E. 1835-1840. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehohrig [...]. Siegmund 

Schmerber, Frankfurt a. M. 



ED. Steinheimer 314 Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 

Ruppell, E. 1845. Systematische Uebersicht der Vogel Nord-Ost-Afrika's [...]. Schmerber'sche 

Buchhandlung, Frankfurt a. M. 
Sharpe, R. B. 1906. Birds. In Lankester, E. R. (ed.) The history of the collections contained in the 

Natural History Departments of the British Museum, vol. II (3). Pp. 79-515. Trustees of the British 

Museum, London. 
Steinbacher, J. 1954. Die Typen der Vogelsammlung von F. H. von Kittlitz. Senckenbergiana 34: 301- 

305. 
Steinheimer, F. D. In press. Darwin, Ruppell, Landbeck & Co. -Important historical collections at the 

Natural History Museum, Tring. Bonner Zool. Beitrdge. 

Address: The Natural History Museum, Bird Group, Dept. of Zoology, Akeman Street, Tring, 
Hertfordshire HP23 6AP, UK. E-mail: franksteinheimer@yahoo.co.uk 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



First confirmed record of Agyrtria versicolor 
(Trochilidae) for Peru 

by Andre- A. Weller 

Received 27 December 2001 

Among the five species of the Neotropical hummingbird genus Agyrtria endemic to 
South America (Weller 1998, 1999; formerly included in Amazilia), the Versicolored 
Emerald A. versicolor has the widest geographical distribution, ranging from the 
lowlands of southern Venezuela and eastern Colombia southward to north-eastern 
Argentina (Misiones) and south-eastern Brazil (Meyer de Schauensee & Phelps 1978, 
Hilty & Brown 1986, Sick 1993). Five subspecies are currently recognized (Weller 
1999; Fig. 1): A. v. milled (Venezuela south of Rio Orinoco, C Colombia, NE Peru, 
N Brazil), A. v. hollandi (SE Venezuela, W Guyana), A. v. nitidifrons (NE Brazil), A. 
v. kubtcheki (interior S Brazil, C Paraguay, NE Argentina), and A. v. versicolor (SE 
Brazil). The closely related taxon A. rondoniae, known only from the upper Rio 
Madeira (W Brazil to NE Bolivia), is considered specifically distinct (Weller 1999), 
based on reported sympatry with A. versicolor (Ruschi 1982), contrary to Sick (1993) 
who suggested it was a subspecies of the latter. 

A. v. milled is the most widespread subspecies, being mainly restricted to the 
basins of the Orinoco and Amazon and their tributaries (Fig. 1). The western 
distributional limits were considered to be in central Colombia, where the taxon has 
been recorded from Arauca and Meta southward to Caqueta (Niceforo & Olivares 
1967, Hilty & Brown 1986; specimen data). Moreover, a number of specimens are 
known from the "Bogota collections", but it may be reasonably presumed that these 
birds were actually collected in the region east of the Andes because the taxon is 
absent from the western slope of the Cordillera Oriental and from all other mountain 



Andre-A.Weller 



315 



Bull. B.O.C. 2002 122(4) 



ranges belonging to the northern Andes (see also Berlioz & Jouanin 1944). The 
same applies to records from Merida, Venezuela (e.g., SMF 80554; see also Hartert 
1900), this place representing most likely another commercial trading place, while 
specimens actually came from the trans-Andean lowlands. 

In the south-west of the taxon's range, no confirmation (but see Weller 1999) 
exists for Peru since Zimmer (1950) questioned a record from Iquitos, uppermost 
Rio Amazon, mentioned by Simon (1910). Unfortunately, the latter provided no 
further comments on this locality and later even excluded Peru from the range of 
milleri (Simon 1921). Other authors such as Taczanowski (1884), Hartert (1900), 
Peters (1945) and, more recently, Parker et al. (1982) and Ruschi (1986) did not 
mention a Peruvian record of A. versicolor. 

There is, however, a confirmed record of A. v. milleri from Iquitos. This is based 
on an apparently overlooked specimen deposited in the bird collection of the 
Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt/Main (SMF 80523). According to the 
original label, it was obtained in August 1885 by H. v. Berlepsch and collected in 
"N.O. (= northeastern) Peru: Yquitos, Amaz. sup." on 6 (?) May 1878 by H. Whitely. 
Since Hellmayr (1910) and Stephens & Traylor (1983) indicated that Whitely 
conducted field work in the Iquitos region between April and September 1878, little 
doubts exist about the origin of this specimen. Hence Iquitos (Loreto, 106 m, 03°46'S, 



82° 78 



50 °W 



12°N 




Figure 1 . Distribution of Agyrtria versicolor milleri, based on examined specimens. Asterisk with arrow 
indicates single Peruvian locality Iquitos; dashed lines are political borders. 



A ndre-A . Welter 3 1 6 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 122(4) 

73°15'W; Stephens & Traylor 1983) is the only confirmed collecting site of A. 
versicolor for Peru as well as the south-westernmost record of milled. 

The SMF specimen is most likely an adult male (as noted on the label) which is 
indicated by its plumage colouration, e.g., the strongly glittering turquoise blue head 
feathers, extending to lores and neck, and by mensural characters (bill including 
operculum: 18.2 mm; wing, unflattened: 48.6 mm; rectrix 5: 27.6 mm; cf. Weller 
1998). Females and immatures differ in these features by their less glittering and 
more turquoise crown feathers. Moreover, females exhibit greyish subterminal 
patches on the outermost tail feathers and have generally shorter wings and outer 
rectrices than males (Weller 1998). The back and rump of the Iquitos specimen are 
slightly darker, more emerald green to bluish green coloured, than in individuals 
from Colombia and Venezuela which have these plumage parts rather bronze-green. 

Like other lowland amaziline trochilines of South America (e.g., Polyerata 
fimbriata; Weller 2000), A. versicolor inhabits chiefly semi-open habitats like 
cerrados (in Brazil) and edges of humid and gallery forests, ranging from near sea- 
level to c. 600 m (SE Colombia). The disjunct localities of specimen records for A. 
v. milleri, mostly located on riversides (Fig. 1), probably reflect collecting gaps 
rather than discontinuities in range since the preferred habitats are widespread across 
Amazonia. Similar distribution gaps, resulting from incomplete sampling, are 
assumed for several high-altitude Andean bird taxa, among them many hummingbirds 
(J. Haffer, pers. comm., Schuchmann etal. 2001). Assuming a continuous distribution 
within the western part of its range, A. v. milleri may also occur in the Rio Putumayo 
and Rio Napo drainages and thus might be still present in eastern Amazonian Peru. 
At the southern limits, no definite localities based on specimen records are known 
south of the Amazon, though one observation of A. versicolor from Porto Velho, Rio 
Madeira (Ruschi 1982), probably refers to this race. 

Acknowledgements 

During my studies, the following institutions and their staff kindly provided loan specimens or permitted 
access to their bird collections: American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH); The Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ANSP); The Natural History Museum, Tring (BMNH); Phelps 
Ornithological Collection, Caracas (COP); Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (FMNH); Instituto 
de Ciencias Naturales, Bogota (ICN); Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History (LACMNH); 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (USNM); 
Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt/Main (SMF); and A. Koenig Research Institute and Museum 
of Zoology, Bonn (ZFMK). Particularly, I thank G. Mayr, SMF, for the loan of the specimen in question. 
Critical comments by N. Crompton, Brugg (CH), G. R. Graves, USNM, K.-L. Schuchmann, ZFMK, and 
an anonymous referee helped to improve the manuscript. This study was supported by the German 
Science Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG, Schu 766/5- 1 ), a Frank Chapman Collection 
Study Grant (AMNH), a Jessup Award (ANSP), a Field Museum Grant, and a Smithsonian Short-term 
Visitor Grant (USNM). 

References 

Berlioz, J., & C. Jouanin. 1944. Liste des Trochilides trouves dans les collections commerciales de 

Bogota. Oiseau 14 (nouv. ser.): 126-155. 
Hartert, E. 1900. Trochilidae. In: Reichenow, A. (ed.), Das Tierreich. 9. Lieferung. Berlin. 



Andre-A. Welter 3 1 7 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

Hellmayr, C. E. 1910. Notes sur quelques oiseaux de l'Amerique tropicale. Rev. Fr. Orn. 1: 161-165. 
Hilty, S. L., & Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton, N. J. 
Meyer de Schauensee, R., & Phelps, W. H., Jr. 1978. A guide to the birds of Venezuela. Princeton, N. J. 
Niceforo, H. M. & Olivares, A. 1967. Adiciones a la avifauna Colombiana, IV. Hornero 10: 403-435. 
Parker, T. A., Ill, Parker, S. A. & Plenge, M. A. 1982. An annotated checklist of Peruvian birds. Vermillion, 

So. Dakota. 
Peters, J. L. 1945. Check-list of birds of the world, Vol. 5. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Ruschi, A. 1982. Uma nova especie de beija-flor do Brasil: Amazilia rondoniae n. sp. e a chave para 

determinar as especies de Amazilia que ocorrem no Brasil. Bol. Mus. Biol. Mello Leitao, Serie Zool. 

100: 1-2. 
Ruschi, A. 1986. Aves do Brasil. Vol. 5. Beija-flores. Espressao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro. 
Schuchmann, K.-L., Weller, A. -A. & Heynen, I. (2001). Systematics and biogeography of the Andean 

genus Eriocnemis (Aves: Trochilidae). J. Ornithol. 142: 433-482. 
Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N. J. 
Simon, E. L. 1910. Catalogue general des Trochilides observes jusqu'a ce jour dans la republique de 

l'Ecuador. Rev. Fr. Orn. 1: 257-270. 
Simon, E. L. 1921. Histoire naturelle des Trochilidae (synopsis et catalogue). Paris. 
Stephens, L., & Traylor, M. A., Jr. 1983. Ornithological gazetteer of Peru. Cambridge, Mass. 
Taczanowski, L. 1884. Ornithologie du Perou, Vol. 1. Rennes. 
Weller, A. -A. 1998. Biogeographie, geographische Variation und Taxonomie der Gattung Amazilia 

(Aves: Trochilidae). Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Rhein. Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ., Bonn. 
Weller, A.-A. 1999. Genus Agyrtria Reichenbach, 1854. Pp. 597-599 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & J. 

Sargatal (eds.), Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 5. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona. 
Weller, A.-A. 2000. Biogeography, geographical variation and taxonomy of the Neotropical hummingbird 

genus Polyerata Heine, 1863 (Aves: Trochilidae). Pp. 47-54 in Rheinwald, G. (ed.), Isolated 

vertebrate communities in the tropics. Bonn. Zool. Monogr. 46. 
Zimmer, J. T. 1950. Studies of Peruvian birds. - No. 59. The genera Polytmus, Leucippus, and. Amazilia. 

Am. Mus. Novit. 1475: 1-27. 

Address: A.-A. Weller, Research Group "Biology and Phylogeny of Tropical Birds", Ornithology, 
Alexander Koenig Research Institute and Museum of Zoology, Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, 
Germany; e-mail: a.weller@uni-bonn.de 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 

Further observations of a Microeca 

flycatcher from the Bismarck Archipelago, 

Papua New Guinea 

by Phil Gregory & Jon Hornbuckle 

Received 29 December 2001 

The genus Microeca contains six species, in the family Petroicidae, the Australo- 
Papuan Robins, a heterogeneous group of small to medium-sized insectivorous birds 
in 14 genera (Sibley & Monroe 1990). The Microeca species strongly resemble the 
Old World flycatchers in appearance and behaviour but are restricted to New Guinea 
and Australia, except for the Golden-bellied Flycatcher M. hemixantha which is 



Phil Gregory & Jon Hornbuckle 3 1 8 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

found further west in the forests of the Tanimbar Islands of Indonesia. All are birds 
of lowland and hill (Lemon-bellied Flycatcher M. flavigaster, Olive Flycatcher M. 
flavovirescens, Yellow-legged Flycatcher M. griseoceps), or montane forests (Canary 
Flycatcher M. papuana), with varying degrees of yellow in the plumage, except for 
the rather different Jacky Winter M. fascinans of dry lowland woods in Australia 
and savanna habitat around Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, which is basically 
brown above and whitish below with extensive white outer tail feathers. 

Brian Finch, Kathleen Shurcliff and the late John McKean were the first observers 
to report the presence of a Microeca species on the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua 
New Guinea, finding two birds near sea level at Lavege on New Britain, and two at 
1 ,400 m near Taron on New Ireland between 20 and 27 April 1984 (Finch & McKean 
1987). Single Microeca-type flycatchers were seen by Tony Palliser in the mountains 
near Taron, New Ireland in early December 1987 (Palliser 1988, Coates 1990). No 
further records of this genus on the archipelago have been published but there have 
been a few subsequent sightings, which we document here. 

Single Microeca-type flycatchers were seen by Guy Dutson (in litt.) at 900 m 
near Taron on 4 August 1997 and by K. David Bishop (pers. comm.) near Walindi, 
West New Britain in 1998. 

Neil Bostock, Jon Hornbuckle, Keith Turner and Barry Wright had three records 
in May 1999. The first, at 60 m above sea level at Gigipuna, New Britain, on 11 
May, was of three birds in close proximity, 10 - 15 m away in roadside trees. They 
were observed for 15 min in good light, perched 3- 10 m up, occasionally flycatching 
as well as possibly displaying, with frequent wing-flicking and lowering of wings to 
a drooped position, the tail also being lowered at the same time as the wings. No 
vocalizations were heard. To European eyes, they were small (12-13 cm), Ficedula- 
type flycatchers, like Red-breasted Flycatcher F. parva, hence almost certainly a 
Microeca species. The head was very rounded, with a dark eye and grey-brown 
plumage, slightly paler around the eye. The loral region to above the eye was also 
slightly paler than the crown but this paleness did not extend behind the eye. The 
bill was small, fairly broad-based, dark with a slightly paler base to the lower 
mandible. The throat was off-white, the underparts had a slight buffy wash, and one 
of the individuals showed an obvious pale central belly stripe, not noted on the other 
two. All had a whitish vent, and a square-ended tail, black underneath. Primaries 
were blackish, noticeably darker than other flight feathers and mantle, the latter 
being a grey-brown colour, as were the wing coverts. The primary projection was 
short, with little extension beyond the tertials. Leg colour was not noted. GD noted 
slight differences from this: his bird, high up a tree 30 m away, appeared to have a 
slightly darker cap; the pale lores extended through the eye across the face; the 
throat had a yellowish wash and the flanks a pale yellow wash. 

An individual of what appeared to be the same species was subsequently seen by 
NB, JH, KT and BW on Mt Agil, New Ireland, at 680 m on 18 May, perched 10-15 
m up in primary forest. It was difficult to discern details due to the height of the bird 



Phil Gregory & Jon Hornbuckle 3 1 9 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

and the poor light conditions. Two days later, a similar bird was observed briefly a 
few kms away in roadside trees at 400 m. 

Phil Gregory and Chris Eastwood saw a single bird along the Limbin Road, 
central New Ireland, 03° 16' 0.72" S, 151°55' 76.9" E, on 1 June 1999 at an altitude 
of c. 850 m. Views of this bird, up to 30 m away, were in good light against both a 
leafy background and grey sky. The bird was watched for 30 minutes through a 30x 
telescope. It was initially perched on a tall dead acacia-type tree c.10 km from the 
start of the Limbin to Lelet road, by a large clearing, and was a typical small Microeca- 
type flycatcher. It differed from the Lemon-bellied Flycatcher of mainland Papua 
New Guinea, which occupies a similar habitat and has comparable habits, by being 
entirely brown above with a pale loral line, which extended indistinctly just past the 
dark eye. No grey was evident in the plumage, nor did the wings appear darker than 
the rest of the upperparts. The frons was pale, showing as a line at the base of the 
bill, a feature also shown by the Lemon-bellied Flycatcher in Papua New Guinea, 
but this bird was entirely dull whitish below with just a hint of pale olive yellow on 
the chin and throat in some conditions. The legs and feet were a dark grey, and the 
bill dark with a pale base to the lower mandible. Rictal bristles were also noted. 

The voice was distinctive: a sweet twittering silvery song with a slightly buzzing 
quality, rather quiet and easily overlooked. It was given from a perch, the tail vibrating 
as the bird sang, and no song flight was noted. GD noted that his bird sang with a 
repeated high-pitched warble 'sweet-toi-toi-(toi-toi)' - consistent with PG's 
description. The Lemon-bellied Flycatcher often sings in flight and the song lacks 
the buzzy quality of this bird. The bird was very hard to detect as it sat on the ends 
of branches often near the centre of a large tree, for minutes on end. 

PG had an additional, much briefer, sighting on 22 June 2000, at 950 m c. 12 km 
along the Limbin-Lelet road, New Ireland, again perched and singing from a tall 
dead snag. The basic appearance was of a brown above and white below Micweca. 

The New Britain birds described by Finch & McKean (1987) had a greyish head 
and sides of face, giving a capped appearance and lacking a loral line. They stated 
the upperparts to be dark olive with brownish-black wings and uniformly buff-olive 
underparts from chin to vent with highlights on the centre of the breast and along the 
flanks. The legs were dark, but they could not see whether the lower mandible was 
pale, although it did not appear to be. These authors reported that the New Ireland 
hill forest individuals were similar but did not seem as olive as the New Britain 
birds, although they did have the grey-capped head and dark feet. They described 
the song as a sweet "swit-tee" given rapidly, almost halfway between that of the 
Lemon-bellied Flycatcher and the Yellow-legged Flycatcher, in volume more like 
the latter. Both these plumage descriptions are somewhat different from subsequent 
reports, but this could be an artefact of lighting conditions and angles of view. 

The birds differ in both plumage and song from the Lemon-bellied Flycatcher, 
which occupies lowland and hill open woodland and savanna habitat in Papua New 
Guinea and has similar habits. Other species of Micweca in New Guinea differ 



Phil Gregory & Jon Hornbuckle 320 Bull. B. O. C. 2002 1 22(4) 

significantly in plumage and can be excluded from consideration. The Yellow-legged 
Flycatcher, of lowland and hill forest from New Guinea and Cape York Peninsula, 
Australia, has bright yellowish legs and a greyish head with white throat. The bright 
yellow Canary Flycatcher is strictly montane and has bright orange legs, whilst the 
Olive, also of lowland and hill forest, is entirely olive and yellowish with a distinctive 
reeling call. 

Although there are no specimens or photographs, an unobtrusive, low-density 
population of a Microeca-type species clearly exists in the hill forest of New Ireland 
and the lowland forest of New Britain. It is possible that two taxa are involved, but 
as yet no consistent differences have been noted between birds on the two islands, 
as all descriptions of the birds differ to some degree. The bird is most likely an 
insular allo-species of M. flavigaster, a widespread Australasian species, and 
represents a considerable range extension for the genus. Tape recordings and a 
specimen are desirable before firm conclusions can be reached, but this note serves 
to draw attention to a hitherto overlooked taxon. The authors would welcome receipt 
of any additional sightings. 

Acknowledgements 

We should like to thank David Bishop, Bruce Beehler, Guy Dutson, Tony Palliser and Barry Wright for 
their comments and records, and Brian Coates for constructive comments on the text. 

References 

Coates, B. J., 1990. The birds of Papua New Guinea. Vol 2. Dove Publications, Alderley. 

Coates, B. J. & Peckover, W. S., 2001. Birds of New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Dove 

Publications, Alderley. 
Finch, B. W. & McKean, J. L., 1987. Some notes on the Birds of the Bismarks (sic). Muruk 2: 3-28. 
Palliser, T., 1988. New Guinea trip report (unpublished). 
Sibley, C. G. & Monroe, B. L., Jr. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale Univ. 

Press, New Haven. 

Addresses: P. Gregory, PO Box 387, Kuranda, Queensland, Australia 4872. Email: 
sicklebill@austarnet.com.au ; J. Hornbuckle 35 Grove Road, Sheffield S7 2GY, UK. Email: 
kagu@blueyonder.co.uk 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2002 



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Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 

ISSN 0007-1595 
Edited by Professor Chris Feare 

Volume 122, Number 4, pages 241 - 320 

CONTENTS 

CLUB NEWS 241 

FISHER, C. & KEAR, J. The taxonomic importance of two early paintings of the Pink-headed 

Duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea (Latham 1790) 244 

CLEERE, N. The identity of Marcgrave's "Ibiiau" and its bearing on the nomenclature of the 

Scissor-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis torquata (Caprimulgidae) 249 

KING,